|circa 8000 BC
||First known inhabitants occupied north eastern Iowa as evidenced by
mounds, rock shelters, and other artifacts.|
|circa 50004000 BC
||Archaic huntergatherers occupied northeastern Iowa.|
|circa 500 BC500 AD
||Early and Middle Woodland people occupied much of the
||The Effigy Mound Builders occupied Wisconsin and several bordering
states, including northeastern Iowa.|
||Members of the Oneota culture occupied northeastern Iowa.|
||Father Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet, and companions traveled down
the Wisconsin River into the Mississippi.|
||Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, built a trading post in the
approximate location of modern Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.|
||French fur trader Nicholas Perrot established Fort St. Nicholas near
Prairie du Chien.|
||Pierre Paul Sineur Marin built a fort at the mouth of Sny Magill
Creek and traded with the Sac, Fox, and Winnebago Indians.|
||Britain assumed control of the east bank of the Mississippi River;
Spain controlled the west bank.|
||Massachusetts surveyor Jonathan Carver noted the presence of
approximately 300 families residing on the Prairie du Chien terrace.
Carver's reports mentioned the burial mounds in the area, but did not
mention effigy shaped mounds.|
||Fur trader Peter Pond observed and recorded the presence of mounds
in northeastern Iowa.|
||A party of Americans occupied the Prairie du Chien terrace upon its
evacuation by the British.|
||Spanish LieutenantGovernor Don Carlos Dehault Delassus of
upper Louisiana granted American Basil Giard a tract of approximately
5,760 acres in modern Clayton County, Iowa. Giard was the first American
to own land in Iowa.|
||Zebulon Pike explored the upper
Mississippi River valley. Although his reports failed to mention the
presence of mounds in the area, one of the locations he recommended as a
possible site for a fort contained a large bear mound.|
||Americans constructed Fort
Shelby on St. Feriole's Island.|
||The British captured Fort Shelby and
renamed it Fort McKay. When the Treaty of Ghent ordered the British out
of the Old North west, Fort McKay was burned to the ground.|
||Colonel William Southerland Hamilton
super vised the construction of Fort Crawford on the site of Fort
Shelby/McKay. The Fort Crawford military reservation extended across the
Mississippi River into part of the modern national monument.|
||Fort Crawford opened an English
||Major Stephen Long of the Army's
Topographical Engineers explored the area and reported the presence of a
wide variety of mounds.|
||The United States government called a
great council of Plains and Woodland tribes in an effort to end
continual warfare among the tribes. The government drew a boundary line
separating the Sioux on the north from the Sac and Fox on the south.
Fort Crawford's troops were relocated to Fort Snelling,
||Recognizing the failure of the
council of 1825 to end clashes among the tribes, the Army reopened Fort
||Captain T.F. Smith opened a sawmill
on the Yellow River about 3-1/2 miles north of its juncture with the
Mississippi. The sawmill provided wood for the construction of a new
Fort Crawford on higher ground. The post also operated a garden south of
the Yellow River, and obtained limestone from the vicinity of modern
||Post commander Colonel Zachary Taylor
as signed Lieutenant Jefferson Davis to super vise the post sawmill.
The U.S. government convened a second council at Fort Crawford, and
extended the boundary between the Sioux and the Sac and Fox twenty miles
on each side of the 1825 boundary line, creating a forty-mile-wide
"neutral zone." This attempt also failed to bring peace to the
||Following the Blackhawk War, the
government moved the Winnebago Indians from Wisconsin to the eastern
portion of the neutral zone. The government purchased the
fifty-mile-wide area extending from the Missouri state border to the
neutral zone, forcing the Sac and Fox tribes to move westward. The
so-called "Blackhawk Purchase" became the core of the state of Iowa.
Jefferson Davis married Sarah Taylor, daughter of Zachary Taylor.
||The Winnebago Yellow River Mission
School and Farm was constructed with lumber provided by the "Jefferson
Davis sawmill." The school was situated three miles north of the sawmill
on the Yellow River. Taylor removed the machinery from the sawmill
following the school's construction.|
||Soldiers built or
improved a military road to facilitate the construction of (and later,
communication with) Fort Atkinson, a new post located fifty miles west
of the Mississippi River in modern Winneshiek County, Iowa. The "Old
Military Road" crosses the south unit of the national
||E.G. Squier and E.H. Davis mapped and
excavated almost 200 Hopewellian mounds from Ohio to
||The United States government
abandoned Fort Atkinson, Fort Crawford, and the Iowa portion of the Old
||William Pidgeon recorded the Iowa
effigy mounds in his Traditions of the De-coo-dah and Antiquarian
||Alfred J. Hill and Theodore H. Lewis
surveyed and mapped northeastern Iowa mounds.|
||Ellison Orr conducted
surveys of north eastern Iowa mounds.|
||The Bureau of American
Ethnology's research team studied northeastern Iowa mounds.|
||The University of Iowa
expressed interest in the mounds in northeastern Iowa.|
||Duren J.H. Ward published
articles on pre historic man in the Iowa Journal of History and
||State Representative George H.
Schulte supported the idea of a national park near McGregor,
||United States Senator William S.
Kenyon of Iowa introduced legislation proposing the creation of a
national park in northeastern Iowa. Secretary of the Interior Franklin
Lane put the bill on hold pending study of the area. Five hundred
dollars was appropriated via Congressman Gilbert Haugen's amendment to
the general appropriations bill to fund the study.|
||Department of the interior employee
M.L. Dorr toured the upper Mississippi River valley, but made no
recommendations concerning the national park proposal.
Rep. Haugen of Iowa introduced legislation to establish a national
park in northeastern Iowa. No action was taken due to United States
involvement in the First World War.
||Sen. Kenyon introduced S. 1317 to
authorize a Mississippi Valley National Park near Prairie du Chien. The
proposal died in committee.|
||Charles Reuben Keyes of the Iowa
Archeological Survey published his first report on prehistoric man in
||Sen. Kenyon introduced legislation
proposing the establishment of Mississippi Valley National Park. Again,
the bill died in committee.|
||Keyes presented his plan for
preservation of Iowa mounds to the Board of Curators of the Iowa State
||Sen. Kenyon and Rep. Haugen proposed
the authorization of Mississippi Valley National Park for the third
time. For the third time, it died in committee.|
||Mrs. Munn of New York donated a tract
of land in northeastern Iowa to the United States Biological Survey for
preservation purposes. The secretary of the interior sent National Park
Service (NPS) personnel to appraise the land; they determined it was not
suitable for national park status.
Subsequently, the Biological Survey donated the land to the state of
Iowa, who used it to form the core of Pike's Peak State Park.
||Rep. Haugen introduced H.R. 2040 to
study the feasibility of establishing a Mississippi Valley National
Park. The proposal included seventeen counties in four states. The
assistant secretary of the interior toured the 220-mile area covered by
the bill and recommended the total area for national park status.
||President Herbert Hoover signed the
Haugen bill permitting a full study of the proposed park.|
||Roger W. Toll surveyed the
area and prepared a report recommending against national park status for
the 220mile area under consideration, saying it lacked the special
qualities characteristic of national parks. Toll recommended, however,
the proclamation of a national monument to preserve the prehistoric
burial mounds in northeastern Iowa.|
||Charles R. Keyes presented a
preservation plan to the Iowa State Board of Conservation.
National Park Service Chief Historian Verne Chatelain inspected the
McGregor area mound groups, accompanied by Charles R. Keyes, Ellison
Orr, Mrs. Henry Frankel, Mrs. Gilbert King, and Walter H. Beal.
||The Iowa Journal of History and
Politics published an issue on the archeology, his tory, and geology
of northeastern Iowa.|
||The Iowa State Board of Conservation
combined with the State Fish and Game Commission to form the Iowa
||Charles R. Keyes began
surveying Iowa under Federal Emergency Relief Authority (FERA) and Works
Progress Administration (WPA) programs. Ellison Orr was field supervisor
for the archeological crews in northeastern Iowa.|
||The Iowa Conservation Commission
presented to the National Park Service a plan for the preservation of
the Iowa mounds. The plan included a proposed boundary for a mounds
||Neal Butterfield, Howard Baker, and
Edward Hummel of the National Park Service inspect ed the area and
proposed inclusion of three mound groups (Jennings-Liebhardt, Yellow
River, and Sny Magill) in a national monument.
The National Park Service learned the Corps of Engineers had
jurisdiction over part of Sny Magill mound group, and was in the process
of transferring the land to the department of the interior for fish and
wildlife purposes. The Corps' transfer was to be contingent upon the
Corps of Engineers's continued right to flood the area, if needed, to
ensure safe navigation of the Mississippi River. NPS postponed action to
acquire Sny Magill pending completion of the transfer to the Fish and
Wildlife Service and study of the potential impacts of the Corps'
reservation of flooding rights on the NPS' ability to preserve the
The state of Iowa developed Pike's Peak State Park.
||The Iowa legislature authorized the
transfer of up to 1,000 acres to be transferred to the United States for
purposes of establishing a national monument.|
||The state of Iowa completed
acquisition of the 1,000 acres to be transferred to the United States.
The National Park Service and the state of Iowa agreed upon the name
of Effigy Mounds National Monument.
Assistant Chief Historian Herbert Kahler visited the area and
recommended that monument headquarters be located on the
Jennings-Liebhardt tract, not in McGregor, Iowa.
NPS Regional Historian Olaf T. Hagen and Iowa Conservation Commission
Officer V.W. Flickinger agreed the Sny Magill unit should be included in
the national monument to protect the mounds from erosion and from nearby
logging operations. NPS deferred action pending resolution of several
||Conflicts over the Corps of
Engineers' insistence on retaining the right to flood Sny Magill and
confusion over land ownership resulted in a recommendation to proclaim
the Jennings-Liebhardt and Yellow River units as Effigy Mounds National
Monument. NPS would pursue the addition of the Sny Magill unit at a
||Acting Director Arthur Demaray
accepted title to the 1,000 acres donated by the state of Iowa.
President Harry Truman proclaimed Effigy Mounds National Monument on
William J. ("Joe") Kennedy reported for duty as the monument's first
superintendent on November 11.
||NPS constructed a driveway and gravel
parking lot; rehabilitated a farmhouse on the monument grounds for use
as a superintendent's residence; refurbished an old wagon trail as a
trail to Fire Point; built an equipment shed/office building at park
headquarters; and posted directional and other signs.
NPS filled potholes and planted seed to stabilize the turf of
disturbed mounds in the north unit.
The monument entered cooperative agreements with the U.S. Soil
Conservation Service and the Iowa Conservation Commission for mutual
Superintendent Joe Kennedy signed cooperative agreements with the
Allamakee and Clayton County Soil Conservation Districts to coordinate
NPS soil conservation measures with the appropriate county
Several archeologists visited Effigy Mounds National Monument,
including NPS archeologist Paul Beaubien, the University of Wisconsin's
David Baerreis, and David Stout of the University of Iowa.
Assistant Director Conrad Wirth and Landscape Architect Robert Ludden
visited the monument while surveying the area proposed as the
Mississippi River Parkway, and recommended the removal of trees from the
||Iowa Archeological Society
Ellison Orr passed away at age 93. Paul Beaubien gathered Orr's
collection of papers and books for the monument's museum collection.
Iowa legislature authorized the transfer of an additional 204.39
acres to the federal government.
Trail in north unit extended to the top of the bluff. Trailside
exhibit signs in stalled.
NPS Director Arthur Demaray approved master plan proposing
construction of an administration and museum building, two residences,
and two single-hole privies at Effigy Mounds National Monument.
||Acting Director Hillory Tolson
accepted an additional 204.36 acres from the state of Iowa.
NPS Archeologist Paul Beaubien conducted tests and excavated some
mounds at Sny Magill. Beaubien's research verified the significance of
the Sny Magill group.
Little Bear mound outlined in crushed limestone.
Oneand-onequartermile loop trail in north unit
Walter T. ("Pete") Berrett succeeded Kennedy as superintendent on
||NPS entered into cooperative
agreements with McGregor and Marquette for fire fighting services.
The National Park Service initiated negotiations with A.B. Ferguson
to purchase a 100-acre parcel adjoining the national monument.
||The Des Moines Founders Garden Club
donated a 40acre tract which includes "Founders Pond" to the
national monument. |
||Heavy rains flooded the Mississippi
NPS initiated Mission 66 program to improve facilities in park
Effigy Mounds National Monument's Mission 66 prospectus approved.
||Director Conrad Wirth visited Effigy
Mounds National Monument.
Some recovered artifacts were displayed in the temporary visitor
contact station (former chicken coop) at headquarters.
Regional Chief of Interpretation H. Raymond Gregg recommended a
policy of nondestructive research at Effigy Mounds National
Wayne H. Scholtes conducted pollen analysis of the soil samples taken
from the national monument.
||Daniel J. ("Jim") Tobin became the
area's third superintendent on November 16.
NPS requested Congressional action to change the boundary of Effigy
Mounds National Monument to include Sny Magill, the 100-acre Ferguson
tract, and other small parcels of land. No action was taken in
Construction of Mission 66 facilities began.
A.A. Rhomberg surveyed the monument's north, west, and south
boundaries and M.A. Moser erected barbed wire fences along the
Regional Soil Conservationist Fred Dickison gathered data to develop
a vegetation management plan for the national monument.
||The boundary change request
authorizing the addition of several tracts of land was resubmitted.
Again, no action was taken.
NPS constructed water and sewer systems, rebuilt the entrance road
and parking lot, and began construction of the residences.
With the concurrence of the National Park Service, the Fish and
Wildlife Service authorized the Iowa Conservation Commission to build a
concrete boat ramp and a gravel road at Sny Magill.
NPS upgraded the north unit trails.
Regional Director Howard Baker established a policy against further
destructive investigations of the mounds at the national monument.
||The superintendent and the
archeologist moved into the newlyconstructed Mission 66 residences
||The boundary change request was again
resubmitted, with no results.
Visitor center construction completed. Trails completed.
||NPS worked with Fish and
Wildlife Service to record observations of bald eagles in the
||Congress passed legislation changing
the monument's boundary, authorizing acquisition of the 100-acre
Ferguson parcel, and appropriating $2000 for land acquisition.
Visitor center dedicated.
NPS removed trees from Marching Bear mounds, filled holes and planted
grass to restore the mounds and prevent erosion.
||The Corps of Engineers and the U.S.
Bureau of Sport Fisheries transferred the Sny Magill unit to the
National Park Service for inclusion in the national monument.
Donald M. Spalding succeeded Jim Tobin as superintendent on July
||Effigy Mounds Archeologist Garland
Gordon discovered and tested the FTD site east of the national
monument's north unit.
NPS developed a herbarium identifying 329 plant species within the
||As acting superintendent, Garland
Gordon recommended inclusion of the FTD site in the national monument.
No action was taken by regional or Washington office staffs.
Badlands National Park Chief Ranger James Batman served as acting
superintendent of Effigy Mounds National Monument for several
Stuart H. ("Mike") Maule became superintendent on December 9.
||In response to complaints from the
National Park Service, the Iowa Conservation Commission ordered that
privatelyowned boats moored near the dock at Sny Magill be moved
||Superintendent Maule requested that
Regional Director Fred C. Fagergren pursue a boundary change authorizing
the inclusion of the FTD site, the remainder of the Ferguson property,
and the Bruckner parcel. The regional director took no action.
Milton E. Thompson succeeded Mike Maule as superintendent on December
||Thomas A. Munson assumed the
superintendency of Effigy Mounds National Monument on January 24.
NPS stabilized several mounds in the northern portion of the north
The National Park Service replaced bundle burials in the monument's
museum exhibit with a cast replica, so as not to offend contemporary
Native American residents of the Mississippi valley.
||Congress appropriated an additional
$12,000 for the purchase of the Ferguson tract.|
||Carl Fitzgerald Roofing and
Construction Company reroofed the visitor center.|
||NPS seasonal Ranger William Reinhardt
discovered two bear mounds on the Ferguson land outside the monument's
authorized boundary. Luther College staff later surveyed the Ferguson
||NPS acquired the Ferguson tract as
authorized by the 1961 boundary adjustment. The parcel did not include
the Reinhardt mounds.
Archeologists David Benn and Dean Thompson of Luther College
investigated the FTD site, which had been exposed by unusually low river
levels. Benn and Thompson submitted a copy of their preliminary report
to State Historic Preservation Officer Adrian Anderson and the Corps of
Engineers district office in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Robert Q. Landers of Iowa State University conducted a survey of
native prairie remnants in Midwest Region parks.
||Corps of Engineers officials agreed
the Corps was obligated to mitigate the negative effects of
lockanddamcaused erosion at the FTD site.|
||The Corps of Engineers allocated
funds for data recovery at the FTD site, but was unable to award a
contract before the end of the fiscal year. As a result, no recovery was
||In response to the Service's request,
the state of Iowa added a twelvefootwide turn land at the
Corps of Engineers Archeologist David Berwick met with Stan Riggle
of the Iowa State Historic Preservation Office at the FTD site. They
agreed data recovery should be undertaken only if the site could not be
Volunteers under the leadership of Clark Mallam of Luther College
worked with the monument staff to produce the first aerial photographs
of the Sny Magill mounds.
||The Corps of Engineers constructed a
rock dike to stem erosion of the FTD site. Stilwell Construction Company
insulated and installed a suspended ceiling in the visitor center.
Tesar Excavation and Building Construction Company improved the north
unit trail system, including the construction of a stair way beneath
Fire Point and the installation of safety guardrails at Hanging Rock and
Twin Views overlooks.
||Congress approved another boundary
change authorizing the exchange of a small monument parcel for the Tesar
property adjoining the national monument.
NPS added a twenty- by twenty-five-foot flammable storage room to the
workshop and a basement curatorial storage room/work area to the visitor
University of Wisconsin student Greg Moore recommended the use of
prescribed burns to restore native prairie remnants at Effigy Mounds
National Monument. In response, NPS prepared a fire management plan for
||The National Park Service exchanged
land parcels with Roberta Tesar. The present boundaries of the national
monument were complete.|
||Interstate Roofing and Waterproofing,
Inc., reroofed and installed a skylight in the visitor center.
A team of
park, regional, and Denver Service Center personnel initiated
preparation of a general management plan for Effigy Mounds National
Aerial Services, Inc., provided photogrammetric data and
topographical maps of Sny Magill.
||NPS began charging entrance fees.
Stilwell Construction Company modified the visitor center to
eliminate exterior access to the restrooms and to improve their
accessibility to the handicapped.
NPS permitted the Fish and Wildlife Service to construct an
information kiosk adjacent to the boat ramp at Sny Magill.
Elizabeth Henning of Oneota Enterprises prepared a land-use study of
Church's Surveying and Mapping prepared a map of the Sny Magill
Arthur Bettis III conducted a geomorphological study at Sny
NPS began prescribed burns in accordance with fire management
||NPS archeologists under the direction
of Janis Dial-Jones conducted field investigations at Sny Magill.
||Dale Henning of Luther
College tested areas between mounds, some newlyidentified mound ed
features at Sny Magill, and some rock shelters.
National Park Service upgraded museum exhibits.