Effigy Mounds
Administrative History
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Chapter Three:

1Wilfred D. Logan, A History of Effigy Mounds National Monument (National Park Service, 1956), 28-30.

2Logan and John Earl Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 297-98; and Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 30.

3Note that this same argument was key in the establishment of the National Park Service to manage the National Park System.

4Congressional Record, 53:2861, 53:10,251, and 53:12,355; and Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 298-99.

5Congressional Record, 54:4407—4416; and Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 299.

6Congressional Record, 58:497—98.

7History of Legislation Relating to the National Park System Through the 82d Congress, Edmund B. Rogers, compiler (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1958), p. 2 of Part I, pp. 1-3 of H.R. 262, and pp. 1-3 of S. 680, 67th Congress, 1st Session and pp. 1-3 of H.R. 495, 68th Congress, 1st Session. Memorandum, Merriam to Drury, November 22, 1946.

8Unidentified and undated newspaper clippings, various publications, but most apparently from the North Iowa Times of McGregor, Iowa, most not paginated, from the file "A Small Collection of Historic Items Related to Early Preservation of Northeast Iowa," compiled by Timothy Mason, May 1984, Effigy Mounds National Monument; and letter, Mrs. Addison Parker to E.C. Schroeder, n.d.

9Letter, Parker to Schroeder.

10 Rogers, History of Legislation, H.R. 4020, Union Calendar No. 324, 71st Congress, 2d Session, 2 pp.; Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 300; and Louise Parker, "Iowa's National Monument," Typescript, (n.d.), 7.

11Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 31.

12Report to the Director [Horace M. Albright], National Park Service, from Roger W. Toll, October 8, 1931, pp. 3, 5, and 7.

13Memorandum to the Secretary, Department of the Interior [Ray Lyman Wilbur], from Albright, February 16, 1932, endorsing the Toll report.

14Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 301-03; and Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 32.

15Charles R. Keyes, "Shall Iowa Have National Monuments?" in James H. Lees, Charles R. Keyes and William J. Petersen, History of Northeast Iowa (Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, n.d.), 46; letter, Parker to Schroeder; and Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 32.

16Toll report, 2-3; Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 303; and Lees et al., Northeast Iowa, Introduction.

17Mrs. Henry (Margo) Frankel to [National Park Service Director Arno] Cammerer, October 30, 1936.

18Memorandum, Neal Butterfield, Edward A. Hummel, and Howard W. Baker to Cammerer, October 7, 1937 (hereafter cited as Baker, Butterfield, and Hummel report).

19Established in 1937 as Region II (a.k.a. Region Two) of the National Park Service, the name was changed to Midwest Region in 1962. The boundaries of the region changed several times during its half—century of existence.

20According to Ellison Orr, local preservation groups had been trying for some time (but without success) to get the state to appropriate money to by the Fish Farm group. "Finally," Orr wrote, "two of us—one in Lansing and one in Waukin—circulated a subscription list asking individual donations of $1.00. [Other sources claim the two men literally passed their hats at a service club luncheon.] In one afternoon the necessary $100.00 was secured to purchase the 2.94 acres. . . ." The two men, acting as trustees, received a warranty deed from the owners, after which they deeded the land to the State. "The only 'string' attached to the donation was that the group should be designated as the Fish Farm Mound Group" because of the previous owner's association with a fish hatchery. See letter, Parker to Schroeder.

21Interestingly enough, the land comprising Pike's Peak State Park was donated to the U.S. Biological Survey in 1928 to form part of the national park then being proposed. Not wanted by the federal government, the "Munn Lands," so called from the donor's name, were granted by Congress to the state of Iowa in 1936, with the stipulation that the land be used only for a state park or parks. Mrs. Addison Parker, Sd., letter to E.C. Schroeder of McGregor, Iowa, n.d., in Effigy Mounds history folder, Effigy Mounds National Monument.

22Baker, Butterfield, and Hummel report.

23Letters, President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Secretary of the Interior [Harold L. Ickes], February 6 and May 17, 1939; and letter, Secretary of the Interior [Julius A. Krug] to Truman, August 27, 1946, from Folder 572, Box 1394, Papers of Harry S Truman, Official File, Truman Library.

24Parker, "Iowa's National Monument," 6, 7; and Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 296.

25Unattributed "Citation for Ellison Orr," August 16, 1949; Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 296; and Mallam, The Iowa Effigy Mounds, 24—26.

26Senate File 529, 49th General Assembly of the State of Iowa, signed by the governor on April 21, 1941, Effigy Mounds File, Iowa State Archives.

27Letter, [Secretary of the Interior] Julius A. Krug to President Harry S Truman, August 27, 1946, on the status of negotiations to establish Effigy Mounds National Monument; memorandum, Chief, Bureau of the Budget, to Truman, October 11, 1946, on the same subject, both from Folder 572, Box 1394, Papers of Harry S Truman, Official File, Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri; Oral History Interview no. 126, with [National Park Service Director] Newton B. Drury, Volume 2, page 401, Harry S. Truman Library; letter, Parker to Schroeder, and memorandum, Lawrence C. Merriam, Regional Director, Region II, to Drury, October 29, 1946.

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Last Updated: 08-Oct-2003