1. Charles H. Behre Jr., Slate in Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Telegraph Press, 1933), pp. 129-130; ______, Slate in Northampton County Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Telegraph Press, 1927), p. 8. Talus is rock debris found at the base of a slope or cliff.
3. Ibid., pp. 131-132; Behre, Northampton, p. 6. For a further description of the region's physiography see: E. Gordon Alderfer, Northampton Heritage (Easton, Pennsylvania: The Northampton County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1953), pp. 1-9.
4. Ives Goddard, "Delaware," Bruce G. Trigger, vol. ed., vol. 15: Northeast, William C. Sturtevant, gen. ed., Handbook of North American Indians (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1978), p. 213. The word Delaware is English, derived from Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, the first governor of Virginia. p. 235.
6. "William Penn," [by Rayner W. Kelsey], in Dumas Malone, ed., Dictionary of American Biography vol. VII, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934), pp. 434-435; James T. Lemon The Best Poor Man's Country A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania, (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1972) p. 60.
8. "Thomas Penn," [by Harry J. Carman], in D. A. B., VII:432; A[ndrew] D[wight] Chidsey Jr., The Penn Patents in the Forks of the Delaware (Easton, Pennsylvania: The Northampton County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1937), pp. 13, 17.
9. William J. Heller, History of Northampton County and the Grand Valley of the Lehigh, 2 vols. (Boston: The American Historical Society, 1920), I: 47-48; "William Penn," in D. A. B., VII:433; Federal Writers' Project, Northampton County Guide Works Projects Administration, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Times Publishing Co., 1939), pp. 23-24.
12. Heller, History, II: 466-467; Capt. F. Ellis, History of Northampton County, Pennsylvania with Illustrations Descriptive of its Scenery, (Philadelphia: n.p., 1877) p. 251; Eileen T. Kline, Walter C. Emery, Edith May Emery, "An Early History of the Portland Area," Slate Belt Bicentennial Heritage Albert M. Toth, coordinator (n.p., n.p., ), pp. 211, 213-214.
15. Andrew Dwight Chidsey Jr., "Easton and Northampton County Under the Penns," Easton, Pennsylvania, 1936, unpublished typescript; Heller, History, I: 81; Guide, p. 25. Henry Forster Marx, "Northampton County, evolution of townships, bibliography of tax and assessment lists 1762-1812," 1936, unpublished typescript. The establishment of Northampton County was a political move by Thomas and John Penn. The ever-increasing German population cooperated with the Quakers politically to oppose proprietary interests. The Penns response was to break this political alliance by establishing the new county which contained many of the German communities. Heller, History, I: 82; Marx, "Northampton," p. 2.
1. Hiram H. Shenk, ed., Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. National Historical Association, Inc., 1932), p. 391; Wayland Fuller Dunaway, A History of Pennsylvania (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1935), pp. 104-105; Heller, History, pp. 36-37; Malone, D.A.B., VII:432.
4. John Clement, "A Sketch of William Biddle and Thomas Biddle," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (PMHB) 14, (1890):378-380; A. B. Burrell, Reminiscences of George LaBar the Centurian of Monroe County, Pa., Who is Still Living in His 107th Year (Philadelphia: Claxton, Remser and Haffelfinger, 1870), p. 32.
5. P. William Filby, ed., with Mary K. Meyer, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index supplement, (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1982), p. 812; Albert Cook Myers, Quaker Arrivals at Philadelphia 1682-1750 (Philadelphia: Ferris & Leach, 1902) p. 102; "Notes and Queries" PMHB 2, no. 1, (1878):115. A copy of the Scull-Strettell deed of sale was not located in Easton.
7. George Cuthbert Gillespie, "Early Fire Protection and the Use of Firemarks," PMHB XLVI, no. 3 (1922):253; George S. Wykoff, "Notes and Documents," PMHB LXVI, no. 1, (January 1942):101-102; Robert C. Moon, The Morris Family of Philadelphia, 5 vols. (Philadelphia: By the Author, 1898), II: 457. R. L. Brunhouse, "The Effect of the Townshend Acts in Pennsylvania," PMHB LIV, no. 4, (1930):366-367.
Moon, Morris Family, II: 458.
Moon, II: 454.
17. Deed Book G-1, pp. 273-274, indenture of April 17, 1790, recorded June 22, 1790, Northampton County Government Center, Easton, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as NCE). An interesting insight contained in this deed is the involvement of Ann and Frances Strettell Morris at a time when married women enjoyed no status in the eyes of the law. James Diemer Esq., president of the Court of Common Pleas for Berks County, acknowledged the deed and stated ". . . the said Ann and Frances being of full Age Seperately and apart by me Examined from their said Husbands the contents thereof being first made known to them they voluntarily and without being forced thro fear or threats from their said Husbands Consented thereto."
19. Various spellings of Pipher exist in historical documents, including Piffer, Piper, Pfeiffer, Peyfer, Pfaeffer, Pifer, Peiffer, and Pfeifer. The spelling in the text will be the one used in the document cited. The park has adapted the "Pipher" spelling and this variation will be used in the text for general references. Spelling variations also occur in the names of Samuel Pipher's wife and daughterChristina and Christine.
20. Hinke, William John, ed., Pennsylvania German Pioneers. A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals In the Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808, vol. 1 1727-1775 by Ralph Beaver Strassburger, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1966). See index; Interview with Matilda and E. Lee McMillen, Easton, Pennsylvania, September 26, 1984; Burrell, Reminiscences, p. 56. Deed Book G-1, p. 275, indenture of April 17, 1790, recorded June 22, 1790, NCE. An article about early Pennsylvania history which appeared in Hazard's Register also mentions German immigration through Holland: "A great number of Germans or Palatines went from Holland to Pennsylvania; on which occasion the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania resolved, that they should sign a declaration of their allegiance and subjection to the king. . . ." Samuel Hazard, "Early History of Pennsylvania," The Register of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: July 1828 to January), II: 203.
21. "Northampton County Tax List For the Year 1761," Copied by the Personnel of the Works Progress Administration (Easton, Pennsylvania: Easton Public Library, 1938), unpublished typescript; Richard and Mildred C. Williams, "Proprietary Tax Northampton County, Pennsylvania 1772," Danboro, Pennsylvania, unpublished typescript, n.y., p. 41; Matthew S. Henry, "Manuscript History of Northampton County, Pennsylvania," unpublished typescript, 1851, p. 12; Preston A. Laury, Index to the Scotch-Irish of Northampton County, vol, supplement, (Easton, Pennsylvania: The Northampton County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1939) pp. 520-521; "Tax Lists in Northampton County Court House 1774-1806," Translated by Rev. A. S. Leiby, unpublished typescript; Bureau of the Census, Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790 Pennsylvania (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1908) p. 180.
22. Richard T. and Mildred C. Williams, "Soldiers of the American Revolution Northampton County Pennsylvania," Danboro, Pennsylvania, unpublished typescript, 1979, p. 288; Henry F. Marx, ed., "Oaths of Allegience of Northampton County, Pennsylvania 1777-1784 . . . from Original Lists of John Arndt, Recorder of Deeds 1777-1800," typescript, Easton, Pennsylvania: Easton Public Library, 1932, pp. 8, 38, 41. Marx also provided the text of the oath:
23. "Church Record of the Reformed and Lutheran Congregations in Nazareth Township Northampton County Pennsylvania formerly The Dryland Church now the Trinity Lutheran and Dryland Reformed, Hecktown Pennsylvania," Translated by Dr. Wm. J. Hinke, 1929, unpublished typescript, p. 11; "Church Record of the Lutheran and Reformed Congregation in Upper Mount Bethel Township Northampton County 1774-1833," Copied by Dr. Wm. J. Hinke, August-October, 1934, unpublished typescript, pp. II, 145; Mildred and Lee McMillen "Genealogical Family Tree," Easton, Pennsylvania. A copy of the Pipher genealogy can be found in U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Historic Structures Report, Architectural Data, Slateford Farm, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area," (HSR) by Penelope Hartshorne Batcheler, Denver, Colorado, 1982, pp. 192-196. Perhaps Maria Pfeiffer was a sister or the mother of Samuel. No birth records were found for Jacob, Christian and John. The McMillen genealogy lists John as a grandson but he was a son, so named in the 1812 will and 1817 releases.
24. "Lutheran and Reformed," pp. 5, 8, 13, 20, 24, 28. Samuel and Christine Pfeiffer also stood up at the baptism of one of their grandsons, Samuel, the son of John and wife Eva, on May 31, 1807 at the same church. Ibid., p. 68. The records of the First Reformed Church of Easton mention the birth of a child to a Samuel and Christina Pfeiffer. The baby was a girl named Anna Catharine and was born November 16, 1768. The child's sponsors were a Christian Pfeiffer and his wife Anna Catharine. This child does not appear on the genealogical chart prepared by Pipher descendant Mildred McMillen. Some of the First Settlers of "The Forks of the Delaware" and Their Descendants Being a Translation From the German of the Record Books of the First Reformed Church of Easton, Penna. From 1760 to 1852. Translated and Published by the Rev. Henry Martyn Kieffer (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1973) p. 90. Christian Peiffer, yeoman, of Forks Township, owned a lot in Easton in the late 1770s and early 1780s. He was thought to be a storekeeper, and had a son, John, and a daughter, Catharina. Possibly, Christian Peiffer was a brother to Samuel. Chidsey Jr., A Frontier Village, pp. 235, 237, 259. The church record for the Reformed and Lutheran Congregations at the Dryland Church in Hecktown also listed a Jacob and George Pfeiffer as communicants in 1767. Perhaps they were brothers to Samuel Pfeiffer. "Reformed and Lutheran," p. 134.
During these years George LaBar, a grandson of Peter LaBar, one of the region's first settlers, was a nearby neighbor. At his death in 1874 George had attained the age of 111 years and nine months. His reminiscences, written when he was 107 years old, contained the following reference to Samuel Pipher: "Old Samuel Pipher moved into the neighborhood about eighty years ago. He was a very pleasant Dutchman, and the young folks of the neighborhood used to gather at his house frequently to have a good time."  George LaBar also described how, as a youth, he had to travel by horseback over Blue Mountain through Tat's Gap, to mill grain in Stroudsburg. This mill was the only one available for Mount Bethel residents, while those "from the more southern part of the settlement" traveled to Easton for milling. At that time the corn was in most cases, pounded in mortars. It is possible, then, that members of the Pipher family may have made that same trip over Blue Mountain to mill their grain. 
27. Ellis, History of Northampton, p. 251; Deed Book F-5, p. 469, dated June 1, 1793, recorded January 15, 1833, NCE; Deed Book H-5, pp. 385-386, dated August 22, 1797, recorded August 9, 1833, NCE. These purchases were also noted in releases signed by the Pipher children, recorded in 1820.
31. See Batcheler, HSR, pp. 19-25. "Last Will and Testament of Samuel Piffer," Will Book 4, pp. 431-43, dated March 16, 1812, File 2801, Register of Wills, NCE. Batcheler dated the house to 1800-1810. "United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania" Microcopy no. 372, Roll 12, Fifth Direct Tax Division, vols. 360-373, First Through Fourth Assessment Districts, vol. 361, Federal Archives and Records Center, Philadelphia.
32. "Last Will and Testament of Samuel Piffer," Will Book 4, p. 431, dated March 16, 1812, File 2801, Register of Wills, NCE; It may be possible that timbers from this tavern building were used to construct the extant cabin next to the main house on the farm. The cabin members were apparently pre-cut and pre-fit, then keyed numerically to each other, and reassembled in place. If the documentary evidence presented by the 1798 direct tax is taken into account, however, this theory does not seem to hold true. If the extant cabin is the same house taxed in 1798, then it could not have been built with timbers coming from the tavern house Mary Kocher inherited because the latter house did not disappear until after 1812. The timbers in the cabin might have been salvaged from yet another structure located on the property.
37. In the copy of Samuel Piffer's will transcribed in Penelope Batcheler's HSR, pp. 202-204, one line was deleted. Samuel Piffer named all of his children who would receive money if his property was sold by his wife. After naming his daughter Christiana, who was married to William Fiske and was born after Michael, Samuel mentioned "And then to my Son John Piffer one hundred Pounds and So yearly from the oldest [?] to the youngest until the hole is paid. . . ." Ibid, p. 432.
38. Ibid.; McMillen, "Genealogy." If the genealogy is correct, Christina was an extraordinary woman because she bore her first child in her late 20s, then gave birth to nine more, bearing the youngest, Peter, when she was in her early 50s.
39. Will Book 4, p. 433, dated March 16, 1812, File 2801, NCE; "Caveat against the Last Will and Testament of Samuel Peiffer deceased, filed 3d Aug. 1812," File 2801, NCE. See also Henry F. Marx, ed., "Abstracts of Wills Northampton County, 1752-1840" vol. X bound typescript, Easton, Pennsylvania, Easton Public Library, 1935, p. 34.
40. "Inventory of the Estate late of Samuel Piffer," filed 26th Aug. 1812, File 2801, Register of Wills, NCE. "Samuel Peiffer Settlement of the Estate late of," filed 14th Sept. 1813, File 2801, Register of Wills, NCE.
41. Deed Book D-4, pp. 449-456, recorded August 28, 1820, NCE. An interesting insight revealed in these releases are the signatures of the Pipher children and spouses. Jacob, John, Peter, Christian, Michael, William Fisk, Peter Kocher and Christian's wife Elizabeth could all write their names. Frederick, Christiana Pipher Fisk, Jacob's wife Ann, John's wife Eve, Frederick's wife Sarah, Peter's wife Elizabeth, and Mary (Maria) Pipher Kocher all signed these documents with their X marks. As in the earlier case of Ann and Frances Strettell Morris, the women involved with these releases, Ann, Eve, Elizabeth, Christiana, Sarah and Mary, were questioned about the documents separate from their husbands. The oldest Pipher child, Samuel was probably deceased by this time because his name does not appear on any of the releases.
42. See 1830 H. S. Tanner map in illustration 10. D. G. Beers, Atlas of Northampton County Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: A. Pomeroy & Co., 1874), p. 76. The land sales are referred to in Deed Book G-6, p. 571, indenture of April 17, 1841, recorded December 27, 1841, NCE. See illustration 11.
43. Deed Book G-6, p. 571, indenture of April 17, 1841 recorded December 27, 1841, NCE. The sales are referred to in this deed. Deed Book G-5 p. 472, indenture of May 16, 1824, recorded May 16, 1827, NCE.
46. Deed Book B-7, pp. 534-536, July 30, 1844, recorded August 29, 1844; Deed Book A-8, pp. 168-172, indenture of March 31, 1849, recorded April 2, 1849, NCE. Of the five other parcels Aaron Pipher bought, one was contiguous to the Frederick Pipher property while four were located next to the river. The following descriptions of these properties reveal the resources extant in 1849. Parcel two, next to the Frederick Pipher homestead (parcel one) contained 12 acres. Four houses stood on the property along with stables and gardens. These possibly could have been dwellings for the slate quarry workers. Parcel three consisted of 100 acres and was east of Peter Pipher's property. It had river frontage, and was valuable both for its timber, some cultivable land, and a very large slate quarry. There was a factory that went with it, a three-story 60 foot by 30 foot building that was used for the manufacture of school slates. It had all the necessary equipment and machinery required for such a factory and had a waterwheel propelled by the Delaware River. Besides, there were three commodious dwellings for housing the slate workers. Parcel four was also on the river, but had only 12 acres. There were nine good houses there, both for slate and lumber workers, as the property also had water power for a sawmill on the river.
49. Deed Book 20, pp. 464-45, indenture of March 4, 1872, recorded March 4, 1872, Monroe County Courthouse, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, Deed Book G-15, indenture of May 19, 1877, recorded June 11, 1877. Deed Book F-29, pp. 348-351, recorded March 5, 1900, NCE; Letter, E. Lee McMillen to Penelope Batcheler, June 6, 1977, Batcheler, HSR, p. 191. Mildred Bartow McMillen and her husband E. Lee prepared the family genealogy.
59. "Last will of Peter Pipher decD," Proved May 4, 1871, File 8648, Register of Wills, NCE; "Inventory Estate of Peter Pipher decD" Filed June 3, 1871, File 8648, Register of Wills, NCE. Peter's children had received the following cash advances: Samuel, $1,257; John $1,138.97; Charles' children, $842.77; Aaron, $951.60; Sarah, $1,304.14; Elizabeth $1,265.80; and Peter W., $922.53. Peter and Elizabeth's youngest child Andrew probably died in infancy or childhood. Charles' widow Sarah received only $10 from her father-in-law. The 1874 Beers map of Upper Mount Bethel Township shows P. W. Pipher as living in Slateford.
64. The Jeffersonian, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, March 19, 1896; "Last Will & Testament of Samuel Pipher dec'd" Probated March 18, 1896, File 13933, Registry of Wills, NCE. Samuel's children received the following cash advances: Jeremiah, $5,390; Peter F., $3,310; Elmira, $945; Marietta, $1,800; and Sarah Jane, $6,450. The 1874 Beers map shows the location of Samuel Pipher's home. In an 1885 directory Samuel is listed as a farmer and resident of Slateford along with his nephew "Emery" or Emory. Ferris Bros' Northampton County Directory 1885 (Wilmington, Delaware: Ferris Bros. 1885, p. 426. In 1870 Samuel Pipher was listed in the agricultural census as owning 56 acres of improved land and 20 acres of unimproved woodland. His property was worth $8,600 and his farm implements were valued at $200. The total amount of wages paid during the year, including the value of board was $630. Samuel owned two horses, three milch cows and four swineall worth $400. He raised 200 bushels of winter wheat 200 bushels of rye, 500 bushels of Indian corn, 300 bushels of oats, 300 bushels of buckwheat, and 200 bushels of Irish potatoes. Samuel's orchard products were worth $30, and he produced 30 [tons] hay, 500 [pounds] butter and five [gallons] wine. The value of his animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter was $280, and the value of all farm products was $2,650. In 1880 Samuel owned 44 acres of improved land and five acres of woodland and forest. His farm was worth $4,000 and his livestock was valued at $200. The value of Samuel's farm products was $1,000. He owned five acres of mown grass land which produced six tons of hay. He owned two horses, two milch cows and two other cattle. Two calves were dropped during the year and Samuel sold two cattle. He produced 300 pounds of butter on his farm in 1879. As of June 1, 1880, Samuel owned three swine and 40 poultry, the latter produced 250 eggs in 1879. Samuel owned three acres of Indian corn which produced a crop of 2,100 bushels; one acre of oats which produced 30 bushels; three acres of rye which yielded 50 bushels and one acre of wheat which produced 15 bushels. Agricultural Schedules, Pennsylvania, Federal Decennial Censuses, 1850-1880, Roll 28, 1870, Microcopy T-1138, National Archives; Agricultural Schedules, Pennsylvania, Federal Decennial Censuses, 1850-1880, Roll 51, 1880, Microcopy T-1138, National Archives.
66. "Estate of Samuel Pipher of Upper Mt. Bethel Township deceased," Vendue List Filed May 25, 1896, File 13933, Register of Wills, NCE; "Inventory Estate of Samuel Pipher dec'd" Filed July 13, 1896, File 13933, Register of Wills, NCE.
67. Little data is known of the men involved in this quarrying venture. Trow's New York City Directory for the years 1868 and 1869 list Julius S. Howell as owning a silk goods business at 412 Broadway, with his home being in Jersey City. Samuel R. Elton was listed as a broker at 9 Broad Street, with a home address on Staten Island. Richard D. Wilson was a clerk at 90 West Street with a home in New Jersey. A Theodore Howell was listed as a "car man" at 15 Goerch Street and a Theodore P. Howell was listed as being in "leather" at 79 Beekman Street. It is not known if either of these men was the Theodore D. Howell of the slate company. The directory contained no listing for Cory or Stearns. Letter, Jim Ashton, The New York Historical Society to Sharon A. Brown, September 26, 1984; Equity Docket 2, p. 95, dated March 16, 1872, Prothonotary Office, NCE; Deed Book H-20, pp. 643-645, sold December 27, 1873, recorded March 17, 1890, NCE. A writ of levari facias is a common-law writ of execution for the satisfaction of a judgment debt out of goods and lands or profits of the lands of the judgment debtor. No records this company may have produced have been found. Nineteenth century slate records once located at Lafayette College in Easton have disappeared. No documentary evidence has as yet been found which either supports or disputes prevalent belief that the New York and Delaware River Slate Company's officers used the Pipher farmhouse as an office and/or housing for quarry workers.
68. Elizabeth D. Walters, research note, March 19, 1969, DEWA park files: "Pennsylvania-Northampton County Land Titles"; Letter, Ashton to Brown, September 26, 1984; Deed Book B-41, pp. 365-367 indenture of September 26, 1913, recorded October 6, 1913, NCE; Trow's New York City Directory, vol. ciii (New York: The Trow City Directory Company, For the year ending May 1, 1890), p. 1415; Trow's New York City Directory, vol. civ (New York: The Trow City Directory Company, for the year ending May 1, 1890) p. 885.
69. An inconsistency exists between Mary Pittenger's remembrances and those of Mildred Bartow McMillen whose grandfather was Emory Pipher. Mary stated her aunt, Matilda Bartron, lived at Slateford Farm "many, many years." Mildred McMillen stated the Bartrons lived at the farm from 1900 to 1906, that they had moved by 1907 and were living in Mt. Bethel by 1918. She remembered the Slateford homestead being empty from 1906 until the 1920s. Mildred McMillen had no recollection of anyone living on the farm during the 1910s. Additionally, Mary Pittenger stated that 20 to 30 slate workers quarried on the property, but John A. Morison was not assessed for the quarry after 1880. It is not known who these slaters were working for and for how long. Perhaps Morison rented out the quarry. Interview with Mary Pittenger, Slateford Farm, September 30, 1970. DEWA historian Albert Dillahunty conducted the interview and the transcript is located in park files. Interview with Mildred and E. Lee McMillen, Easton, Pennsylvania, September 26, 1984.
70. "Will of John A. Morison" September 4, 1885 proven January 15, 1898, Register of Wills, NCE; "Estate of John Morison" April 17, 1899, Collateral Inheritance Book 2, p. 7, Register of Wills, NCE. Deed Book B-41, pp. 365-367, indenture of September 26, 1913 recorded October 6, 1913, NCE.
71. Deed Book B-71, pp. 365-367, indenture of September 26, 1913, recorded October 6, 1913, NCE. Letter, Bette Barker, Division of Archives and Records Management, Department of State, State of New Jersey, to Sharon A. Brown, October 3, 1984; Letter, Clark Beck, Special Collections and Archives, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey to Sharon A. Brown, September 26, 1984. Interview with Mildred McMillen, Easton, Pennsylvania, September 26, 1984.
72. Deed Book A-69, pp. 566-567, indenture of May 5, 1924, recorded December 27, 1938, NCE; Interview with Charlotte Cyr Jewell, Portland, Pennsylvania, August 29, 1984. Penelope Batcheler stated that Munsch might have rented the farm from Reynolds and applied his rent towards the purchase price. This interpretation is based on an account book kept by Munsch which includes work on the E. G. Reynolds Farm in the 1920s. If this is so, the fact was not mentioned in the deed of sale. Batcheler, HSR, pp. 15-16, 211-214.
73. Interview with Charlotte Cyr Jewell, Portland, Pennsylvania, August 29, 1984 and May 1, 1985. Deed Book F-67, pp. 241-242, indenture of May 5, 1936, recorded January 27, 1937, NCE; Charles Munsch's obituary appeared in the New York Times on May 18, 1937. It read: "Funeral services were held yesterday at Portland Pa., for Charles M. Munsch, a partner in the firm of Munsch & Co., owners and operators of the drug store in the Carlyle, Seventy-sixth Street and Madison Avenue. He died in Portland last Saturday of a heart attack at the age of 69. His widow, a son Francis K., and a daughter, Alice, survive."
9. Henry Glassie, Pattern in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968), p. 192; Bressler, "Agriculture," 108; Kollmorgen, "German Farmer," p. 34.
10. Eli Bowen, The Pictorial Sketch-book of Pennsylvania Or, its scenery, internal improvements, resources, and agriculture, popularly described by Eli Bowen Philadelphia: W. W. Smith, 1854, p. 33, Also cited in Glassie, Folk Culture, pp. 193-194.
12. Ibid., p. 198; Glassie offers the Amish as an example, for they adopted the four-year plan of crop rotation in the early 1800s. Because that plan works, the Amish have not adopted modern soil conservation methods. pp. 198-199.
13. Stevenson Whitcomb Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life 1640-1840, vol., (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1950 reprint ed., 1950), I: 2; Bressler, "Agriculture," 114; Kollmorgen, "German Farmer," p. 34. For more information on Pennsylvania forests, see "A Chronology of Events in Pennsylvania Forestry Showing Things as They Happened to Penn's Woods," Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Resources, Office of Resources Management, Bureau of Forestry, 1975, pamphlet, 34 pages.
23. Ibid., 23-26. There is dispute over which direction the barns generally faced. Bucher, writing in 1966, stated they faced the south to obtain warmth from the sun. John K. Heyl, writing 10 years earlier, acknowledged the "theory" that the barns were placed with their stable, barnyard front towards the south, but he asserted that a trip through the countryside would reveal barns facing any direction. Other considerations were the placement of a public road, the ease of approach, or the placement of the house. However, "the general southeasterly slope of the whole terrain in Eastern Pennsylvania, established a recurring pattern." Heyl did not discount the source of water as a factor in determining the barn and house location. Charles H. Dornbusch and John K. Heyl, Pennsylvania German Barns The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society vol. 21 (Allentown, Pennsylvania: Schlechter's, 1956), pp. XXII-XXIII.
24. Kollmorgen, "German Farmer," p. 41. For further information on Pennsylvania farmhouses see: Aymar Embury II, "Pennsylvania Farmhouses Examples of Rural Dwellings of a Hundred Years Ago," Architectural Record XXX (November 1911): 475-585 and G. Edwin Brumbaugh, "Pennsylvania German Colonial Architecture," Part II, Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings at Harrisburg, Pa. October 17, 1930 and Papers Prepared for the Society, vol. XLI, (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Published by the Society, 1933), pp. 5-60. Both of these texts discuss individual structures and contain information on stone buildings.
31. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture I: 82. Bressler, "Agriculture," 108; The Heyl text contains excellent descriptions of barn framing; types of stone walls, including mentioning the "lodge slates and shale stones of the Blue Mountain townships;" roof shapes, styles of painting and decoration and types of vents.
34. Long, "Fences," 30-34; Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture I: 85-86; Glassie, "Folk Culture," p. 226. John K. Heyl also mentioned settlers clearing farms and setting up splitrail "zig zag" fences where fields adjoined those of a neighbor. "German Barns," p. XVI.
35. Long, "Fences," 35. Long's article contains much detail on the different fence construction techniques, discusses preparation of the timber used and has photographs of several of the fence styles.
36. See James T. Lemon's The Best Poor Man's Country and Hubert G. Schmidt, Rural Hunterdon An Agricultural History. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1972). For further information on the architecture of farmsteads see Amos Long Jr., Farmsteads and their Buildings (Lebanon, Pennsylvania: Applied Art Publishers, 1972).
37. George Fiske Johnson, "Agriculture in Pennsylvania A Study of Trends, County and State since 1840," The Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station, Bulletin #484, (November 1, 1929): 3-4.
44. Bidwell and Falconer, History, pp. 208-210; Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture, II: 57; Two Hundred Years of Life in Northampton County, Pa. A Bicentennial Review, vol. 8. Easton, Pennsylvania: Northampton County Bicentennial Commission, 1976), part III, "Agriculture," by Samuel Lewis, p. 245.
48. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture, II: 54-59; Lewis "Agriculture," pp. 245-246. See also, John T. Schlebecher, Whereby We Thrive: A History of American Farming, 1607-1972 (Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press, 1975), chapters nine and 10 for a history of farm mechanization.
50. Clarence Danhof, Change in Agriculture: The Northern United States 1820-70 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1969), pp. 95-97; Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture, II: 61. Chapter four of Danhof's text discussed the prerequisites for farming, including skills, capital funds, credit, mortgaging, renting and application of credit. See pp. 73-100.
54. See George Fiske Johnson's article "Agriculture in Pennsylvania A Study of Trends, County and State, since 1840" for details of farm production from 1840-1929. For a discussion of agricultural change on the national scale, see John T. Schlebecker's Whereby We Thrive: A History of American Farming, 1607-1972.
55. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture, I: 116; The Pennsylvania General Assembly passed the first abolition act in America on March 1, 1780, which provided for "gradual abolition." Ibid., p. 119. The principal author of the bill passed was George Bryan, a Scotch-Irish Presbyterian, the vice-president of the state's executive council (1777-1779). The act's preamble reflected the political theory of the Declaration of Independence and the act itself provided that children born to slaves after March 1, 1780 were to be free at age 28. All slaves were to be registered; those whose masters did not comply by November 1, 1780 were considered free. The colonial black codes which regulated slave behavior were repealed. Slavery in Pennsylvania gradually declined after the act's passage as to be nonexistant by 1850. See Ira V. Brown, The Negro In Pennsylvania History Pennsylvania History Studies No. 11, (University. Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania Historical Association, 1970), pp. 6-8. Samuel Hazard, The Register of Pennsylvania, vol. IX (Philadelphia, January to July 1832), p. 272. See also Elizabeth L. Myers, "Newspaper Articles on Local History," March 1931-February 1932, article #6, unpublished typescript.
56. Edward Raymond Turner, The Negro in Pennsylvania Slavery-Servitude-Freedom 1639-1861 (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1911, reprint ed., 1969), pp. 14-15; Cheesman A. Herrick, White Servitude in Pennsylvania (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1926, reprint ed., 1970) pp. 24, 82-83, 85.
66. Fletcher, Pennsylvania Agriculture, II: 39; P. I. Wrigley, "Farm Tenancy in Pennsylvania," The Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bulletin #383 (September 1939): 1.
3. The Portland Area Centennial history stated that Slateford is located on the grounds of the former Kittatiny Slate Company, incorporated in 1808. ". . . James M. Porter, president of the company, built six or eight homes for workmen, a superintendent's house, a barn, a storehouse, a wagon house and a slate factory." JoAn Lloyd and Eileen Kline, eds., Portland Area Centennial 1876-1976 (Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania: Slate Belt Printers, Inc., 1976), n.p.
8. Heller, History of Northampton County, I: 280; Two Hundred Years of Life in Northampton County, Pa. A Bicentennial Review vol. 8, (Easton: Northampton County Bicentennial Commission, 1976) part II "Business and Industry," by Dr. Alfred Pierce, p. 182.
9. Lesley, J. P. et al., Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, The Geology of Lehigh and Northampton Counties, vol. I. (Harrisburg: The Board of Commissioners for the Second Geological Survey, 1883) p. 86; Behre, Northampton, pp. 128, 297; John N. Hoffman, "History of Slate in Pennsylvania" Address Before the Northampton Historical Society at Weona Park, Pen Argyl, Pa. September 14, 1940, unpublished typescript, Northampton Historical and Genealogical Society.
10. Heller, History, I: 283; "Porter, Founder of Lafayette, a Distinguished American," The Lafayette Alumnus, XVIII, no. 15 (April 1948): 3. Another relative was Mary Todd Lincoln, the daughter of Eliza Parker Todd and great-granddaughter of General Andrew Porter.
11. "Porter, Founder,": 3; Jane S. Moyer and Christine Wroblewski, "Bicentennial Sketches For the Celebration of the Bicentennial Year in Easton, Pa., unpublished manuscript, Easton Area Public Library, Easton, Pennsylvania, 1976, p. 160; "James Madison Porter," by [Donald L. McMurry], D.A.B., vol. VIII:94-95.
14. Perhaps the answer may be found in a collection of late nineteenth century slate industry records which were listed in Hamer's Guide in 1961 as being held at Lafayette College. Efforts on the part of the Skillman Library staff, David Fritz and the author to locate these records in 1983 and 1984 proved unsuccessful.
15. James Madison Porter to Thomas J. Rogers, June 25, 1816, Ferdinand J. Dreer Collection, Manuscript Department, HSP. There is probably a connection between the Mr. Michler mentioned in the letter and Porter's wife's family.
21. Israel Daniel Rupp, History of Northampton Lehigh, Monroe, Carbon and Schuylkill Counties (Harrisburg: Hickok and Cantine, 1845; reprint ed., New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1971), p. 59.
22. Daybook, Slateford [Pennsylvania], Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection, No. 80 x 100, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. A microfilm copy of this daybook should be obtained for deposit in DEWA files and/or Northampton County repositories.
34. Lesley, et al., Geology of Lehigh and Northampton, pp. 86, 88. Note the discrepancy in the date of the first slate quarry opening in Pennsylvania. Other sources cite a much earlier date for a quarry in the Peach Bottom district in Lancaster and York counties. R. H. Sanders also reprinted an 1858 description of the Williams quarry by H. D. Rogers. See appendix 10.
37. ___________, Miscellaneous Field Studies Map-578A, U. S. Geological Survey 1974. All of these geological surveys describe other quarries located near Slateford and elsewhere in Northampton County.
38. Mineral Resources of the Appalachian Region Professional Paper 580, U. S. Geological Survey (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1968) p. 204; Lesley, et al., Geology of Lehigh and Northampton, p. 148.
49. For further information on slate quarrying in Northampton County see T. Nelson Dale, et al., Slate in the United States U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 586, (Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, 1914) pp. 96-104. Quarrying in the state of Pennsylvania, including the Pen Argyl and Bangor beds, is described in Mansfield Merriman, "The Slate Regions of Pennsylvania," Stone XVII no. 2, (July 1898): 77-90.
Last Updated: 31-Dec-2009