Chapter One: Introduction
3 Robert Z. Melnick, "Preserving Cultural and Historic Landscapes: Developing Standards," Cultural Resources Management Bulletin, National Park Service, Washington, D. C., Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1980. Quoted from Reed Jarvis, "The Challenge of Cultural Landscape Interpretation," presented to the Pacific Northwest Association of Interpretive Naturalists Conference, Seattle, Washington, Oct. 16, 1981.
4 Robert A. Melnick, "Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System," Park Historic Architecture Division, Cultural Resources Management, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1984, 1; Ervin H. Zube, Ph.D., "Partnerships," (keynote address to Association of National Park Service Rangers, Nov. 10, 1991), 23.
Chapter Two: Description of the Resource
2 "Soil Survey, Island County, Washington," U. S. Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture, in Cooperation with Washington Agricultural Experiment Station, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, State College of Washington, Series 1949, No. 6, August 1958.
3 Richard White, Land Use, Environment, and Social Change: The Shaping of Island County, Washington. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980; William T. Follis, Jr., Member, Appraisal Institute, "Appraisal Report, Sherman Turkey Farm Property, Ebey's Prairie Area, Central Whidbey Island, Island County, WA," June 15, 1983; "Soil Survey, Island County, Washington," U. S. Soil Conservation Service, August 1958.
6 The Island County Planning Department projected the population figure for 1992 from the 1990 U. S. Census. "Island County Profile," Washington State Employment Security, March 1990; "Island County," Island County Economic Development Council, July 1991.
7 Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve Statement for Management, 1983; Jarvis, "Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve: An Alternative to Traditional Federal Land Protection," Northwest Land Use Review, Oct. 1985.
Chapter Three: Historical Background of Central Whidbey Island
1 Carlos Schwantes, The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), 19, 22-23; Dorothy O. Johansen and Charles M. Gates, Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest New York: Harper and Row, (1967), 54.
3 Vancouver originally named the area south of the Tacoma Narrows for Puget, but the name was later extended to the entire sound. Communication from Don Wodjenski, Island County Historical Society, Dec. 29, 1992; Johansen and Gates, Empire of the Columbia, 35, 52-55.
7 Communication from Don Wodjenski, Island County Historical Society; White, Land Use, 15; Wesson, Gary C., "An Ethnographic Overview of the Native Peoples of the San Juan Islands Region" (Prepared for the National Park Service, March 1988, Wesson and Associates, 15028 24th Avenue Southwest, Seahurst, Washington 98166, March 1988), 9-10, 12.
12 George Brown Tindall, America: A Narrative History, (Vol. II, Second edition, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1988), 535; Johansen and Gates, Empire of the Columbia, 74, Schwantes, The Pacific Northwest, 59.
14 Jimmie Jean Cook, A Particular Friend, Penn's Cove: A History of the Settlers. Claims and Buildings of Central Whidbey Island, (Coupeville, Washington: The Island County Historical Society, 1974), 16.
19 Victor, J. Farrar, "The Ebey Diary," Washington Historical Quarterly (Vol. VIII, July 1916), 240 - 242; Issac N. Ebey to Winfield Scott Ebey, April 25, 1851, Isaac N. Ebey Collection, University of Washington; A Particular Friend: Penn's Cove, Cook, 73.
20 Ken House, "The Establishment of the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve" (Graduate seminar paper, Spring 1986, copy in EBLA files), 4; National Park Service, Visual Compatibility Guidelines. Ebey's Landing NHR (Fall 1987), 16.
23 Isaac Ebey letter to his brother Winfield Scott Ebey, dated April 25, 1851, Ebey Collection, University of Washington,; White, Land Use, 38; House, "The Establishment of the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve," 4.
25 Cathy Gilbert, The Land, the People, the Place: An Introduction to the Inventory, Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources Division, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Seattle, Washington, Winter 1984), 12 - 14; Kellogg, A History of Whidbey's Island, 73; Kris Ravetz, quoted in Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 18, 1987; House, "The Establishment of the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve," 7.
31 White, Land Use, Ch. 10; Stephen R. Wells, "An Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve" (University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Nov. 1980); B. J. Williams, "Whither Whidbey?", Pacific Northwest, July/August 1984.
33 Island County Planning Department, "Parks and Recreation Study, Island County," Island County Comprehensive Plan, June 1969; White, Land Use, 153-154; Everett Herald, June 17, 1978; Seattle Times, April 22, 1979; "Soil Survey, Island County, Washington," August 1958.
Chapter Four: The Movement to Preserve Central Whidbey Island
2 See, for example, William Follis, Jr. appraisal of Albert Heath property on the bluff, 34, copy in National Park Service lands division, PNRO. Island County Commission Minutes, Vol. XIII, Resolution No. 561, June 3, 1968; Ibid, 267, January 19, 1970 Knight Smith obituary, WNT, April 16, 1970; Everett Herald April 29, 1970; interview of Roberta Smith Haeger and Marian Smith by Laura McKinley, September 24, 1991.
3 Interview of Albert Heath by Laura McKinley, Aug. 26, 1991; Albert Heath to Charles Odegaard, Jan. 29, 1981, in EBLA general file; William T. Follis, Jr., MAI, Appraisal Report, Albert Heath property, Tracts No. 101-79 and 101-80, Ebey's Prairie Area, prepared for NPS, July 20, 1983.
4 Bennett T. Gale and Rodger W. Pegues, National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, "Whidbey Island (Washington) National Seashore Proposal," report from trip made June 10-11, 1971; Seattle Times Oct. 16, 1977.
5 Leed and the Washington Environmental Council (to which he belonged and which was responsible for the draft initiative) intended the resulting Seacoast Management Act as a tool to retain public access to beaches and to control their development. To Island County, which has the most shoreline of any county in the state, this act had potentially important consequences; see Everett Herald Dec. 11, 1973; WNT, March 26, 1970.
7 Pat and Ned Johnston of Everett, Washington, owned property in Island County. They would also be instrumental in the Northwest National Seashore Alliance and Friends of Ebey's. A number of people from the mainland belonged to these two groups. Interviews of Albert Heath, Aug. 26, 1991, and Pat Johnston by Laura McKinley, Nov. 9,1991.
12 These included the U. S. Representative from district two, Lloyd Meeds, Senators Henry M. Jackson and Warren Magnuson, and President Nixon. Interviews of Joan McPherson, August 12, 1991, and Jack McPherson, September 25, 1991, by Laura McKinley; WNT, May 18, 1971 and June 10, 1971; House, 18 - 19.
13 The state did acknowledge its interest in beaches because of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971. The Washington State department of parks and recreation and the Department of Natural Resources both expressed interest in acquiring the Ebey's Landing tidelands in 1972, but lacked funds. Barbara James to Laura McKinley, Jan. 19, 1993 (James provided a variety of material related to the activities of the Friends of Ebey's and other environmental organizations; see EBLA "Friends of Ebey's" file); John Clark, Resources Development, Washington State Parks and Recreation, June 1, 1970; Governor Evans collection; Bennet T. Gale and Rodger W. Pegues trip report, National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, June 10-11, 1970; WNT, Dec. 7, 1972.
14 These two national recreation areas provide mass urban recreation primarily for local populations and include a mix of historical sites, beaches and recreational areas, and urban waterfront parks. (Hartzog's reply is unknown, although it may be available in the federal archives in Suitland, Maryland.) U. S. Department of the Interior, The National Parks: Shaping the System, produced by the Division of Publications and the Employee Development Division, 1991, 77 - 78.
15 Paul Pedersen, an active local Democrat and a member of Friends of Ebey's, also kept Meeds informed about Ebey's Landing. McPherson letter to Lloyd Meeds, May 24, 1971 and June 7, 1971; Meeds letter to Joan McPherson, May 26, 1971 and June 15, 1971; Lloyd Meeds Collection, University of Washington Manuscripts Collection, Acc. No. 2900-74-184, Box 9; Henry M. Jackson to George B. Hartzog, Jr., Dec. 3, 1971, copy in Jimmie Jean Cook scrapbook.
16 The National Park Service had also visited Whidbey Island in 1970 at the request of George Gagnon of Oak Harbor, who had suggested that the NPS acquire naval property at West Beach. Mr. Gagnon was informed that the area was too small to qualify for NPS status. Bennet T. Gale, Acting Regional Director, NPS, PNRO, to Director, NPS, April 3, 1970; Bennett T. Gale and Rodger W. Pegues, NPS, PNRO, "Whidbey Island (Washington) National Seashore Proposal," report from trip made June 10-11, 1971, EBLA trust board files; House, 20; WNT, Dec. 7, 1972.
17 The Northwest National Seashore Alliance took interest in "the preservation of endangered seashores and the protection of dwindling coastal areas" in the Northwest. The Alliance and Friends of Ebey's were interwoven. NNSSA brochure, undated, LaConner, files in possession of Ned and Pat Johnston, Everett, Washington (some material available in EBLA Friends of Ebey's file). See also Barbara James information, EBLA Friends of Ebey's file.
18 Groups that assisted Friends of Ebey's included the Central Whidbey Chamber of Commerce, Island County Historical Society, Coupeville Lions Club (headed by Ron Van Dyke), the Housing Authority of Island County (Carl Dean), Whidbey Island Environmental Council (Albert Heath), Island County Citizens for Better Planning (Pat Johnston), the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs, the Washington Wilderness Association (Dr. Fred T. Darvill), the Sierra Club (David Birkner), the Skagit Alpine Club, and Nature Conservancy. See Seattle Times May 3, 1970; Gov. Dan Evans collection, Washington State Archives, Olympia; Jimmie Jean Cook scrapbook, in Don Cook's possession (eventually to be donated to the University of Washington Manuscripts Collection).
20 Bette E. Meyer, Washington State Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, memo to Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and County Liaison Officers, March 17, 1972, Jimmie Jean Cook scrapbook; House, 21.
24 Ninety-one structures entered the National Register of Historic Places; nineteen additional structures were eligible but, per the owners' request, were not included. Seattle Times, Jan. 9, 1974; WNT, Sept. 30, Oct. 14, 1981.
25 The county HAC adopted a set of procedural guidelines to review developments and advise landowners and county officials, but was constantly frustrated by a lack of decision-making authority. Personal communication with Len Madsen, Feb. 9, 1993.
26 Jimmie Jean Cook letter to National Trust, Jan. 11, 1974; National Trust for Historic Preservation report, Feb. 4-5, 1974; letter from Sydney Glover, Island County Planning Director, to Jimmie Jean Cook, Oct. 12, 1973; letter from Charles Odegaard, Executive Director, Washington State Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Dec. 27, 1973, all in Jimmie Jean Cook scrapbook. House, 24-25.
27 WNT, Jan. 25, 1973, May 5, 1982; National Trust for Historic Preservation report, Feb. 4-5, 1974, Jimmie Jean Cook scrapbook; Seattle P-I July 17, 1973; Environmental Impact Assessment, Seabreeze Development, prepared by Island County Planning Director Sydney Glover, May 1974.
38 Thirty units would be erected in six separate clusters, five condominiums in each group. The home owners would have a sweeping view of the farm and the waters of the Straits of Juan de Fuca to the west. Parking would be limited to the rear of the buildings, which would be "low profile" and camouflaged with sod roofs, Home buyers would also have the opportunity to live on a real ranch without personal responsibility for its upkeep. The balance of the open space was to remain a "working ranch" in which each condominium owner held a 1/30 interest at a cost of $50,000 to $80,000. The plans proposed that a homeowners' association manage the ranch while the Smiths supervised daily operations, selected the year's crops and performed the routine chores "The Ranch at Ebey's Landing," brochure by Naramore Bain Brady & Johanson, in Roberta Smith Haeger's possession (photocopy in EBLA trust board files); Environmental Impact Statement, Smith ranch, Seattle Marine Laboratories and Delta Engineering, Sept. 1973; interview of Smith Haeger by Laura McKinley, Sept. 24, 1991; House, 28.
40 It would be dead in the water by April 1974, however. In 1992, a movement to create a national marine sanctuary is underway which revives some of the goals of the earlier effort; see discussion in chapter nine.
47 WNT, Aug. 10, 1976 [auction notice]; WNT, Sept. 23, 1976; Smith v. First Realty [mortgage foreclosure], Washington State Superior Court, June 10, 1976; Seattle P-I, Nov. 21, 1976; Adair to Cusworth, Olympic Bank, Sept. 12, 1977, Marion Smith papers, in her possession.
48 The board of directors included northern Whidbey residents and farmers, among them Paul Pedersen, Al Sherman, Robert Engle, Herb Pickard, and Bill (Karl) Smith, the oldest of Roberta Smith-Hem's two sons. See Ebey's Landing Open Space Foundation brochure, Friends of Ebey's files. While it awaited its tax-exempt status, ELOSF received assistance from the Washington Parks Foundation, which agreed to accept donations of conservation easements in the interim without charging the usual service fee.
49 Under President Carter, the BOR initiated a Technical Assistance Program, acting as a facilitator to bring state and local agencies and community groups "explore alternatives to traditional approaches of direct public funding." It also provided information and advice on foundations and federal programs.
50 All LWCF projects required approval of the Washington State Interagency Committee for Outdoor Recreation (IAC) and matching funds from the state. National Parks for a New Generation: Visions. Realities. Prospects, The Conservation Foundation, Washington D.C., 1985.
51 The private organizations BOR recommended included the Satchem Fund of New Haven, Connecticut, Population Dynamics of Seattle, and the Meyer Charity Fund of Yakima, Washington; Lundy to Pickard June 28, 1977. The Ebey's Landing Foundation also contacted The Nature Conservancy, but TNC replied that it was already overextended on other projects. In addition, BOR and the foundation discussed the possibility of approaching Robert Pratt about purchase or donation of his waterfront property at Ebey's Landing. Pratt owned several parcels, including the Jacob Ebey land claim and the Ebey ferry house on the landing. Mr. Pratt consistently refused to discuss his property with government agents, and stated as early as March 1970 that Ebey's Landing was not "suitable either for platting for building developments or houses, or for a park. The reason is that the housing or platting, and any park area would destroy or alter materially the existing ecology.. ." Robert Y. Pratt to Patricia H. Johnston, March 21, 1970, in EBLA TB files; Sid Malbon, BOR, to Regional Director, BOR, Jan. 21, 1977, Oct. 12, 1977; Malbon, BOR internal memo, Jan. 21, 1977; Maurice Lundy, BOR, to Charles Odegaard, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Jan. 24, 1977.
56 Scholz purchased other nearby lands in 1973 through Robert Hanson, Wagner's permanent residence was in Bothell, Washington, Skagit Valley Herald, Nov. 11, 1976; interview of Clyde Wagner by Laura McKinley, June 16, 1992.
57 These included the Island County Planning Commission, Island County Board of Commissioners, the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, State Department of Ecology, Washington Interagency Committee for Outdoor Recreation, U. S. Interior Department Fish and Wildlife Service. However, some questioned the application because of the proximity of recreational facilities such as Fort Casey and Rhododendron Park.
58 Island County Planning Commission to Ryan, Nov. 15, 1976; Ryan to Washington Interagency Committee for Outdoor Recreation, Nov. 29, 1976; U. S. Dept. of the Interior to Ryan, Nov. 29, 1976; Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to Ryan, Dec. 16, 1976. Skagit Valley Herald Nov. 11, 1976;
60 Mr. Wagner states that he and Scholz also purchased land from private owners on the spit as well. He says that the amount cited in local newspapers that he and Scholz paid for the spit--$350,000--is incorrect. Skagit Valley Herald, Nov. 11, 1976.
63 Later Roberta Smith's sons Bill and Steve, their wives Renee and Sandra, and Bud Wagner's son Dave received title to some of the parcels. Wagner denied that he had subverted the intent of county planing, however: "I said I would buy one-third of the farm," he told the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. "I picked out 20 [five acre parcels], alternating with theirs. I didn't subdivide the farm. How can I circumvent a planing law when all I did was buy some property?" Seattle P-I, April 27, 1980.
65 Heath sold his beach up to the foot of the bluff, and included a portion of Perego's Lake, for $34,500. WNT, Sept. 14, 1978 and Dec. 14, 1978; Seattle P-I, Oct. 1, 1978; interviews of Albert Heath, Aug. 26, 1991, and Ken Pickard, Sept. 25, 1991, by Laura McKinley.
67 Ronald A. Foresta, America's National Parks and Their Keepers (Washington, D. C.: published by Resources for the Future, Inc., 1984), 244 - 251 ; Tony Hiss, The Experience of Place: A New Way of Looking at and Dealing with Our Radically Changing Cities and Countryside (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), 119; Comprehensive Plan. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve, 1980.
69 Laura Beatty to Denny Miller, Sen. Henry M. Jackson staff, Sept. 13, 1978; Henry M. Jackson collection, Acc. No. 3560-5, Box 332, Folder 17, University of Washington; Jarvis, "The Application of Strategic Management Theories at Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve," unpublished, 1; Jarvis, "Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve: An Alternative to Traditional Federal Land Protection," Northwest Land Use Review, Oct. 1985, 6.
71 Rep. Lagomarsino, U. S. Rep., California, Congressional Record, House of Representatives, June 26, 1978, 18874; The First 75 Years: Preserving Our Past For the Future, Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1990, 54.
72 These included Herb Pickard of Coupeville, owner of Prairie Center Lumber and Mercantile, Wally Funk of the Whidbey News-Times, Island County Commissioners Lou Romeo and Del Anderson, Island County Assistant Planing Director Len Madsen, and Island County Parks Director Bill Priet. McDonald to Meeds, May 1, 1978, Henry M. Jackson collection, Acc. No. 3560-5, Box 332, Folder 17, University of Washington.
76 In a subsequent version of the bill, H. R. 12550, Meeds briefly considered designating the area a national park, but dropped this idea when he discovered that such a designation prohibited local control. See Swift to Irene Wanamaker, Sept. 19, 1979, EBLA 1979 Correspondence file. Lloyd Meeds to Denny Miller, Henry M. Jackson Collection, Acc. No. 3560-5, Box 332, Folder 17, University of Washington.
77 Former NPS director William Whalen has suggested an alternative view, which was that Phillip Burton needed political chips to get the parks bill through, and this meant giving something to as many states as possible. Personal communication with William J. Whalen, Oct. 25, 1991.
79 Charles Odegaard, director of Washington State parks and recreation, suggested that "local government" be added to wording so that the state not ruled out. Odegaard to Jackson, Sept. 14, 1978, Henry M. Jackson Collection, Acc. No. 3560-5, Box 332, folder 17, University of Washington.
82 James ("Mike") Lambe of that office assisted with the wording of the bill with Senator Henry Jackson's staff assistant Laura Beatty for the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. He worked on the basis of what Whidbey Island people asked for: money, association with the National Park Service, but also independence. Tony Beveneto, minority staff person on the same committee, also worked on the draft. Personal communications with Mike Lambe, Aug. 28, 1991, William Whalen, Oct. 25, 1991, and Russell Dickenson, Dec. 16, 1991; Foresta, 249; The National Parks: Shaping the System, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1991.
83 Legislative History of the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-625), compiled by the Subcommittee on National Parks and Insular Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session, Dec. 1978, 628; Foresta, 196.
85 Although NPS was unable to complete an inventory of cultural resources until 1983, Regional Chief Scientist James Blaisdell agreed to provide an inventory of natural resources by September. Kurtz to NPS Assoc. Dir., Admin, Nov. 13, 1978; both in Folder D18, 1/79 - 12/80, Pacific Northwest Regional Federal Archive, Seattle.
86 Although eliminated from the final wording of the legislation, Congress originally specified that $.5 million was to be used to cover developmental costs. In subsequent planning, the NPS operated according to the legislative history. See, for example, the revised Basic Operations Plan, Dec. 28, 1981.
87 See, for example, Life Magazine's issue commemorating the 75th anniversary of the National Park Service in 1991. The Act of August 18, 1970, which defined the National Park System, excluded "miscellaneous areas administered in connection therewith," meaning those properties neither federally owned nor directly administered by the NPS, Memo from acting regional director Briggle to director, NPS, A6415, Feb. 17, 1987; The National Parks: Index 1989, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1989.
88 Laura Beatty to Denny Miller, undated, Henry M. Jackson file; Foresta, 256; Everett Herald, June 17, 1978; WNT, Aug. 10, 1978; Leed and Kinnunen, "Planning for the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve: Considerations and Requirements," Jan. 19, 1979, copy in EBLA Trust Board files.
Chapter Four: Preparing a Comprehensive Plan
1 In 1979, for example, NPS solicitors informed the Smiths' attorney that P. L. 95-625 authorized condemnation of some lands. This misstatement made its way into the local newspaper and prompted hasty denials from the NPS planing team. Reed Jarvis to Regional Director, Dec. 3, 1979, in EBLA 1979 correspondence file; Kurtz to NPS Assoc. Dir., Admin, Nov. 13, 1978, D18 folder, 1/79-12/80, Pacific Northwest Regional Federal Archive, Seattle; Everett Herald. Oct. 14, 1978.
2 Primary participants from state and local agencies included Sydney Glover and Leonard Madsen, Island County planning department; Thomas Roehl, Island County planning commission; Jack McPherson, mayor of Coupeville; Delmont N. Bennett, Coupeville planning commission; Carol Delahanty, Coupeville town planner, the Central Whidbey Historical Advisory Committee and the EBLA Citizens Planning Commission. NOAA, U. S. Department of Commerce, provided some funding for the project out of its coastal zone planning budget, administered by the state department of ecology. Task Directive, February 1979, Folder D18, 1/79 - 12/80, Pacific Northwest Regional Federal Archive, Seattle; Len Madsen to Laura McKinley, Feb. 9, 1993; WNT, Dec. 7, 1978, Jan. 25, 1979; Skagit Valley Herald, Nov. 14, 1978.
3 They were team captain Richard H. Sims; Charles J. Gebler, Chief, Office of Interpretation; Laurin C. Huffman, Regional Historical Architect; Vernon C. Tancil, Regional Historian; and Reed Jarvis. Caren Burke, of the Western Field Office, Office of the Secretary of the Interior, completed the core group. Task Directive, February 1979, Record Group 79, 86-0006-12, Box 18, Folder D18, 1/79 - 12/80, Pacific Northwest Regional Federal Archive and Record Center, Seattle, Washington.
4 Funding for the comprehensive plan came from the accounts of the departments of each respective team member. Task Directive, February 1979; Central Whidbey Island Historical Preservation District: An Environmental Study, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Environmental Planning Class of 1975-1976 (Prof. Gil Peterson), Western Washington State College, 1976.
7 Jarvis, "Application of Strategic Management Theories at Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve;" Citizens Advisory Board minutes, May 22, 1979; Leonard Madsen interview, July 14, 1992; Comprehensive Plan, Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve, 1980.
12 Citizens Advisory Committee minutes, June 5, 1979; interviews of Citizens Advisory Committee members by Laura McKinley; NPS Record Group 79, 86-0006-12, Box 18, File D18 1979-1980, Jarvis to Delahanty, Jan. 23, 1980 (this contains a lengthy discussion of the impact of the reserve on Coupeville), Pacific Northwest Regional Federal Archives and Record Center, Seattle, Washington.
17 No legislation was needed to make the boundary change because none had been specified in the legislation. Jarvis to Stanwood, Dec. 13, 1979; Neely to Regional Director, NPS, Aug. 18, 1981, Trust Board files.
21 The U. S. Navy would keep the trust board informed on its activities in the outlying field (OLF) at Smith Prairie, and assist with interpretation of its activities. The office of archeology and historic preservation would monitor relevant activities. The parks and recreation department control of Fort Ebey and Fort Casey State Parks would continue with minimal change. The Interagency Committee for Outdoor Recreation was to be consulted to assure compliance with outdoor recreation policies. The department of natural resources owned recreational property adjacent to Fort Ebey State Park, and this possibly required a cooperative agreement to retain the parcel's forests and the DNR's portion of the coast hiking trail. The plan encouraged the state game department to acquire control of Crockett Lake. Finally, the EBLA trust board should cooperate with the state transportation department on installation of highway waysides.
27 In addition, a hearing examiner was required to hold at least tone hearing, after which he forwarded his recommendations to the Board of County Commissioners. They considered his recommendations in a public hearing and could accept, alter, or reject the subdivision plans. Submittal requirements were relatively complex and required the assistance of a professional engineer.
28 A short plat could be proposed for any area except subdivisions or parcels short platted in the past five years. The preliminary stages of a short plat were often handled by the landowners themselves.
Chapter Six: Land Acquisition and Protection
4 The county planning department short plat law was to exempt from review divisions of land into five acres or more. Yet a county ordinance stated that only divisions of parcels of ten or more acres of land to be used for agricultural purposes could be exempt from review. The planning department had interpreted the ordinance differently for years. By dividing the Smith farm into five-acre tracts, Bud Wagner could apply the short plat ordinance to redivide the parcels into four or fewer tracts each (the process called "five-four"). Short plats required only the consent of the Planning Director and were not reviewed by the planning commission. The director's decision could be appealed directly to the Island County commissioners. Short platting in such a manner had been an issue since at least 1970; see, for example, WNT, Sept. 17, 1970; House, "The Establishment of the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve," Spring 1986, graduate seminar paper, copy at EBLA 43 - 44.
6 Albert Heath, SWIFT, Al Ryan, and landowner Gary Beppler joined the suit. Congressman Meeds filed an affidavit in their support. At the request of the Island County Prosecutor, they removed Crockett Lake/Keystone Spit from the suit because the County was preparing its own suit against the subdivision, which it filed in January 1979; Seattle P-I, Oct. 1, 1978 (hereafter referred to as Seattle P-I); Skagit Valley Herald, Sept. 19, 1978, WNT, Aug. 3, Sept. 7, 1978, Oct. 21, 1981; House, "The Establishment of the Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve," 44-46.
10 Emergency Motion for Injunction Pending Appeal, Washington State Supreme Court, Friends of Ebey's et al, appellants, Island County Board of Commissioners et al, respondents, Sept. 20, 1979; Seattle Weekly, May 15, 1980; interview of Clyde Wagner by Laura McKinley, June 16, 1992.
20 See Leeds in Seattle P-I, Oct. 1980; May 29, 1980 letter Jarvis to Representative Norm Dicks; NPS PNRO staff meeting notes, A4027, April 10, 1980, Records Group 79, 86-0006, Box 10, 23699, Federal Records Center, Seattle, Washington.
21 Reed Jarvis also sent a short slide program on EBLA created by David Streatfield's class at the University of Washington School of Landscape Architect. Memo from Deputy Regional Director Odegaard to Regional Director Tobin, NPS, PNRO, Sept. 18, 1980; Seattle Times, April 23, 1980, June 12, 1980; personal communication with Edward W. Sheets by Laura McKinley, Dec. 17, 1991.
23 This seeming conclusion to the story was not without some tension. At the ceremony, the NPS made no mention of the work performed by the Friends of Ebey's, to the consternation of many present. With a residue of bitterness, the Smith sisters in-law and Bud Wagner had insisted upon this before they would agree to participate in a public ceremony. The Friends of Ebey's and the Smith family continued to disagree regarding platting the few acres that the Smith sisters-in-law owned on the ridge, but without the tension that characterized the earlier confrontation. (The NPS, as is discussed in Chapter Nine, entered this debate.) And some locals still professed discomfort at the NPS presence. On Sept. 10, 1980, Tom Roehl, running for county commissioner, placed an ad in the Whidbey News-Times that stated: "If Tom Roehl had been County Commissioner during the past four years... National Park Service bureaucrats would not be dictating county policy for 13,000 acres of Central Whidbey." See also Doug Marsh (Friends of Ebey's) to Syd Glover, Island County planner, December 17, 1981.
26 The original appraisal of Marion Smith's parcel stated that the highest and best use of the property would be to develop four lots. The NPS acquired half of this property in the sale of the farm. Marion Smith and Bud Wagner soon submitted a plat for condominiums on the site (in May 1981). However, the National Park Service protested, citing its original appraisal. After the five year wait mandated by county regulations, Bud Wagner then submitted a short plat for four lots, which the NPS scaled back to two (again citing the original appraisal). Marion Smith has not chosen to build on the site as of 1992. Jarvis to David Wagner, L1425(EBLA)PM, May 10, 1982; personal communication, Harlan Hobbs, Sept. 21, 1992.
29 See report by Susan F. Angevin and Jane P. Ellison, Western Regional Office, Trust for Public Lands, undated, on their Jan. 16 - 18, 1985 field trip to the Reserve. See Chapter Four, Footnote No. 50, for discussion of Robert Pratt. Personal communication with Harlan Hobbs, July 17, 1992 by Laura McKinley; interviews with Len Engle, June 26, 1992, and Rob Harbour, July 30, 1992, by Laura McKinley.
32 The Ebey's Landing LPP also lists the major laws and ordinances that govern land management policies and decisions in the Reserve. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve, Washington: Land Protection Plan, February 1984; EBLA Trust Board minutes, Jan. 21, 1986.
33 Jarvis and Hobbs also investigated the possibility of establishing a land bank fund through the U. S. Department of Agriculture. In this arrangement, farmers could donate land and receive funds from the USDA in return, However, they concluded that such a fund would be inappropriate at EBLA because the farmers would not be able to use their land in the traditional manner. Interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992.
36 Susan F. Angevin of the National Trust for Historic Preservation noted that "Clearly, people have high expectations for what the Park Service can do, and some developers are quickly learning how to take advantage of this." Susan F. Angevin and Jane P. Ellison, Western Regional Office, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, undated, report on their Jan. 16 - 18, 1985 field trip to the Reserve; B. J. Williams, "Whither Whidbey?," Pacific Northwest, July/August 1984.
37 Then again, commented Reed Jarvis, condemnation would have given tax advantages that NPS could not offer, and no doubt would have speeded up the acquisition process. WNT, Feb. 20, 1985; interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992.
39 This was reorganized tout of the Ebey's Landing Open Space Foundation. Board members included Herb and Ken Pickard, Rob Harbour, Jim Davis, Dwain Colby, Carl Winge, Bill Black, Tom Punch, and Dan Beardslee. WNT, July 16, 1986.
41 The Historical Society already owned a lot by the library, but considered it too out-of-the-way for the museum. Personal communications with Harlan Hobbs, Aug. 21, 1991, and Bud Merriman, July 23, 1991, by Laura McKinley.
46 Seven zones were established, allowing development ranging from virtually none to high density. The height of a structure could not exceed a line drawn from Viewpoint X to a point six feet above the highest point of the slope. In addition, hard edges around structures must be "softened" with trees within ten years, and building color would be limited to earth tones. No lighting would be permitted on the road cut into the hillside.
54 In retrospect, Hobbs believes that NPS should have made the spit a high priority and then just waited until it could buy the land. Interview with Reed Jarvis, Feb. 8, 1992 by Laura McKinley; personal communication with Harlan Hobbs, July 17, 1992, by Laura McKinley; Jarvis to Asst Reg Solicitor, L14(EBLA)PM, Jan. 5, 1981.
58 These included the Audubon Society, the NPS, the Whidbey Island Board of Realtors, the Coupeville Town Council, the Friends of Ebey's, and the Island County Commissioners. Skagit Valley Herald, Jan 30, 1987; Seattle P-I, Feb. 18, 1987; WNT, Dec. 9, 1987.
59 P. L. 99-635 expanded the boundary of Olympic National Park. Harlan Hobbs felt that, since Keystone Spit was immediately adjacent to Ft. Casey State Park, it could be added on to that park. Personal communication with Harlan Hobbs by Laura McKinley, Aug. 21, 1991.
60 The Washington State Legislature adopted Chapter 274, Laws of 1987 (SHB 1098) to authorize the land trade. NPS assumed jurisdiction over the Olympic beach on July 1, 1987. Jan Tveten, Director, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, to the Commission, Jan. 29, 1988; WNT, Dec. 9, 1987.
61 The inholding encompassed around twelve acres, in a total of nine ownerships, and contained several houses. Five of the ownerships were north of Route 20, on Crockett Lake, including the restaurant across from the Washington State Ferry. Some of the holdings on this side of the highway are still undeveloped, and the owners occasionally camp there in their trailers. Jan Tveten, Director, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Jan. 29, 1988.
65 Citizens asked that the park department cluster parking, signs, and restrooms near the ferry landing on the west end of the spit. At present, the state plans eventually to provide parking and toilet facilities, as well as a central public access point to the beach; some area residents are opposed to additional development here. Many also asked that the gravel piles left by the old gravel mining operation on the east end of the spit be left alone. WNT, Sept. 19, 1990; interview of Clyde Wagner by Laura McKinley, June 16, 1992; personal communication with Terry Doran, October 21, 1992, and Messrs. Ellis and Staab, Washington State, Feb. 9, 1993.
Chapter Seven: Administrative Overview
5 For example, Susan F. Angevin and Jane P. Ellison of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, visited the reserve in January 16 - 18, 1985. They noted that several people in the area were concerned that the NPS was not being open enough with the locals and that there should be more local involvement in developing a management plan for the reserve. Part of the problem, the two stated, was that a trust board had not been set up. Susan F. Angevin and Jane P. Ellison, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Western Regional Office, undated report on their Jan. 16 - 18, 1985 field trip to the reserve. See also Len Madsen, Assistant Planning Director, Island County, to Island County Board of Commissioners et al, March 16, 1983; Jarvis, Draft Federal Advisory Committee request; Jarvis, Nov. 19, 1984 Situation Paper for Fiscal Year 1985.
6 Quote from Reed Jarvis. The trust board learned, among other things, about cultural landscapes, NPS policies and procedures, trust board procedures, resource management, EBLA history, and the easements that NPS had acquired. WNT, July 17, 1985; draft charter, Federal Advisory Committee, conveyed to Director, NPS, under cover letter from Acting RD, A18 PNR-RP, Nov. 2, 1987; letter to all trust board members from Reed Jarvis, NPS, PNR-EBLA, Feb. 1, 1985; Richard E. Hoffman, Project Manager, EBLA, to Regional Director, PRO, NPS, A1619, Sept. 16, 1987; interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992.
8 In addition to preparing management guidelines, a subcommittee on policy development has been preparing a series of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for specific situations. These SOPs define the authority of trust board members in particular situations and outline rules of procedure for such things as use of office space, slide collections, and so on. SOPs aid continuity from board to board. EBLA Trust Board minutes (Sept. 10, 1985); interview of Rob Harbour by Laura McKinley, Sept. 4, 1992.
10 Draft charter, Federal Advisory Committee, conveyed to Director, NPS, under cover letter from Acting RD, A18 PNR-RP, Nov. 2, 1987; Richard E. Hoffman, Project Manager, EBLA, to Regional Director, PRO, NPS, A1619, Sept. 16, 1987, WNT, Sept. 16, 1985.
13 Minutes of Island County/Coupeville/National Park Service meeting, Sept. 16, 1985; Jarvis to Regional Director, PNR, Feb. 21, 1985; Reed Jarvis to Dr. Charles H. W. Foster, Feb. 27, 1985; WNT, Oct. 9, 1985; personal communication with Richard Neeley, Feb. 1993.
14 One of county planning director Len Madsen's concerns was that jurisdictions within the reserve should be carefully defined. There was a need, he asserted, to develop an agreement with Coupeville on zones of influence and the effects of the actions of the town council on the Reserve. Management guidelines that the trust board was drafting must be consistent with the county review process. Madsen and others were also not yet certain that the county was the appropriate local authority to establish the trust board. Madsen's underlying concern was that the NPS would relinquish responsibility for the reserve without fully implementing the comprehensive plan. EBLA trust board minutes (Aug. 27, 1985); WNT, June 22, 1988; interview of Rob Harbour by Laura McKinley, Sept. 4, 1992; Madsen to McKinley, Feb. 9, 1993.
16 He was uncertain whether the new county zoning code and its key feature, the transfer of development rights, fulfilled the requirements of PL 95-625 that local government would enact zoning ordinances to "protect and preserve the historic and natural features of the area in accordance with the comprehensive plan," County commissioner Dunlop believed that the new zoning code would suffice. TDRs, planned residential development, and rural resource zoning concepts, were fully designed to complement the county's historic preservation ordinance and guidelines in place for the Reserve, he said. EBLA Fiscal Year 1986 Budget Briefing Statement, Feb. 21, 1985; Dunlop to Jarvis, March 6, 1985; interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992.
17 Ken Pickard expressed concerned that the land use controls enacted by the county were inadequate to protect the area, and that NPS was not sufficiently interested in the area to ensure success of the project. He felt that the board was not ready, and that the county zoning was still insufficient protection, particularly in the area of wetlands, noise zones, and watershed management. Undated WNT article, 1985, in EBLA files; trust board minutes (March 9, 1985); interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992.
27 The Island County auditor would manage the fund, but spending discretion would reside with the Trust Board. It was designated a junior taxing district by the Island County treasury. EBLA trust board minutes (Aug. 23, Oct. 26, 1988); interviews of Vicki Brown, Aug. 25, and Rob Harbour, July 30, 1992, by Laura McKinley.
30 Ibid. This figure became a set annual contribution from the county's general fund. Roles and responsibilities were defined using the EBLA enabling legislation and Comprehensive Plan, the Organic Act, and the Revised Code of Washington, Interlocal Cooperation Act, (RCW 39.34). As NPS VIPs (Volunteers-In-the-Parks), liability of individual Trust Board members was covered by the NPS.
31 Representatives from all levels of government attended, including State representative Haugen and U. S. representative Swift. The actual signing of the interlocal agreement occurred on July 28, 1988.
34 According to Cynthia Orlando, Linda Hugie of the NPS designed the logo. For evidence regarding reduced funding, see Management Analyst Ivan Miller to Regional Director, NPS, PNR, F30 (PNR-MA), Dec. 11, 1987; Acting Director, NPS, to Regional Director, NPS PNR, July 2, 1988; Acting Regional Director NPS, PNR, to Director, NPS, A6415, Feb. 17, 1987; Summary of Ebey's Landing Wayside Sites, Oct. 20, 1988, and FY 1989 EBLA Wayside Planning Schedule, approved by William Briggle, Oct. 28, 1988.
39 Richard Hoffman suggested that EBLA use the income from its agricultural leases to fund the scenic easement administrative plan. The draft scenic easement administrative plan stipulated that the trust board would maintain contact with landowners, town and county offices, relators, et al. A windshield survey for compliance with the terms of the easements would be conducted on a quarterly basis. Annually, each easement would be inspected and reviewed more thoroughly, including taking photographs from key photo points identified in the baseline data file. If the inspector found violations, he or she would document them and notify the landowner. The trust board and the landowner would meet to discuss the problem, and, if necessary, the board would apply increasingly severe enforcement actions if the landowner failed to cooperate. The reserve should also have on file an abbreviated background file for each unprotected tract identified on the land protection plan. Hoffman to Vicki Brown, Aug. 15, 1988; Hoffman, Superintendent, SAJH, to Regional Director, NPS PNR, Aug. 17, 1988.
41 On the other hand, says Harlan Hobbs, there were some locals who preferred dealing with the National Park Service rather than a local board with a possible "ax to grind." Personal communication with Harlan Hobbs, Aug. 21, 1991.
43 It is still in preparation. The NPS pays for this on a non-matching basis, out of income from agricultural leases. Interview of Rob Harbour, Sept. 4, 1992, by Laura McKinley; personal communication with George Knapp, Sept. 4, 1992.
49 The self-evaluation team consisted of Wilbur Bishop, Benye Weber, Val Arnold, Mark Gale, Gretchen Luxenberg, and Rob Harbour. EBLA Trust Board Chairman, to Deputy Regional Director, NPS, PNR (A6420), Oct. 11, 1991.
51 The director agreed with Regional Director Odegaard in 1992 that the NPS did in fact own land and assign personnel to EBLA, in keeping with traditional definitions of national park units, and that EBLA should not be down-graded because it was considered non-traditional. The National Park Foundation is an example of an outside organization that expressed interest in considering EBLA for funding once its status was raised. Regional Director, NPS, PNR, to Director, NPS, no file code, Oct. 1, 1992, and draft response from Director, NPS, L58 (180), undated; personal communication with Mike Tollefson, Associate Regional Director, Operations, NPS, PNR, Oct. 15, 1992; National Park Foundation to Regional Public Affairs Office, NPS, PNRO, Nov. 16, 1992.
52 Gretchen Luxenberg recently reduced paperwork by pursuading the NPS regional office to cut back on reporting requirements. The only recurring NPS reports that appear pertinent to EBLA are the quarterly energy reports and the annual resource management plan report. EBLA Quarterly Report, Gretchen Luxenberg, Feb. 11, 1991; interviews of Pat Howell, Aug. 25, 1992, and Rob Harbour, Sept. 4, 1992, by Laura McKinley.
Chapter Eight: Interpretation and Visitor Facilities
2 Tillman was team captain. The team included Reed Jarvis, Ebey's Landing Project Manager, James Albert Richardson, Chief, Division of Interpretation, PNR, NPS, as well as additional members from the NPS Harpers Ferry Center: Ray Baker, Editor/Writer, Division of Publications, Chief, Division of Wayside Exhibits, and Brian C. Jones, Audiovisual Specialist. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve Interpretive Prospectus, National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center, October 1981.
4 These themes were: Original Inhabitants, European Exploration and Settlement, Major American Wars, Political and Military Affairs, Westward Expansion, America at Work, and Society and Conscience. EBLA Comprehensive Plan, 17 -18; Jarvis to Ravetz, Oct. 16, 1979, handwritten note in EBLA Interpretive Prospectus file, EBLA.
6 Hinsdale believes that the two sides of the brochure are somewhat redundant, and would like the next generation of brochures to have a different layout. Jarvis to Regional Director, NPS, PNR, A3415, April 19, 1983; personal communication with Glen Hinsdale, Sept. 25, 1992.
12 In 1988, for example, the NPS regional office placed the Fiscal Year 1988 wayside schedule on hold due to "changes in Regional priorities." Summary of Ebey's Landing Wayside Sites, Oct. 20, 1988, and FY 1989 EBLA Wayside Planning Schedule, approved by William Briggle, Oct. 28, 1988.
15 Cindy Orlando called the sign to the attention of Regional Archeologist Jim Thomson, who requested a review by local anthropologist Dr. Astrida R. Blukis Onat. Part of the problem was that some of the drawings depicted Haida customs and material culture, rather than local Salish practices. Such themes might both insult the Skagits, historically the principal Native American inhabitants of the area, and confuse two distinct cultures in the reader's mind. Thomson commissioned Onat to survey the site for possible archeological deposits and to provide a better theme for the wayside. Working with the Culture Committee of the Swinomish Tribal Committee, she provided extensive comments for the panel. Orlando to Associate Regional Director, Operations, NPS, PNR (D62-EBLA), June 22, 1990; Dr. Astrida R. Blukis Onat to Cindy Orlando, June 6, 1990.
16 The trust board has expressed interest in buying the wetland to the west. Annual Narrative Report, EBLA, 1990; EBLA Trust Board minutes (Oct. 23, 1990, Jan. 26 and March 26, 1991); "Reasons: Changed priorities, placement and possible exclusion, Interpretive Exhibits: EBLA," dated Nov. 8, 1986, attached to Gretchen Luxenberg's copy of the 1985 EBLA wayside exhibit plan; personal communication with Jim Thomson, Sept. 29, 1992.
17 Personal communication with Reed Jarvis, Sept. 22, 1992; memo dated May 7, 1986 from Harlan Hobbs, Chief of Lands, NPS, PNR, to Chief, Interpretation and Visitor Services, NPS, PNR with hand-written comments from Hobbs labelled "April 25, 1989 update;" "Reasons: Changed priorities, placement and possible exclusion, Interpretive Exhibits: EBLA," dated Nov. 8, 1986, attached to Gretchen Luxenberg's copy of the 1985 EBLA Wayside Exhibit Plan.
22 Interview of Reed Jarvis by Laura McKinley, Feb. 8, 1992; EBLA trust board minutes (Oct. 27, 1987 and Nov. 22, 1988); EBLA trust board Workshop minutes, Jan. 18, 1988; note to files regarding communication from NAS regarding budget problems, unsigned, Aug. 15, 1988.
24 EBLA trust board minutes (May 22, Sept. 25 and Oct. 23, 1990); Management Information System Docket, 1992, EBLA 9290, Lands Division, NPS, PNS; interview of Rob Harbour by Laura McKinley, Sept. 4,1992.
27 In 1989, public outreach included a Centennial commemoration; hosting the Vladimir Chorus from Russia; representing EBLA at the Economic Summit for the Town of Coupeville; hosting an orientation tour for the Chamber of Commerce and the Visitors Council, and hosting an NPS Regional Interpreters Workshop. EBLA Annual Narrative Report for 1989, A2621, Feb. 27, 1990; WNT Sept. 23, 1992.
32 The "right-to-roam" in England is viewed as a "common" property, much like the right to graze animals or gather firewood. It conveys a right of access to the country's landscapes. It is distributed among the citizens of the country and remains theirs even when properties change hands. Landowners' privacy and property are guarded, however, by partnership agreements. Hiss, The Experience of Place: A New Way of Looking at and Dealing with Our Radically Changing Cities and Countryside (1990), 119.
34 Roberta Smith married Al Haeger, thus the name change. Mrs. Haeger does not own the road, but holds an easement to use it. Her permission was not legally required; however, the trust board felt that she should be consulted. EBLA trust board minutes (April 26 and June 23, 1986).
Chapter Nine: Managing Resources
2 The broad language of P. L. 95-625 and the recommendations of the EBLA Comprehensive Plan, concluded the NPS Associate Director for National Register Programs, suggested that Congress intended all aspects of the area's historic development be evaluated and that significant themes and structures from all historic periods be recognized and preserved. Chief, Cultural Resources, NPS, PNR, to Project Manager, EBLA (PNR-RC), Oct. 13, 1982; Jarvis, EBLA, to Regional Director, NPS PNR, D22, Nov. 5, 1982; Associate Director for National Register Programs, NPS, to Regional Director, NPS, PNR, Feb. 25, 1983.
3 Surveying every acre of the Reserve, the team used the information to explore the relationship between the built and natural environment which formed the underlying fabric of the cultural landscape. Gilbert categorized each block of land by use (agricultural or residential, for example), land-use activity (such as type of cropland or commercial use), and boundary demarcations (road, vegetative, water, and so on). She also included a verbal description, maps and sketches. It took from two to three hours to evaluate and describe each half-section. Gilbert, Luxenberg and Comp, The Land, The People, The Place: An Introduction to the Inventory, 1984, Introduction to Sample Building and Landscape Inventory; see also Project Summary for same; WNT, Aug. 8, 1983.
4 Design Considerations for Historic Properties, 1985, by Beth McGreevy, Architectural Technician, and Hank Florence, Historical Architect; Visual Compatibility Guidelines. Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve, Fall 1987, by Linda Hugie and Terri Taylor.
10 Another recent controversy focused community attention on the need for historic design review within the Reserve. In 1990 the pastor of Coupeville's St. Mary's Catholic Church, a century-old structure listed on the National Register, made plans to refinish the church with vinyl siding. However, he had not notified Coupeville's HAC, as required by ordinance. Many considered vinyl inappropriate for St. Mary's; it looked out of place, they felt, and it could accelerate decay of the wooden frame. NPS regional historic architect Laurin Huffman prepared a report, suggesting more historically compatible building materials. Press coverage drew attention to the project, and offers of free paint and labor came from local painting contractors and community members. The pastor allowed the vinyl siding project to begin. Initially, the Town used Huffman's report to require that the vinyl be removed. However, a recent State Supreme Court decision permitting a similar project in Seattle to proceed, raised the spectre of a lawsuit. The Seattle case was First Covenant Church vs. City of Seattle (1990). The State Supreme Court cited the separation of church and state powers as its primary reason for its decision. The Town of Coupeville rescinded its stop order. Although the siding remained, the event further heightened community awareness of the need for historic preservation and pursuaded local preservationists to work toward stronger land use controls. The U. S. Supreme Court upheld the Washington State Supreme Court decision in 1992. Annual Narrative Report, EBLA, 1990, prepared by Rob Harbour; WNT, Sept. 5, Nov. 20, 1990, March 6, 1991; Seattle Times, Nov. 21, 1992.
12 The EBLA Trust Board will develop its own set of review guidelines, similar to those of Island County and Coupeville, for those projects important enough to warrant its comments. These guidelines may require changes to ordinances regarding the processing of development permit applications. The geographical scope of Trust Board reviews may include historic sites and adjacent areas, areas contributing to the historical landscape, areas along scenic corridors, and areas outside the reserve that contribute to its value. Determining the scale of project requiring Trust Board review will take work. Reserve Coordinator to Resource Protection Committee, Oct. 18, 1989.
13 Until anthropologist Fred York, Ph.D., joined the regional Cultural Resources Division, much of the anthropological investigation conducted for NPS in Island County was performed by Dr. Gary Wessen of Wessen and Associates and Dr. Astrida R. Blukis Onat of BOAS, Inc., both of Seattle, and administered by NPS Regional Archeologist Jim Thomson of the Cultural Resources Division. (In 1988, Wessen also prepared a report for the State of Washington Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation entitled Prehistoric Cultural Resources of Island County. Washington.) In addition to preparing general studies of Native Americans in Island County and the Puget Sound, these anthropologists have inspected several sites within the Reserve. The only development that has raised concern to date has been the proposed wayside at Monroe's Landing, discussed inn Chapter Eight. WNT, Oct. 19, 1983.
14 Available documentation included Dr. Vincent F. Gallucci's "Report on Marine Areas of Ebey's Landing," October 26, 1980; a quick botanical study of the Reserve conducted by Roger del Morel in 1980, which analyzed five critical areas. Another was a report by David Manuwal, Wildlife Science Group, University of Washington, entitled "An E valuation of Bird and Mammal Populations in Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve" (1980). Like most reports, this one recommended more thorough studies. But Manuwal compromised his credibility in his discussion of common species in the area, according to an analysis in the EBLA Resources Management Plan file, by including porcupines and skunks, which Reserve residents knew did not exist on the island.
For comments on fisheries on Penn Cove, see May 15, 1979 letter (in EBLA 1979 Correspondence File) to Citizens Advisory Commission from the State Department of Fisheries, part of a series of comments solicited from agencies during early planning phase for EBLA. In addition, Don Field and Darryll Johnson of the NPS Science Division in Washington, D. C. travelled to EBLA in 1980 to assess the need for an expanded biological inventory within the Reserve. See staff meeting notes, NPS, PNR, A4027, June 19, 1980, Records Group 79, Federal Records Center and Archives, Pacific Northwest Region, Seattle.
More recently, Coupeville resident Tom Stribling completed an inventory of plants on Keystone Spit in 1990. See EBLA Trust Board minutes (April 24, 1990, Sept. 25,1990). Ed Schreiner of Olympic National Park conducted a plant survey of the Golden Paintbrush in June 1984. See Associate Regional Director, NPS, PNR, to Superintendent, Olympic National Park, N1433, June 14, 1984. Gloria Wahlin of the Island County Weed Board has coordinated plant surveys within the county.
15 Some plant protection measures in Island County are voluntary; the county has ordinances to safeguard protected species and to control of certain noxious weeds. EBLA Trust Board minutes (July 23, 1991); personal communications with Ken Stahlnecker, Crater Lake National Park, Joyce Ryan, Island County Planning and Community Development, and Gloria Wahlin, Island County Weed Board, Oct. 29, 1992.
16 Linda Maxson of NOAA's Sanctuaries and Reserves Division is currently preparing a discussion paper regarding the sanctuary. In April 1993 the undersecretary for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration forwarded the environmental impact statement to the White House; the sanctuary ins expected to be approved. WNT, Nov. 22, 1989; Seattle Times, April 20, 1993.
17 The Trust Board has chosen not to become involved in the mussell raft issue. In April 1990, the Island County Historical Society, distressed over the appearance of mussel rafts in Penn Cove, proposed that the Trust Board acquire the rights to aquaculture development. Noting its limited funding, the Board urged the Society to pursue scenic protections through the county's land use permit process instead. Del Bennett, Island County Historical Society (ICHS), to Wilbur Bishop, EBLA, April 19, 1990; Wilbur Bishop, EBLA, to Del Bennett, ICHS, May 15, 1990.
18 According to Gloria Wahlin, the native iris of greatest concern is Iris missourienses. The Golden Paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta) was and still is a candidate for the federal endangered species list. Although the state of Washington has no endangered species act which applies to plants, the state's natural heritage program has placed the Golden Paintbrush at the top of its list of endangered plants. Ed Schreiner, Olympic National Park, inventoried the plant in 1984. WNT, June 25, 1983, July 20, 1988; Associate Regional Director, NPS, PNR, to Superintendent, Olympic National Park, N1433, June 14, 1984; personal communication with John Gamon, Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Washington State, Oct. 28, 1992, Ed Schreiner, Olympic National Park, Oct. 29, 1992, and Gloria Wahlin, Island County Weed Board, Oct. 29, 1992.
20 Wagner had developed Admirals Cove, next to Telaker Shores. Gallucci found the lake marine environment to be unusually unproductive, contradicting reports and observations of the Audubon Society and the Fish and Wildlife Service, which characterized the lake as a waterfowl feeding area. Dr. Vincent F. Gallucci, "Report on Marine Areas of Ebey's Landing," October 26, 1980; WNT, May 26, June 15, 1982; Sept. 5, 28 1984; personal communication with Bud Wagner, February 4, 1993; interview of Leonard Madsen by Laura McKinley, July 14, 1992.
22 In September 1990, controversy returned to Crockett Lake in the form of clouds of mosquitoes. Another drop in water levels was blamed for a mosquito infestation that, as some claimed, kept local residents prisoners in their homes. Although the Island County Commissioners held a public meeting, no agency had the authority to act on the issue unless the insects become a health hazard. WNT, Sept. 1, Sept. 8, 1990; "Environmental Checklist/assessment Regarding Options for Management of Water Levels in the Crockett Lake Drainage Basin, Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington," by Tom Roehl, 1986; NPS Regional Director Charles H. Odegaard to Commissioners, Island County Drainage District No. 6, L1425(PNR-RL), undated (drafted July 10, 1987).
23 A question lingers regarding future oil spill cleanup plans in the northern Puget Sound; see Seattle Times, Aug. 18, 1991. State of the Parks report, EBLA Project Manager Jarvis to Regional Director, Nov. 23, 1979; "Before the State of Washington Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council, Prefiled Testimony of Joan McPherson for Island County," forwarded to EBLA by the Island County Deputy Prosecuting Attorney, copy in EBLA Northern Tier file. Similar statements prepared by Reed Jarvis, EBLA, and Robert C. Clark, Jr. of the State Department of Fisheries. See Northern Tier Oil Pipeline file, Jan. 1, 1979 to Dec. 31, 1980, N3615, National Park Service records group 79, Accession No. 86-0006, Box 5, Federal Records Center and Archive, Pacific Northwest Region, Seattle.
28 The original appraisal of Marion Smith's parcel stated that the highest and best use of the property would be to divide the land into four lots. By agreeing to sell half of this parcel at a price that was based on this estimate, Marion Smith limited any future division of her remaining land to two lots. Reed Jarvis to David Wagner, L1425(EBLA)PM, May 10, 1982; personal communication with Harlan Hobbs, Sept. 21, 1992.
29 The County issued a mitigated determination of non-significance on the project in January 1990. WNT, Dec. 6, 1989; EBLA Trust Board minutes (Sept. 26, 1989, Feb. 27, July 24, 1990); Annual Narrative Report, EBLA, 1990.
32 In addition, scenic easements cost as much as land purchased in fee-simple. The cost of an appraisal for a scenic easement is higher than for fair market value because the appraiser must perform a more complicated before-easement and after-easement valuation of the property.
Last Updated: 27-May-2000