EURO-AMERICAN USE OF THE REGION
2"Fort" may not be the proper term to describe these edifices, as most of them seem to have been one or more cabins and/or fur or merchandise storage sheds, perhaps connected or enclosed by a stake fence.
4"Chronology of Events," Fact File, Effigy Mounds National Monument. This file is a combined and expanded version of the chronologies of events in the History of Allamakee County and the History of Clayton County, Iowa, and the History of Crawford County, Wisconsin.
8Logan, Woodland Complexes, 180-81; Jonathan Carver, Travels through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. (n.p., 1781; reprint edition, Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, Inc., 1956), 50-51; Wilfred D. Logan, interview with William S. Wood, Phoenix, Arizona, March 10-11, 1987; and Lees, et al., History of Northeastern Iowa, 60-61.
16Lees, et al., History of Northeastern Iowa, 6465; W.J. Ghent, The Early Far West (New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1931), 2, 280. However, Upper Explorerland Report, 17, states that Giard's claim, executed in 1795, was the second of three.
21 Henry R. Schoolcraft, Narrative Journals of Travels from Detroit Northwest through the Great Chain of American Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River in the Year 1820, (Albany: E&E Hosford, 1821; reprint edition, New York: Arno Press, 1970), 156-57, 33134.
27Because the government usually built sawmills to provide lumber for the construction of its new forts, there may have been a sawmill in the area, though not necessarily at the same location, prior to 1829.
32It is very possible that some sort of makeshift road leading from the ferry landing to the top of the bluff existed for some years before 1840, and was used by the army for access to the post gardens, hayfields, and wood lots.
33Fort Atkinson was built approximately fifty miles west of the Mississippi River in modern Winneshiek County, Iowa, to protect the Winnebago Indians following their relocation from the Yellow River reservation.
36The selection of the road's route may have been influenced by local entrepreneurs. One story alleges the military originally intended to open a road westward from about where McGregor is located now. According to Bruce Mahan, Hercules Louis Dousman, a partner of John Jacob Astor's in the fur trade at Prairie du Chien and a rival of Alexander McGregor's in the Mississippi River ferry business, opened a trail to the top of the bluffs from his own ferry landing on the Iowa shore. Apparently, Dousman bribed the officers to improve his trail by providing carriage rides to the top of the hill and fee whiskey for the soldiers. See Mahan, Old Fort Crawford, 125-26. For the reasons stated in the text, and because drunkenness among the troops was not a common problem at the military posts in the area, Mahan's account is not likely.
See also letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
40According to Ellison Orr, the Methode family camped on Paint Creek near Waukon Junction, not on the Yellow River. See Orr, "Annals of Old Fort Crawford" (in volume 9 of his unpublished manuscript, 1941), p. 5; and Orr, "Sundry Archaeological Papers and Memoranda" (unpublished manuscript, 1939), p. 71, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
43Orr's manuscripts state McGregor lived in Prairie du Chien from 1835-47. See "Hunting an Old Dam Site," (in volume 9 of his unpublished manuscript, 1941), p. 9, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
45Orr, "Sundry Archaeological Papers" (in volume 12 of unpublished manuscript, 1939), p. 71, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989; and Hancock, History of Allamakee County, 278, 561.
47Ibid.; and Orr, "Reminiscences of a Pioneer Boy" (in volume 7 of his unpublished manuscripts, n.d.), p. 99; Orr, "Some Reflections of Our Pioneer Neighbors and their Surroundings" (in volume 9 of his unpublished manuscripts, 1941), p. 7; and "The Neutral Ground, the Old Military Road and the Half Way House A Tale of Cause and Effect" (in volume 9 of his unpublished manuscripts, 1941), p. 71, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
50Censusyear maps of Allamakee and Clayton Counties, Iowa, photographed at the County Recorders' Offices, Waukon and Elkader, Iowa, by Ranger Rodney Rovang, Effigy Mounds National Monument; Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 29192; and Orr, "The Early Mills of Allamakee County, Iowa" (in volume 9 of his unpublished manuscripts, 1941), pp. 2, 18, 24, and 26; and Orr, "Sundry Archeological Papers," pp. 30B and 78, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
52See Denny Rehder and Cecil Cook, Grass between the Rails The Waukon, Iowa. Branch of the Milwaukee Road (Waukon and Mississippi Press, 1972), as referenced in Robert Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
54Established as a ferry landing, the small town which developed at Red House Landing became a focal point for the river's clamming industry. See Orr, Vol. 12, Sundry Archaeological Papers and Memoranda, 1939, pp. 30B and 78, as referenced in letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
55Great Lakes Archeological Research Center, Reports of Investigation No. 116, 114-16; Kane, et al., Northern Expeditions, 84-95; Orr article; Ghent, Early Far West, 153, 156; Chicago Daily Tribune 7 December 1956, part 3, page 2; Mahan, Old Fort Crawford, 209, 24243, 26063; "History of the Sixth Infantry Regiment"; Hancock, History of Allamakee County, 234-35; and Rodney D. Rovang, interview with William S. Wood, n.d. .
56Wilfred D. Logan, interview with William S. Wood, March 10, 1987; James David, interview with Wood, February 11, 1987; Ralph Blackwell, interview with Wood, February 11, 1987; Bernard Carnicle, interview with Wood, February 11, 1987; Thomas Sinclair, interview with Wood, February 11, 1987; Timothy Mason, interview with Wood, February 11, 1987; and Lori Stanley, Ferguson Tract Archeological Project II: A Cultural Resource Study in Allamakee County. Iowa (Decorah, Iowa: Luther College Research Center, 1984), 34.
57Cyrus Thomas, The XII Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, John W. Powell. Director, to the Trust of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1894), p. xlii; and R. Clark Mallam, The Iowa Effigy Mounds Manifestation: An Interpretive Model (Iowa City: Office of the State Archeologist, 1976), 2123.
60Squier and Davis supported the concept of the Mound Builders as a vanished race extinguished by modern Indians. See Robert Petersen, "An Archeological Reassessment of the Effigy Mound Tradition in Iowa," Manuscript (Decorah, Iowa: Luther College Archaeological Research Center, 1986), 2.
61According to Petersen, Pidgeon was a staunch believer in the so-called "Mound Builder Myth" that the mounds were constructed by a super race extinguished by modern Indians, and freely altered his research data to support the myth. See Petersen, "Archeological Reassessment," 4.
67Ellison Orr, "An Autobiography," Typescript, autograph dated 1944; and Vol. 7, "Reminiscences of a Pioneer Boy," 119. See Also "Citation for Ellison Orr," unattributed, dated August 16, 1949, both in the files of Effigy Mounds National Monument.
68 Thomas, introduction to The XII Annual Report, passim; and Mallam, The Iowa Effigy Mounds, 21-25. According. to Robert Petersen, a Col. Norris led most of the Bureau of American Ethnology's research teams in northeastern Iowa and southwestern Wisconsin. Norris sent his detailed notes to Cyrus Thomas in Washington, D.C., and Thomas prepared the reports. See letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.
Last Updated: 08-Oct-2003