Effigy Mounds
Administrative History
NPS Logo

Chapter One:

1R. Clark Mallam, The Iowa Effigy Mound Manifestation: An Interpretive Model (Iowa City: Office of the State Archeologist, 1976), 7—11; and Wilfred D. Logan, Woodland Complexes in Northeastern Iowa (National Park Service, 1976), 1.

The area is more properly called the Paleozoic plateau.

2Mallam, Effigy Mound Manifestation, 9—13.

3William P. Posateri and Dean M. Roosa, "Plants of the Driftless Area," Iowa Conservationist 47 nos. 4-5 (April—May 1983):8—10, 44; and David Glenn-Lewin and Roger Laushman, "Plant Communities," Iowa Conservationist 47 nos. 4-5 (April—May 1983):15-18.

4Evelyn A. Howell, Darrel G. Morrison, and Gregory F. Moore, A Vegetation Survey of Effigy Mounds National Monument (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1983), passim.

5Wilfred D. Logan and John Earl Ingmanson, Palimpsest 50 no. 5 (May 1969):274-76; and Logan, A History of Effigy Mounds National Monument (National Park Service, 1956), 2—3.

6Logan, Woodland Complexes, 4.

7 Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 276-78; and Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 4-5.

8Mallam, Site of the Serpent: A Prehistoric Life Metaphor in South Central Kansas. Occasional publications of the Coronado—Quivira Museum, No. 1, n.d.; and Letter, Robert W. Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

9Charles R. Keyes, "Shall Iowa Have National Monuments?" in James H. Lees, Charles R. Keyes, and William J. Petersen, A History of Northeastern Iowa (Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, n.d.), 64—65.

10The Adena culture of Ohio, another mound building people, may also date to this period. Letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

11Great Lakes Archeological Research Center, Inc., Reports of Investigation No. 116: Cultural Resources Literature Search and Records Review. Upper Mississippi River Basin vol. I: Introduction and Narrative (Waukesha, Wisconsin: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, n.d. [after 1982], 44—45.

12Ibid., 277-280; Keyes, "Archeological Patterns," The Palimpsest 32 no. 8 (August 1951):320-22; and Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 6-7.

13Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 7-8.

14Upper Explorerland Regional Planning Commission, Upper Explorerland Regional Recreation and Historical Inventory Report (n.p., July 1976), 18-19; Logan, History of Effigy Mounds, 9; and letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

15This does not imply that the two cultures occupied the same geographic area simultaneously. Since both cultures occupied the area over a period of several centuries, the different mound types may have been built decades apart and for different purposes, much as Americans built log cabins and sky scrapers on adjacent lands. Letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

16James E. Mount, "Resume of Archeological Theory, Effigy Mounds National Monument." unpublished report, Effigy Mounds National Monument, 1977 (revised 1979), 5-7.

17According to Robert Petersen, two sites containing human-shaped effigies have been mapped. "Both sites are in Sauk County, Wisconsin. Of the two, only one human effigy still remains. It is located in a small county park northeast of Baraboo." Letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

18T.H. Lewis, "Effigy Mounds in Iowa," Science 146 (1885), Reprint in Vertical Files, Iowa City Research Center, State Historical Society of Iowa, 1—3.

19Recent work by Robert Petersen indicates 391 effigy mounds once existed in Iowa; these were distributed over a five—county area. Two hundred seventy—six once stood on the terrace at Harpers Ferry, Iowa. Petersen believes 55 of the effigies are extant; Clark Mallam put the number of existing mounds at 46. See Mallam, Effigy Mound Manifestation, 5, 87, 104—111; Petersen, "The Strange Case of the Harpers Ferry 'Great Group"' Iowa Archeological Society Newsletter 36 no. 2 (Issue 118, n.d.):3-4; and Petersen, An Archaeological Reassessment of the Effigy Mound Tradition in Iowa (Decorah, Iowa: Luther College Archeological Research Center 1986).

20Logan, Woodland Complexes, 181—82; Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 282-83; Robert T. Bray, interview with William S. Wood, Columbia, Missouri, January 14, 1987; and letter, Petersen to author, April 7, 1989.

21Logan and Ingmanson, Palimpsest, 285-86; and Upper Explorer land Report, 19.

22Lori and David Stanley, The Archeology of Allamakee County Iowa: An Overview and Research Guide (Highlandville, Iowa: Highland Cultural Research Center, 1986), 32, 47—48; and Upper Explorerland Report, 20. Other sources place the Winnebago as long—time residents of the Wisconsin area.

23Mount, "Resume of Archeological Theory," 6.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 08-Oct-2003