History, Historic Furnishing, and Historic Structure Reports
Historic Structure Report
1. Copy letters of correspondence
between Generals Abercromby and Stanwix received from Richard Mattice,
Pennellville, N.Y., November 1971. From the Bureau of Archives, Ottawa,
Canada, hereinafter called Canadian Archives. Reference to order is
found in letter dated July 27, 1758.
2. Ibid. Letters dated July 20, 23,
24, 27. Correspondence, Stanwix with Abercromby, in which the three
engineers are mentioned as being at the Carrying Place in July 1758.
3. Ibid. Letter dated August 20, 1758,
Stanwix to Abercromby.
4. "Orderly Book of Captain Horatio
Gates at Oneida Station," 1758. Typescript copy furnished by W. E.
Scripture of Westmoreland, New York, Entry dated September 6, 1758.
5. Canadian Archives, letter dated
August 30, 1758, Abercromby to Stanwix. "Yesterday Evening I receiv'd
from Lieut. Col. Montresor; Engineer Williams's Opinion in regard to the
Impracticability of finishing this Season the intended Fort at the
Oneida Carrying place, and accompanying the same with the plan of
another he and Capt. Green had pitched upon..," Lt. Williams' signature
is affixed to Crown Map No. 99, dated 1758.
6. Ensign Moses Dorr Diary: ". . .
about four o'clock the first Stock of timber was Layd of the fort." Copy
obtained from the Rome Sentinel.
7. Canadian Archives, letter dated
October 22, 1758, Stanwix to Abercromby. Meanwhile, Thomas Sowers had
returned from the Col. Bradstreet expedition on September 8 and stayed
on to help with the supervisory work at Fort Stanwix. His signature (and
Lt. Williams') is affixed to the ordnance demand dated September 14,
8. John Luzader, The Construction
and Military History of Fort Stanwix (N.P.S., 1969). See plan
following page 41 for dimensions of the original fort. Herein after
cited as Luzader.
9. See notes on Crown Map No. 101 for
work completed in 1759.
10. The Papers of Sir William
Johnson, The University of the State of New York (Albany, 1962),
Vol. XIII, p. 273.
11. Canadian Archives. From Col. Harry
Gordon's itemized list of expenses.
12. Journals of Col. James
Montresor and Capt. John 1779, N.Y. Historical Society Collections
Montresor 1757 for 1881, p. 70.
13. See Illustrations Nos. 5 and 6 in
the Appendices, Crown Maps No. 102 and 103.
14. Letter dated April 23, 1775,
Robert Duncan to William Livingston. Taken from the Rome
Sentinel, March 3, 1969. Copied from Fort Stanwix Museum files by
15. "Journal Kept During An Expedition
to Canada in 1776," by Ebenezer Elmer, Lieutenant in the Third Regiment
of New Jersey Troops in the Continental Service, Commanded by Colonel
Elias Dayton. Printed from the original manuscript in the Proceedings
of the New Jersey Historical Society, 1847-48, Vols. II &
III, and 1927, p. 134. Hereinafter called the Elmer Journal.
16. Elmer Journal, p. 32: "In the
evening Capt. Potter with his officers moved into the room contiguous to
ours, and between which there is no partition. . . ."
17. Jonathan Lawrence Diary, New York
State Library, Mss. Room.
18. Letter from Lt. Col. Cornelius Van
Dyck to Col. Van Schaick dated April 17, 1780. From Fort Stanwix Museum
19. Public Papers of George
Clinton, published by the State of New York (Albany, 1900), Vol. VI,
pp. 876-880. Hereinafter called the Clinton Papers.
20. From the Rome Sentinel,
November, 1970. Taken from The Writings of George Washington,
Vol. 22 (GPO, April 1932). Letter written to Gov. George Clinton.
21. Orderly Books of the Fourth and
Second New York Regiments, 1778-1783, The University of the
State of New York (Albany, 1932), pp. 750-752. Hereinafter called
the Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y. Reg't.
22. From The Writings of George
Washington, Vol. 27. Letter to Col. Willett, dated August 4,
23. Willett Levies, kept in New York
State Library, Three letters pertaining to the building of the
blockhouses received from Wayne Lenig, St. Johnsville, N.Y., 1971. On
file at Fort Stanwix NM.
24. Diary of Griffith Evans, October,
1784. From the Fort Stanwix Museum File No. 3124.
. . . Fort Stanwix (also dictum Schuyler) is Situate
or rather has been on the South side of the Mohawk River, there being
now remaining no more than 3 small Blockhouses 1/2 Mile below the
Ancient works, and some Cabins nearthereto, the Fort being abandoned by
Gen. Gansevoort in being first burnt and demolished by Accident. . .
25. "Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1784,"
The Olden Time (Pittsburgh, 1848), p. 409. Letter from Oliver
Wolcott, Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee to Lieut. John Mercer of the
26. Assembly Papers, Vol. 45,
pp. 71-73, New York State Library, Dept. of Mss. and History, A
copy of this letter received from Wayne Lenig, October, 1971.
27. We have two maps drawn of Rome,
New York, one dated 1802 (Journal of Rev, John Taylor's Missionary
Tour Through the Mohawk and Black River Countries in 1802, published
in Documentary History of New York, Vol. III, 1850, p. 72) and
one dated 1810 (History of Oneida County, New York, by Durant,
1875, p. 382), Both maps show a blockhouse in the center of the parade
ground of Fort Stanwix. The blockhouse is also shown on an original Bank
of Rome note printed in 1832, as published in the 1857 Rome
Directory, p. 130. See Illustrations Nos. 10, 11 & 12,
included in the Appendices of this report.
28. William Dunlap, History of the
New Netherlands Province of New York, and State of New York, Vol.
II, p. 112.
29. File Mss. 1/DAR.2C.W.
Darling, COR. 113. Correspondence with D. E. Wagers dated Jan, 23,
1891. Oneida County Historical Society, Utica, N.Y. Copy of
correspondence in FOST files.
30. Documents Relating to
the Colonial History of the State of New York, State Archives
(Albany, 1887), Vol. I, p. 208. McGraw was in the Eighth Company.
31. Capt. Bleeker's Company was
stationed at Fort Constitution under Col. Willett before marching to
Fort Stanwix, where they arrived on May 26, 1777 (Willett Orderly Book).
The exact day the 3rd N.Y. Regiment left Fort Stanwix is not known but
the 1st New York Regiment arrived around January 1, 1779.
32. Copied from the files of Fort
Stanwix Museum, folder marked Muster Rolls.
33. Description found in FOST files;
34. Information, in part, obtained by
Lee Hanson from the Fort Stanwix Museum files. Additional details taken
from the Rome Sentinel, June 8, 1965.
35. See Illustration No. 15 in the
Appendices of this report.
36. Excavated by J. Duncan Campbell
for Rome Urban Renewal Agency in 1965. The bakehouse area was reopened
by the National Park Service in 1971.
37. Hanson and Hsu, "The Bakehouse at
Fort Stanwix" (N.P.S., April 1972). Typescript copy in rough draft form
circulated in-Service during April of 1972.
38. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 577.
39. Fort Herkimer, N.Y.; Fort
Ticonderoga, N.Y.; Fort Chartres, Ill.; Fort Conde, Ala.; Fort Du
40. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 555. December 30, 1780: "The Morning Gun is to be fired in
the Southeast Bastion to Morrow Morning . . ." We also have the deFleury
map and two powder horn plans drawn not long after the siege that place
cannons and/or embrasures in the southeast bastion.
41. Ibid., Hanson and Hsu.
42. The height of the chimney cap
above the terreplein follows those shown in the casemate drawings of
1758-59. The writer has found an existing chimney cap that is
identical in construction at Fort Putnam, West Point, N.Y.
43. Capt. George Smith, An
Universal Military Dictionary (London, 1779), p. 99. Hereinafter
cited as Capt. Smith.
44. Encyclopedia Britannica,
Vol. IX, 1893, p. 428.
45. Crown Map No. 102.
46. Crown Map No. 102. See section C-D
for detail of wooden banquettes.
47. Crown Map No. 100 shows a
barracks-like building scaling 20 feet X 118 feet located about
300 feet west of the fort. The structure is identified as a "Store
48. See Crown Maps Nos. 102 and
49. "Journal from New York to Canada,
1767," published in the New York State Historical Association
Quarterly, Vol. XXX, 1932, p. 188:
Tuesday May 19th, 1767. Continued our course to Fort
Stanwix. . . . It is a regular square fortification, with a Fossee [sic]
covered way, Glacis, and Ravellin sic, and calculated for a Garrison of
1000 or 1500 men. The works being of wood are now falling to decay.
Extract of a letter from Major Gen. Gage to the Earl
of Shelburne dated New York, May 27, 1767. Documents Relating to the
Colonial History of the State of New York, Vol. VII, p. 985:
The Fort is in a ruinous situation and I dont judge
it of consequence enough at present to deserve the repairs it would
require to make it defencible. It is proposed as soon as the military
stores can be removed, to withdraw the Garrison, and to grant the Place
with the ground dependant on the Fort, to an old half pay officer on
condition that he shall take care of the Buildings for the Kings use and
return everything again to the Crown when required for the use of the
Kings Service, and that on consideration of a small Salary he shall
likewise take charge of all the Stores destined for the Lakes, and to
see them forwarded over the Portage for Fort Ontario.
50. Extract of a letter from Richard
Duncan to William Livingston as printed in the Rome Sentinel,
Rome, N.Y., March 3, 1969:
I hope to be able to go and reside there (Ft.
Stanwix) myselfthe people who live on the ground are one John
Roof, Thomas Mayers, William Cloyne, Bartholemew BrodhockJohn
Steers and Stephenus Delyrod a Frenchmanwho trades there for Major
Fondathe Fort is all in ruins, and the barracks by an accident
last fall was burnt to the ground, nothing now remainsbut a Room
which the officers used to mess in nowoccupied by the Frenchman
above ment.there is Fifty Acres of land enclosed about the Fort,
it ischiefly meadow, and Five little huts of houses with a couple
of barns, . . .
51. Elmer Journal, p. 134.
52. Ibid., p. 32.
54. Ibid., p. 411.
55. Peter Force, American
Archives, Vol. I, 5th Series, 1776 (Washington, D.C., 1848), p.
1119. Extract of a letter dated Elizabeth-Town, August 23, 1776.
56. For a complete list of the
Connecticut soldiers stationed at Fort Stanwix under Colonel Elmore, see
Muster Roll from Connecticut Men in the Revolution, compiled by
the Adjutant-general's office. (Hartford, 1889).
57. Luzader, p. 62.
58. John Scott, Fort Stanwix and
Oriskany (Rome, N.Y., 1927), p. 100. Hereinafter cited as Scott.
59. Luzader, p. 66.
60. Luzader, p. 68.
61. Gansevoort map of Fort Stanwix;
plan from Willett's Narrative (1831); deFleury map (post-siege); and
three powder horn maps: McGraw, DeWitt, and Chatfield.
62. Scott, p. 113. Letter from
Gansevoort to Schuyler written June 15, 1777:
The Engineer at this place has just laid the
foundation of a salient angle before the gate and the carpenters are
employed in framing a Barracks to be raised just before the glacis
opposite the south Bastion the Barracks at present being bad. . . .
63. Scott, p. 113: "I have been obliged
to send for boards as far as Foxes at Canajoharry."
"Collonel Willet's Orderly Book February 18th
1777" Original manuscript kept in the New York Historical Society.
Microfilm borrowed and transcribed by W. E. Scripture, Westmoreland,
N.Y., March, 1972. Typed in final form by Roselyn Infusino. Copied for
FOST files. Hereinafter called Willett Orderly Book.
Willett Orderly Book, May 30, 1777: "1 Sub. 1 Sergt
and 15 privates are to hold themselves in Readyness to Embark tomorrow
at ten o Clock, in Six Batteoux to fetch boards for Use of this
Willett Orderly Book, June 16, 1777: "The Batteaus
that arrived here this day with Boards are to be ready to set out again,
with the other four Batteaus that are at this place. . . ."
The writer assumes that the casemates of 1777 were
constructed in the same manner as the original fort work of
64, American Archives, 4th
Series, Vol. 3. Copy of B. Romans' Estimate and Expense of erecting
forts in the Highlands, September 18, 1775.
65. Minutes of the Albany Committee
of Correspondence 1775-1778, Vol. 1, compiled by James Sullivan
(Albany, 1923) p. 560.
66. Archeologists' report in draft
form at Fort Stanwix.
67. Elmer Journal, p. 411, October 10,
1776: "The fatigued men are employed in getting and hauling
68. Scott, p. 239, Willett's Narrative
speaks of shutting the windows of the dining room.
69. The room arrangement for the east
and west barracks was suggested by Lee Hanson.
70. Willett Orderly Book.
71. The post-siege deFleury map lists
a "labaratory" as being located in the west barracks. This military
function not included as part of the proposed barracks layout. The
southwest casemate with its packed soil floor best suits the purpose of
a laboratory space.
72. Other contemporary forts having
officers and soldiers housed in the same barracks building are: Forts
Erie, Niagara, Johnston, Mount Pleasant, Half Moon, Lawrence, and
73. William Willett, A Narrative of
the Military Actions of Colonel Marinus Willett, reprinted by Arno
Press (New York, 1969), p. 49. Hereinafter called Willett's
74. Letter, Wilkinson to General
Gates, February 3, 1778.
75. Moses Dorr Diary. Entries for
October 7, 20, 22, 1758.
76. Willett Orderly Book.
78. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 544.
79. Ibid., p. 555.
80. Willett Orderly Book.
81. Capt. Smith, p. 29.
82. Encyclopaedia Britannica,
Vol. IX, 1893, p. 428.
83. See Crown Maps Nos. 102 and 103,
dated 1764. During the repair and remodeling work of 1764, a berm was
constructed across the open ditch opposite the southeast bastion and
the pickets extended from the covered way across the berm and along the
east side of the fort.
84. Willett's Narrative, p. 49.
85. Willett Orderly Book, April 16,
86. See Crown Map No. XXX, 1756,
noting "D". The brick kiln is located on the south side of "Little
Creek" not far from the Mohawk River. The clay used in making the bricks
probably came from a river deposit nearby.
87. Information on the bricks was
furnished by Lee Hanson, January 4, 1973.
88. John Muller, A Treatise of
Fortification (London, 1746), p. 214, reprinted by Museum
Restoration Service (Ottawa, Canada, 1968).
89. Observation by the writer based on
the study of plans from other colonial forts in the northeastern part of
the United States.
90. Luzader, p. 20.
91. Ibid., p. 21.
92. Ibid., p. 41.
93. Ibid., p. 43.
94. Ibid., p. 50.
95. Gates Papers, taken from microfilm
reel No. 4. Letter from Gansevoort to Gates. Papers of General Horatio
Gates located in the New York Historical Society. Microfilm copies
borrowed by W. E. Scripture through the Jervis Library. Transcribed in
part by Mr. Scripture and NPS personnel working at Fort Stanwix NM.
Final typing done by Roselyn Infusino.
96. Ibid., taken from microfilm
reel No, 4. Letter from James Wilkinson to Gates.
97. Forts Ontario, N.Y.; Mount
Pleasant, Md.; Fort George, N.Y.C.
98. John Barr's Diary, p. 843, Orderly
Books of the 4th N.Y. Reg't.
99. Capt. Smith, p. 71.
100. Capt. Smith, p. 35.
101. Sidney Toy. A History of
Fortification from 3000 BC to AD 1700 (London, 1955) p. 200.
102. Ibid., pp. 200-201.
Pulleys and chains; platform pivot with pit, the overhead counterpoise;
port cullises; counterweights and pulleys.
103. Drawbridges found in New York
State: Forts Frederick (2), Crown Point (4), Ticonderoga (2), Ontario
(2), Herkimer, Edward, Niagara, and William Henry. Also at Forts Du
Quesne and Pitt (4), Pennsylvania; Forts Erie, Louisbourg (2), Lawrence
and Windsor in Canada.
104. Willett's Narrative, p. 43.
105. Hinge (1/2 pr) found near the
main entrance way to the fort; currently kept at FOST. See
106. Ordnance demand by order of Brig.
General Stanwix, dated September 18, 1758. Original kept in Mss. Room,
New York State Library, Albany.
107. Luzader, pp. 68-69.
108. Willett's Narrative, p. 49.
109. See Crown Map No. 101 included in
the Appendices of this report.
110. There are several powder horns
depicting Fort Stanwix or Schuyler. The Fort Stanwix Museum has
collected a number of drawings and photographs of powder horns showing
Fort Stanwix, yet we know of additional horns listed in Stephen V.
Grancsay's book, American Engraved Powder Horns (New York, 1945),
that have not been located for study purposes. The five powder horns we
now have sketches of which show the flagstaff are those identified with
Jeams Thomson, Oct. 8, 1777; J. McGraw, Dec. 25, 1777; Capt. T. DeWitt,
1778; James Wilson, n.d., c. 1780; and Cornelius Chatfield, Nov. 5,
111. A short list of sketches
illustrating the double masted flagstaff is as follows: Fort William and
Mary, N.H., 1699 (Crown Collection map); fort at Crown Point, N.Y.,
1759; Fort Stanwix, 1777, 1778, 1780; Fort Mackinac, 1820; Fort Howard,
c. 1840; and Fort McHenry, Md., c. 1862. In addition, we have an
eyewitness account of the flagstaff at Fort Pitt in 1759, as follows: ".
. . on ye South East Bastion stands a High Poal like a Mast & top
Mast to Hoist ye flag which is Hoisted on the first Day of ye Week from
about Eleven to One o'clock & on State Days &c." (From the Kenny
Journal as found in Drums in the Forest by Charles Stotz, p.
112. For a complete description and
set of construction drawings of a ship's mast, see Steel's Elements
of Mastmaking, Sailmaking & Rigging (London, 1794), Plates III
113. Ibid., Plates III &
114. Gay De Vernon, On the Science
of War and Fortifications, translated by John Michael O'Connor (New
York, 1817), p. 290.
115. Elmer Journal, p. 134: "Fort
Stanwix [in 1776] . . . is large and well situated, having a glacis,
breastwork, ditch and a picquet fort before the walls, which are also
well guarded with sharp sticks of timber shouting over the walls. . .
St. Leger, the British commander, described the fort
in 1777, as follows: "Its form is a kind of Trapezium or four sided
figure with four Bastions freized and picketted, without them as a good
ditch with pickets nipping out a considerable way at the salient angles
of Bastions. . . ." Luzader, p. 81.
116. Capt. Smith, p. 112.
117. Humphrey Blank, A Treatise of
Military Discipline (London, 1759) pp. 201, 203:
Half an hour before the gates are to be shut, which
is generally at the setting of the sun, a Serjeant and four men must be
sent from each port to the main-guard for the keys; at which time, the
drummers of the port-guards are to go upon the ramparts, and beat a
Retreat, to give notice to those without, that the gates are going to be
shut, that they may come in before they are. As soon as the Drummers
have finished the Retreat, which they should not do in less than a
quarter of an hour, the Officers must order the barriers and gates to be
shut, leaving only the wickets open; after which, no Soldier should be
suffered to go out of the town, though port-liberty should be allowed
them in the day-time.
He must order a Corporal and four men more with arms
to escort the keys to the outermost barrier, and to place two men with
rested arms, on every draw bridge, till they return from locking the
barriers. He must send likewise a sufficient number of men without arms
to assist in the locking of the gates and drawing up the bridges.
118. The names "Swing Gate," "back
gate," "great gate," and "folding gate," have been used to describe
gates constructed at various New York forts during this period.
119. Elmer Journal, August 16, 1776,
p. 179: "Almost finished the fort, but could not enclose it for want of
some pickets and the gate, carpenters making the gate and about
repairing the barn."
120. Elmer Journal, August 27, 1776,
p. 188: "The Fort Schuyler or Stanwix is exceedingly well situated. . .
. the gates are strong, without any ravelling to the front...."
121. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 575: "The Sentinals without the gates are in case of an alarm
are to shut and barr the outside gates and Remane their till further
orders and not open the gates for any person...."
122. Ibid., p. 541.
123. Charles Lamb, An Universal
Military Dictionary in English and French, etc. 4th Ed.
(London, 1816) p. 994:
WICKET, a small door in the gate of a fortified
place, through which people go in and out, without opening the great
gate: likewise a small door within a gate, or a hole in the door;
through which what passes without may be seen.
124. The Revolutionary Journal of
Col. Jedathan Baldwin, 1775-1778, edited by Thomas W. Baldwin
(Bangor, Me., 1906). p. 27. February 27, 1777: "went to mount
Independance the forenoon, ordered the wicket gates to be hung and the
An elevation of the "New Fort" to be built at
Schohary, N.Y., (mid-18th century?) shows a wicket gate built
within the main gate (Crown Map No. CXXI, photocopy of the original kept
in Crown Collection, New York State Library).
125. Orderly Books of the 4th New York
Reg't., p. 543.
126. American Archives, 5th
Series, Vol. I, p. 1119. Extract of a letter dated Elizabeth-town,
August 23, 1776: "A wide ditch is sunk round it (Fort Stanwix), about
ten feet deep, the glaces on the outside are raised six feet above the
127. As determined by archeology.
128. As scaled and projected off Crown
Map No. 102, Section A-B.
129. Elmer Journal, p. 33. Dr. Elmer
was stationed at Fort Stanwix with Colonel Dayton's Regiment.
130. Scott, p. 100. Letter from Capt.
De Lamarquise to General Gates, no date, but probably written in late
April of 1777.
131. Willett Orderly Book:
June 5, 1777: ". . . John Baker to be releas'd from
the Guard House...."
June 9, 1777: "And Richard Watson Ordered to be
Releas'd from the Guard House...."
June 12, 1777: ". . . James Rogers and Cornelius
Swartwout Ordered to be Releas'd from the Guard Houseas also James
March 5, 1778: "Serg:t Myers of Capt Tiebouts company
confin'd by Lieut: Bowen for defrauding the Publick was Order'd back to
the-Guard House untill the Arrival of Lieut Stockwella principal
Evidence. The Commanding Officer approves of the Suspending the Tryal,
but Orders the prisoners Releas'd from his Confinement in the mean Time.
. . .
132. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 548:
December 3, 1780: "Charles Kinney to [be] Dismissed
from Confinement, and John Holms and Ephm White to be shut in the Bomb
proof for the space of six hours."
133. Letter from Cornls V. Dyck to
Coll Van Schaick, April 17th 1780. (We owe thanks to the Fort Stanwix
files for this letter.)
l am sorry I must inform you of an unluck
circumstance which happened to use on the night between the 13th &
14th InsT. & between the Hours of twelve & one, some fire had
unhappily lodged itself between the Chimney and the Chamber floor of the
Guard House which caught so violently & it being on the Chamber so
that the Gaurd did not perceive it until it had got so far that it was
impossible to extinguish it, but but consumed with the Snowshoes, and
all the Arms unfit for use belonging to the Garrison; we were
necessiated (in order to save the rest of the Garrison from being
consumed) to also haull down part of the rist of the Barracks,
immediately in the morning I had all the Carpenters collected &
employed who have now nearly again repaired the Barracks that were
knock'd down and hope if nothing extraordinary falls in our way to have
the Gaurd House also rebuilt by next SaturdayThis accident might
have destroyed the whole Garrison had it not been for the Dexterity of
the Officers & Soldiers who by taking down part of the Barracks,
& the constant applying of Water (to that part which was on fire)
which was conveyed thro the Sally Port prevented the fire from catching
in any of the other Buildings, not a man was hurt saving a few who lamed
themselves by treading Nails in their feet
134. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Regiment, op. cit.. p. 544: ". . . The officer of the Main Guard, is not
to Suffer any Damage to be Done to the Flours sic of the Guard Hous sic,
. . ."
135. The six contemporary drawings
showing the headquarters building are as follows: McGraw powder horn,
1777; DeWitt powder horn, 1778; Cornelius Chatfield powder horn, 1780;
DeFleury map, n.d., but post-siege; Gansevoort map, n.d., but
post-siege; map accompanying Willett's Narrative of 1831. One written
reference can be found in John Scott's book entitled Fort Stanwix and
Oriskany, p. 95, as follows: "The adjutant was ordered to make three
copies and 'fix one at Head Quarters, one at the fort gate and the other
at Mr. Roof's.'" The second written reference is the word "HeadQrs"
labeled beside the north fort building drawn on the "Gansevoort Map of
Fort Stanwix," See Appendices for this map plan.
136. Scott, p. 239:
. . . Permission having been granted, they were
conducted blindfolded into the fort, and received by Colonel Gansevoort
in his dining room. The windows of the room were shut and candles
lighted; the table also was spread, covered with crackers, cheese and
137. Capt. Smith, p. 131.
138. Moses Dorr Diary, August 25,
1758: "I Ges came of Dutey and ordered to oversea the Building of a
Hopatal for the Sick. . . .
139. Elmer Journal, October 5, 1776,
140. Willett Orderly Book, June 2,
141. "A Diary of the Siege of Fort
Schuyler," written by William Colbraith, edited by Max. W. Reid, The
Magazine of History, Vol. III, January-June, 1906 (William Abbatt,
New York), p. 32. Hereinafter called Colbrath Diary.
142. New-York Historical Society
Collections (New York, 1915), Vol. 48, pp. 430-431.
143. Clinton Papers, Vol. IX, p.
144. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 574.
145. The Gentleman's Compleat
Military Dictionary (Boston, 1759).
146. Capt. Smith, p. 175.
147. Humphrey Bland, p. 225.
148. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 541:
"for the future Provision for the Garrison, Staff
officers, and the Dependants for Publick supplies, are to Draw always on
one Day as no Provision Return will be allowed on other Days."
149. Documents Relating to the
State of New York in the Revolution, p. 81. The Committee of War,
acting upon orders from the Provincial Congress, issued the following
instructions to the Barrack Master in March of 1776:
That the Field Officers of each Corps in this Colony
be supplied with one Room; the Captains with the Subalterns of each
Company together with the Quarter Master and Adjutant to be entitled to
a Room between each two.
The Officers' Rooms of the said Corps to be furnished
each with 1 pr. Tongs, 1 Table, two Chairs and one Candlestick.
For every Room for Non Commissioned Officers and
Soldiers of the said Corps, each room to contain 20 men, 10 Cribs, 10
Bedcases and 10 Boulsters to be filled with straw every three months, 2
Iron Potts, 2 Trammells, 1 pr. Tongs, 1 Wood Axe, 1 Iron Candlestick, 1
Table, 2 Benches and 1 Bucket.and with firewood as follows:
For every Room for Officers, Non-Commissioned
Officers and Privates from the 1st day Octr. to
the 1st April 3-8ths of a Cord of Wood per week
for each room so occupied as aforesaidand for 5 Weeks preceeding
the 1st Octr. and 5 Weeks after the 1st
April 3-16ths of a Cord of Wood pr week and for
the remaining 16 weeks 1-8 of a Cord per week. . . .
150. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 541:
"no Officer Waiter to be absent at Roll Calls in the
Evening on pain of being punished."
151. Luzader, p. 133 (Willett
Narrative): "Permission having been granted, they were conducted
blindfolded into the fort, and received by Colonel Gansevoort in his
152. Crown Map No, 99. This drawing is
interpreted as having two necessary houses drawn on the fort plan.
Without question the elevated privy is shown in plan projecting off the
southeast bastion and is marked with a dotted line called C-D which is
called a section, but actually is an elevation view of the necessary and
foot bridge. The plan of the elevated privy is almost identical to that
of what is called the officers' privy, located near the center of the
officers' huts. The elevated privy contains two compartments; one side
could have been used by the soldiers and the other side used by
officers. During the day the officers would be required to use the
elevated privy, but at night a privy located on the parade ground would
have been used. The soldiers, meanwhile, would be required to use the
exterior privy at all times.
153. Crown Map No. 103, dated November
154. Richard Day, Calendar of Sir
William Johnson Manuscripts in the New York State Library
(University of the State of New York, Albany, 1909) p. 357, May 26,
1767, letter from Daniel Campbell to Sir Wm. Johnson stating that Capt.
Stevens is to dismantle the garrison at Fort Stanwix; p. 361, June 20,
1767, letter from Hugh Wallace to Johnson stating that Major Goreham and
2nd Lieut. Galland are to reside at Fort Stanwix; p. 485, May 16, 1771,
letter from Edward Wall to Johnson describing Lieut. Galland's condition
(at Fort Stanwix), Johnson was still concerned about the pay of the
batteauxmen serving to bring provisions up to Fort Stanwix during the
treaty of 1768, (Johnson to Gage, letter dated April 26, 1773, p.
155. The last remaining soldiers'
cabin built at the New Windsor Cantonment in New York State during
1782-83 was constructed with logs used to fill in the gable ends.
The corners of the walls were not dovetailed but simply half lapped and
156. Crown Map No, 102, dated 1764.
See drawings of cross sections.
157. Colbrath Diary, pp. 99-100:
"Augth. This Day the Enemy having Observed that we brought water from
the Creek altered its Course so that it became dry."
158. Willett Orderly Book, entry dated
September 17, 1777.
159. Ibid., entry dated
September 20, 1777.
160. A photostat of the original plan,
undated, is kept in the Oneida County Historical Society, Utica, New
York. The Gansevoort Map of Fort Stanwix is thought to be a copy of this
161. See Illustration No. 8 for a view
of the James Wilson powder horn.
162. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., pp. 575-76:
Fort Schuyler Fryday 13th April 1781 The Sentinals
after Nine OClock are to Chalence every person and not suffer them to
pass unless they giv the Countersign except those who are going to the
Necesary House who are not to pass or Repass without giving their
163. E.B. O'Callaghan, Colonial
History of the State of New York, Paris Documents: XVII,
1745-1778; and X (Albany, 1858), p. 1162.
164. Drawings of these three
necessaries are kept in the files of Fort Stanwix. Obtained from the
Crown Collection, Mss. Room, New York State Library.
165. Willett Orderly Book, March 15,
166. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 541.
167. Ibid., p. 542.
168. Colbrath Diary, entry for August
169. Elmer Journal, p. 135.
170. Capt. Smith, p. 102.
171. Crown Map No. 101, Profile thro
172. Crown Map No. 102, Section thro
173. Scott, p. 100.
174. Ibid., p. 180. Letter
written for newspaper publication by Willett for Jonathan Trumball,
Albany, August 15, 1777.
175. Luzader, p. 69.
176. Crown Map No. 103. Note symbol
used for pickets in ditch and berm.
177. Luzader, pp. 67-69.
178. Clinton Papers; letter from Lt.
Col. Robert Cochran to Gov. Clinton, May 12, 1781, reporting on the
condition of Fort Stanwix after the fire: "2d that the only remaining
strength is the outside Picquets on the Glacis."
179. Rome Daily Sentinel,
Tuesday, February 25, 1969. Editorial by Mr. Fritz Updike.
180. Luzader, p. 68.
181. Charles Augustus Struenesee,
The First Principles of Field Fortification, translated from the
German by William Nicolay (London, 1800), p. 94:
Manner of fixing PalisadesTwo palisades are
then firmly fixed at some distance asunder, with great accuracy, and
exactly of equal height. At the points of these palisades, nails are
driven, and a cord is stretched between them; by which means the
situation of all the palisades is determined, and it is easy to fix them
Colonel C. B. Jebb, Jebb's Treatise on Attack and
Defense, 5th Edition (London, 1857), p. 38:
The Palisades should be 9 or 10 feet long, so that
when finished, the ends shall be at least 7 feet above the ground. They
may be made out of the stems of young trees of 6 or 8 inches diameter, .
. . If the Materials are weak, a cross piece must be nailed to them near
the top, to prevent their being broken down, and they must not be placed
so close together as to cover an Enemy.
182. Original ordnance demand dated
Septr 18th 1758, and signed by James Stephens Capt Lieut of Artillery, T
Sowers Engineer, and Jno: Williams Engineer, is kept in the Mss. Room,
New York State Library, Albany, N.Y.
183. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg.'t., November 24, 1780, pp. 541-542.
184. Colbrath Journal; references to
August 2 on page 95, August 6 on page 96.
185. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., May 24, 1781, p. 583.
186. A full listing of military
dictionaries dealing with platforms would be too lengthy to include at
this point but the most useful books are as follows:
Duane, William, A Military Dictionary
(Philadelphia, 1810), p. 533.
Gay De Vernon, S.F., On the Science of War and
Fortifications, translated by John Michael O'Connor (New York,
1817), Vol. I, p. 266-276.
Lacroix, Irenée Amelot de, The French Artillerist
translated by Samuel MacKay (Boston, 1808), p. 10.
Lallemand, H., A Treatise on Artillery,
translated by James Renwick (New York, 1820). Vol. I, pp. 275-278.
Smith, George Capt., An Universal Military
Dictionary (England, 1779), (see under "Battery").
187. Sheffield, Merle G., The Fort
That Never Was, Constitution Island in the Revolutionary War,
(1972). Plan No. 3 by Bernard Romans, September 14, 1775, on page 5,
showing solid gun platforms.
188. Colbrath Journal, p. 104.
189. Lallemand, p. 276.
190. Ibid., p. 278.
192. Capt. Smith, p. 220.
193. Crown Map No, 99 shows in
Sections A-B and C-D the construction of the outer two walls that formed
the log cribbing of the ramparts. This log cribbing filled with earth
was built around the entire circuit of the fort's bastions and curtain
walls. Section E-F, taken through the north curtain wall, illustrates
the construction of the ramparts where the three walls were used to form
the outer log cribbing and the inner casemates. Also shown on this plan
is an elevation drawing of the casemates, indicating the two 12" thick
tiers of squared timbers used for the terreplein or roof construction of
the four curtain walls.
194. Luzader, p. 40. See also Sections
A-B, C-D, and E-F on Crown Map No. 99 that show the ramparts constructed
195. Crown Map No. 101. See legend
explaining the amount of work completed at Fort Stanwix ". . . from July
to December 1759." Section A-B shows the fraise in position on the
ramparts of the northeast bastion. Section E-F shows the newly raised
wooden parapet built around the northwest bastion. In section it scales
5'6" high. There appears to be either a banquette step or a hurter
piece for one of the gun platforms in this same drawing. Note: The newly
made parapet, banquette step and gun platforms were stained in red on
the original drawing. These appear as darkened areas in the black and
196. The Papers of Sir William
Johnson, p. 273.
197. Notes found on Crown Map No.
198. Notes found on Crown Map No.
199. Elmer Journal, p. 32.
200. Luzader, p. 20. Comments by Capt.
201. Capt. Smith, p. 221.
202. Elmer Journal, p. 134.
203. Luzader, p. 70.
204. Luzader, pp. 68-69.
205. Capt. Smith, p. 312.
206. See Crown Maps Nos. 99, 100, and
101. Also called caponière.
207. See Crown Maps Nos. 102 and
208. See Crown Map No. 103 which shows
the passageway in this manner.
209. Scaled directly from the
archeologists' field drawings of 1972.
210. Elmer Journal, p. 411.
211. Capt. Smith, p. 228.
212. Capt. Smith, p. 70.
213. Dick Ping Hsu, "Summary of the
1970 Excavations at Fort Stanwix," N.P.S., April, 1971, p. 9.
214. William M. Black, Evolution on
the Art of Fortification, U.S. Army Engineering School, G.P.O.
215. Walter Muir Whitehill, Boston
A Topographical History (Cambridge, 1968), p. 19.
216. Henry E. Dunnack, Maine
Forts (Augusta, Me., 1924).
217. Copies of three different
drawings of this fort, built on the Piscataqua River. were obtained from
the Crown Collection kept in the Mss. Room, New York State Library,
Albany. See Illustration No, 16.
218. The most useful of the military
dictionaries concerning sentry box descriptions are:
Gentleman's Compleat Military Dictionary
GUERITE is a small tower of stone or wood, generally
on the Point of a Bastion, or on the Angles of the Shoulder, to hold a
CENTINEL, who is to take care of the Foss, and to watch to prevent
Surprises; some call ECHAUGETTE those which are made of Wood, and are of
a square Form, for the GUERITES of Stone are roundish, and are built
half without the Wall, and terminate at a Point below, which ought to be
at the CORDON, that the CENTINEL may discover along the Faces, Flanks
and Curtins, and all along the Foss: They ought to be about six Foot
high, and their Breadth three and a half.
Charles Lamb, An Universal Military Dictionary in
English and French in which are explained the Terms of the Principal
Sciences that are Necessary for the Information of an Officer, 4th
Ed., (London, T. Egerton, 1816), pp. 96, 301.
Centry . . . No centry to move more than 50 paces to
the right, and as many to the left of his post; and let the weather be
ever so bad, he must not get tinder any other cover, but that of the
CENTRY-box, a sort of wooden box, or hut, to shelter
the centinel from the injuries of the weather; but in fortifications
made of masonry, they are of stone in a circular form.
SENTRY . . . Sentries are placed before the arms of
all guards, at the tents and doors of general officers, colonels of
Thomas Simes, A New Military Historical and
Explanatory Dictionary (Humphreys, Bell and Aitken, Philadelphia,
GUERRITTE sic, "a fort or small tower of stone or
wood, on the point of a bastion, or on the angles of the shoulder, to
hold a sentry. (A sketch of a masonry sentry box is included with this
Capt. George Smith, An Universal Military Dictionary
(J. Millan, London, 1779), p. 80.
Centry-box, a sort of wooden box, or hut, to shelter
the centinel from the injuries of the weather. . . .
ECHAUGETTE sic, in military history, signifies a
watch tower or kind of a centry box. (The term "tower of duty," found in
many soldiers' diaries may have meant duty served in one of the early
fortified towers in England. Later, this term probably became known as
tour of duty.)
219. This drawing was provided by Mr.
John Fortier, Head Research Historian at Fortress of Louisbourg NHP,
Canada. Its source is Bernard Forest de Belidor, La Science des
ingenieurs dons la conduite des travaux de fortification et
d'architecture civile . . . (Paris, Jambert, 1739). See Illustration
220. Scott, p. 100. Also checked
against the original letter found in the Gates papers, microfilm reel
221. Willett Orderly Book, May 15,
222. For a short biographical sketch
of James Wilson, see "Hobbies, The Magazine for Collectors," May, 1951,
pp. 146-147. Mr. Chester Williams of Rome, N.Y. was the person
responsible for calling attention to this article and for permitting the
power horn drawing to be photocopied. See Illustration No, 8.
223. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 556.
224. Ibid., p. 575.
226. See footnote No, 218.
227. See Illustration No. 19.
228. Storehouses were built at the
Oneida Carrying Place during the British occupation. See Crown Map No.
100 for location of a storehouse in 1758.
229. Scott, p. 100. Capt. de
Lamarquise to General Gates, n.d.
230. Willett Orderly Book.
231. Ibid., February 24,
232. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg.t., pp. 542, 552-553, 573.
233. Letter from Hansen to Schuyler,
dated December 30, 1776, (Fort Stanwix), commenting on the fact he had
been assigned a room for stores by Col. Elmore. This extract furnished
by NPS historian John Luzader:
The moment it is clean I will have proper shelves to
lay the goods to advantage. I am happy that the Room which is to contain
the goods adjoins the one in which I live alone. Threw sic which I
intend to make a Passage and so use only one Door to the Two Rooms. The
above comments suggest that the commissary store in 1776 might have been
located in one of the barracks buildings. This is one instance where an
alteration was made between two interior rooms of a building.
234. Documentary History of New
York, Vol. 13, p. 526.
235. Expedition to Detroit,
1793, edited by John and Isaac Comly, Byberry, Vol. II, 2nd Edition
(Philadelphia, 1836) pp. 574-575.
236. Scott, p. 100.
237. Also called at various times Mill
Creek and Garden Creek.
238. Willett Orderly Book, August 11,
239. Rome Directory, 1857, p.
130. See Illustration No. 12.
240. Elmer Journal, p. 135:
Orders which were much needed in our camp at this
time, as guns were frequently heard in the bush, which were no doubt
fired by soldiers; but we were not able to find out the particular
persons till this day, when 4 were brought in and sentenced by the
Lieut. Col. to stand 1 hour stripped and tied altogether at the whipping
post, which was immediately put in execution.
241. Orderly Books of the 4th N.Y.
Reg't., p. 577.
Last Updated: 26-Dec-2008