1. Paul G. Sneed, "An Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Craters of the Moon National Monument," Tebiwa: Journal of the Idaho State University Museum 10 (1), 1967, 45-46. Additional archaeological research may alter these perceptions as the only study was a survey not a full investigation. See also, Deward E. Walker, Jr., American Indians of Idaho (Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1971).
2. Information on Godin's first name varies. See Michael Ostrogorsky, "Historical Overview of the Craters of the Moon National Monument," unpublished paper, Craters of the Moon archives, 1983, 2-3. Merrill D. Beal, A History of Southeastern Idaho (Caldwell: Caxton Printers, 1942), 195. Also see Clarence A. Bottolfsen, "A Salute to Arco--The New Atomic City of the Great Northwest," circa 1949, Arco vertical file, Idaho State Historical Society. And Clarence A. Bottolfsen, "The First Settlers Came to Lost River?" in Little Bits of Lost River History (Arco: Arco Advertiser, 1926).
3. Washington Irving, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A. (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1898), vol. I, 198. This, of course, is Irving's interpretation of Bonneville's impressions. Bonneville's true motives are still part of historical debate. See, William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1966), 147-150.
5. Irving R. Merrill, "Tim Goodale and His Cutoff: A Major Trail Segment During and After the Fourth Emigration Wave," Overland Journal, 8 (1990), 11-12. Fred W. Dykes, Jeffrey's Cutoff: Idaho's Forgotten Oregon Trail Route (Pocatello: Pocatello Copy Cat, 1989), 2, 5-7. According to Dykes, 5, the purpose of the cutoff was to secure business for a ferry crossing at the mouth of the Blackfoot River where it joined the Snake River.
6. Irving R. Merrill, Bound for Idaho, 20-21; see also, 12, for figures. 70 percent of the 20,000 emigrants passing through Fort Hall used it in 1863. Also see Idaho Historical Society Ref. Series, #51.
8. Ostrogorsky, 7. Merrill, Bound for Idaho, preface. And Merrill, "Tim Goodale and His Cutoff," 12-15. Merrill in this essay notes that the last known covered wagon seen on the trail was in 1910. Highway U.S. 20 was not built until around 1920, connecting Arco with Carey and Hailey. For the trail's function as a stage coach route see Larry Jones, "Staging to the South Boise Mines," Idaho Yesterdays, 29 (Summer 1985), 19-25; Dykes, 10.
9. Ostrogorsky, 8. Merle W. Wells, Gold Camps and Silver Cities: Nineteenth-Century Mining in Central and Southern Idaho 2d Ed. (Boise: Idaho State Bureau of Mines and Geology, 1983), 122-123. The post office lasted until April 30, 1940. It is unclear as to when either town died. Era apparently petered out soon after establishment, and Martin is referred to as an old town site, or the site of the Martin ranch, and continued to appear on monument maps. In addition, smaller mines were prospected in the vicinity, such as the Hub, and other areas in the Lost River region. As far as the monument is concerned, Era and Martin carried the most significance due to their proximity and influence on towns like Arco. See, Clarence A. Bottolfsen, Little Bits of Lost River History, (Arco Advertiser, 1926).
11. Other acts include the Homestead Act of 1862, as well as the Desert Lands Act, the Timber and Culture Act of the 1870s, and the expanded Homestead Act of 1909. Acts concerned with irrigation in this dry environment seem to have created the most results.
18. This account comes from an undated, uncited news clipping entitled "Ancient Craters," from CRMO museum collection, accession #910. The article's text mentions Paisley and does not refer to him as a custodian, nor does it mention Craters of the Moon by name, suggesting that this could have been an account from the late 1910s.
23. For general background on Limbert's exploration see Casner, 6. More extensive coverage is found in Limbert's own accounts in "A Trip to the Moon," The Idaho Statesman, April 10, 1921, and "Among the 'Craters of the Moon,'" National Geographic, 45 (March 1924), 303-328. Ostrogorsky, 16, dates this trip as occurring in 1923, an error, I believe. Monument records indicate that the first seasonal ranger, C. Frederick Shepard, completed a similar trip to Minidoka from the monument along the Great Rift; see "Custodian's Monthly Report," November 1935. See chapter on interpretation.
31. "Would Create a National Park in South Idaho," Idaho Daily Statesman, April 1, 1921, and "On Idaho Volcanoes," Boise Capital News, April 16, 1921. "Party Coming to Explore Craters Arrive June 8th," Arco Advertiser, Special Edition, June 6, 1921; Quote in "Expedition Ready to Explore Moon Valley," Arco Advertiser, June 10, 1921; "'Moon Valley' Gets Many Specimens," Idaho Daily Statesman, n.d., 1921; "'Moon Valley' Trampers Back Friday Morning," Idaho Daily Statesman, June 25, 1921 (for filming); "Valley of the Moon, Idaho, Declared a Wonderland," Salt Lake Tribune, July 8, 1921.
33. Casner, 7. For a more personal account see, Gilbert Grosvenor to Edward F. Rhodenbaugh, March 8, 1924, Edward F. Rhodenbaugh Papers, Box 2, Folder 4, Boise State University. Grosvenor responds to Rhodenbaugh's urging of the Society's publication of Limbert's article, stating that the essay was held up because Limbert was neither geologist nor trained writer; eventually, Harold Stearns was called upon to confirm Limbert's findings, Stearns adding the final paragraph to the article. In addition, Congressman A.T. Smith of Twin Falls called on and urged the article's publication as well. Also see Limbert to Grosvenor, August 28, 1922. Limbert published similar articles in the Literary Digest, Outdoor Life, and Sunset Magazine; see Casner.
34. Limbert also nudged President Calvin Coolidge's decision by sending him a photo-scrapbook complete with narration of the monument, yet while Limbert's scrapbook exists, it cannot be confirmed that it is the one Coolidge received. See Casner, 7.
38. Minutes, Pilgrim Brotherhood of the First Congregational Church of Boise, May 16, 1921, First Congregation Church of Boise. Pilgrim Brotherhood Book of Minutes. February 1911 to August 1924. Pilgrim Brotherhood to Addison T. Smith, June 15, 1921, and Community Council of the Community of Boise to Warren G. Harding, June 24, 1921, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 1, NA. Both petitions included the president, although they were routed eventually back through the Department of Interior, and the National Park Service. Fisher's trip is mentioned in "A Trip to the Valley of the Moon," Arco Advertiser, June 17, 1921; apparently he was part of a park commission involved in drafting a report for the National Park Service.
41. See, for example, Limbert to Grosvenor, August 28, 1922. "Auto Brings Valley of the Moon Within Easy Reach of Tourists," Arco Advertiser, July 21, 1921. Harold Stearns to A.B. Cammerer, Acting Director, National Park Service, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 1, NA.
45. "Limbert to Talk about Craters," Arco Advertiser, March 17, 1922. The loop road construction seems to be dated at 1922; at this time enough evidence indicates that a road, loop or otherwise, was built by local residents interested in promoting the area; Limbert to Grosvenor, August 28, 1922 mentions this, as does Salt Lake Tribune, March 23, 1924. Zink, 35. For discussion of the "first" hotel at Craters, see "Hotel at Craters Soon," Arco Advertiser, May 19, 1922. It is not known what happened to these plans, Crater Inn was finished shortly after the monument's creation. See chapter on concessions.
47. Era Martin reportedly was selling lava bombs and other souvenirs to visitors, While most of this activity is sketchy, the sense is that tourism begets souvenir hunting. See, "Congressman Plans to Get National Park for Southern Idaho," Arco Advertiser, February 25, 1924.
48. Boise Capital News, November 1, 1923. The group's name appears, for example, in articles on the dedication of the monument. Mostly it seems as though members were community or business leaders from southern Idaho towns, including Arco.
49. Thomas C. Stanford to James A. Pope, May 28, 1933, Thomas C. Stanford Papers, box 2, file 8, Boise State University. Stanford's reference to the Sawtooth issue appears here and elsewhere in his correspondence.
51. Thomas C. Stanford to Addison T. Smith, July 5, 1930, box 2, file 5, Stanford Collection, Boise State University. Stanford believed that the monument would not impose any "military restrictions" on grazing. See grazing covered in monument evolution chapter and natural resources.
52. The details of Addison T. Smith's involvement are still open to investigation. His papers, housed at the Idaho State Historical Society, have been purged of any controversial material, and little exists, if anything, on Craters of the Moon. "Congressman Smith Lays Plans to Get National Monument," Boise Capital News, October 6, 1922 (This date should probably read 1923, because it does not correspond to other citations here about Smith's activities, and since this clipping comes from the Limbert collection, he could have mismarked the date.); "Congressman Plans to Get National Park for Southern Idaho," Arco Advertiser, February 25, 1924; Smith to Albright, September 23, 1924, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, File 0.35, part 1, NA. Smith notes he visited the monument for the first time exactly a year prior to this date.
56. Harold T. Stearns, The Geographical Review, 14 (July 1924), 362-366; quote from 362. Also see Stearns, Memoirs of a Geologist: From Poverty Peak to Piggery Gulch (Honolulu: Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 1983), 31 and 40. Note: Ostrogorsky, 9-10, discusses Stearns's 1921 investigation, saying that both Meinzer and Wright accompanied Stearns when none of the material places the three together, except in their approval of the monument as reported in "Experts Favor Park in Idaho," Salt Lake Tribune, March 23, 1924, where all three discuss the park proposal; however, it seems that these statements are lifted from a copy of Stearns' report to the NPS.
60. Stearns, "Craters of the Moon National Monument," 367, first quote. Stearns, A Guide to Craters of the Moon, 1928, 35-39. Stearns used a variety of estimations, such as dating limber pine crusted in the lava, comparisons with Hawaii, soil studies, and Indian folklore. He was guarded on all his estimates. Radiocarbon dating would eventually clarify his investigation, placing the youngest flows at around 2,100 years of age.
63. Stearns to Cammerer, February 2, 1924. We know little of the Smithsonian's involvement, except that C.D. Walcott, Secretary of the Institution and George P. Merrill, head curator of geology, had commented on the name of the monument. The Smithsonian, perhaps was involved in an auxiliary capacity, filling in expertise where it was unavailable in the Park Service.
68. For a description of the travails of surveys, begun in 1910, of southern Idaho, see "'Valley of the Moon' Was Known as the 'Great American Desert' in Early Days but Name Changed by Senator Heyburn," Sunday Capital News, June 25, 1922.
1. Harold T. Stearns, "Proposed Boundary Changes for the Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho," RG 79, Entry 7, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 1, NA, 1-2. Ostrogorsky, 11, gives some of this account. It is not entirely clear what happened to the GLO survey, or if the 1925 survey was in fact part of the one requested by Mather in 1923. The Salt Lake Tribune, March 23, 1924, for example, reported that a survey would be conducted but it would delay the monument's establishment. While this did not happen it seems to indicate that the monument was hastily proposed and drawn due to lack of information and perhaps other reasons yet unknown. In addition, it appears that no lands were excluded.
6. For further discussion see chapter on administrative overview. Other delays seem to have come from matters of construction costs in the summer of 1930. Kittredge to Director, November 1, 1930, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 6, NA, states that all bids came in too high.
8. "Right-of-Way Deed," file L, CRMO Archives. The official acceptance by the assistant secretary of interior was December 27, 1930. For information on Arthur lands, see Memorandum for the Director, January 21, 1932 (?), RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 10.
9. Executive Order 5482, November 14, 1930. See Kilpatrick Brothers Company to National Park Service, December 4, 1930, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 6, NA. These lands were in T. 1 and 2, N., R. 23 E.
10. H.R. 15877, February 21, 1931, 71st Congress, 3d Session (46 Stat. 1206). In 1928 and 1929, he presented bills that were omnibus in character, calling for building roads and other improvements within Craters of the Moon, including provisions for constructing an adequate water supply. Both bills failed, perhaps, because they requested that the federal government appropriate $35,000 dollars to complete monument improvements. H.R. 13624, May 8, 1928, 70th Congress, 1st Session and H.R. 5055, November 11, 1929, 71st Congress, 1st Session.
12. Albright to Thomas, February 12, 1931; Albright was referring to roads, trails, and campgrounds, all of which were tied up with exchanging lands and building the system. Note also that in early plans to develop campgrounds, the Service wanted to extend water to Devil's Orchard, but were stymied, apparently, by a school section not acquired until 1952.
15. Thomas C. Stanford to Addison T. Smith, July 5, 1930, box 2, file 5, Stanford Papers. F. Ross Peterson, Idaho: A Bicentennial History (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1976), 141-142. Stanford to John Thomas, January 27, 1931, box 2, file 6, Stanford Papers.
18. The Kilpatrick Brothers were anxious to have the legislation enacted, and pressured Thomas to "convince your protesting constituent of the wisdom, propriety, and reasonableness of the proposed exchange." F.W. Mondell to John Thomas, February 12, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA. Thomas to Stanford, February 20, 1931, Stanford Papers, box 2, file 6, BSU. This did not put an end to Stanford's protests however. For several years he attempted to reinstate grazing in the northern unit.
19. Whether or not the water line actually crossed the Arthur land is not entirely clear at this time. Conrad Wirth believed it had in January 1932, and urged an immediate resolution. See, Memorandum for the Director, January 21, 1932 (unfiled). Robert Zink, "Short History, Craters of the Moon National Monument," "Water Development," 7, says that the Service's intention was never to build on Arthur lands, nor did this ever occur.
20. For the agency's agreement to this exchange, see General Land Office Report, W.H. Burnett to Commissioner, May 21, 1932, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, part 0.35, part 10, NA. See also, General Land Office Field Division to Commissioner General Land Office, August 10, 1932, RG 79, 76 A1162, 131597, box 4, file L-1429, National Archives-Pacific Northwest Region. It was agreed that most of the lower reaches of Little Cottonwood Canyon were not suitable for year-round grazing due to scarcity of water. This and the fact that the company had undergone some financial hardships at the hands of the Park Service were reasons for the exchange. Burnett to Commissioner, 5.
22. Zink, "Water Development," for more extensive treatment of the title history. Zink had access to files that are either unavailable at this time, or no longer exist. Recent investigations into the monument's water rights delineate the title history. See file L-54, CRMO Archives.
24. Carl Clausen to the Director, National Park Service, May 23, 1934, in Memorandum, Associate Director A.E Demaray to Custodian, Craters of the Moon National Monument, June 23, 1934, file L 1429, CRMO Archives.
25. H. R. 7930, 74th Congress, 49 Statute 1484. House of Representatives Report No. 1399, 73 Congress, 2d Session, April 30, 1934; Harold L, Ickes to Rene L. DeRouen, May 2, 1935, Senate Report No. 2140, 74th Congress, 2d Session, May 29, 1936.
31. Memorandum, Harlan F. Hobbs, Chief, Division of Lands, Pacific Northwest Regional Office to Chief, Water Resources Division, National Park Service, February 11, 1988, file L 1425, Ibid. Information on the status of the bill comes from personal interviews with monument and regional office staff.
32. An investigation by Custodian Burton C. Lacombe in the summer of 1931 revealed that the expansion of the monument draped the northern boundaries around ten claims, nine in Section 22 belonging to Era L. Martin (approximately 160 acres), and one in Section 21 belonging to Josia Howard and others (approximately 20 acres), and a number of abandoned mining locations. Note: the northern unit also had other well known mines near it such as the Hub, and the Horn Silver Mine. Burton C. LaCombe to Director, National Park Service, August 3, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 761102, FRC.# 131597, box 4, file L 1429, NA-PNR. Memorandum, Guy E. McCarty to Regional Director, Region Four, December 9, 1938, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, 1930-1953, file 609.01, NA-PSR.
33. This claim, because it was filed in the month following the monument's enlargement, should have been considered invalid after another NPS inspection in 1934. However, question as to the validity of the claim transpired over the next ten years. On January 29, 1945, Region Four Director O.A. Tomlinson decided that after a decade of indecision it was wise to consider the claim valid until it could be bought out at a later date. Tomlinson followed the advice of Custodian McCarty, who believed that the mine claim locators had proven their claim, and that the Park Service should recognize the claim and purchase it later. The purchase (or abandonment) eventually took place; the exact date is not known. The best source is Carl Lausen to Director, National Park Service, (Report on mining claims in northern unit), May 23, 1934, file L 1429, CRMO Archives. See also, McCarty to Regional Director, December 9, 1938; McCarty to Regional Director, January 23, 1945; Memorandum for the Director, January 29, 1945, and Memorandum, Acting Regional Director, Bernard F. Manbey to the Director, October 19, 1950, CCF, CRMO, 1930-53, file 609-01, NA-PSR.
35. Acting Director, A.E. Demaray to Custodian, Craters of the Moon National Monument, February 16, 1934, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 76A11062, FRC.# 131597, box 4, file L 1429, NA-PNR; McCarty to Regional Director, December 9, 1938.
36. In October 1950, Superintendent Aubrey Houston tried to interest the new owner, Mrs. Roy Francisco (formerly Mrs. Mable Berry), in selling some or all of the claims, but apparently he did not succeed with her or his superiors. Memorandum, Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, Region Four, October 3, 1950, file 609-01, NA-PSR.
40. Memorandum, Assistant Regional Director, Region Four to the Director, November 22, 1960; Joe T. Fallini, BLM State Director, Idaho State Office to Floyd A. Henderson, October 3, 1961; Memorandum, James M. Siler to Superintendent Craters of the Moon, October 14, 1963, file 609-01, NA-PSR. Memorandum, Daniel E. Davis to Regional Chief, Division of Lands and Water Rights, March 16, 1964. Memorandum, William V. Appling to Regional Director, Western Region, March 22, 1965, CCF, file Y 2619, CRMO. Memorandum, Roger J. Contor to Jack M. Murphy, June 16, 1965; Dennis L. Carter, Executive Secretary, CRMONHA to Paul Fritz, November 27, 1967, CCF, file L 1425, CRMO. "Summary Annual Narrative Report of Superintendent Craters of the Moon National Monument," July 1, 1965-June 1, 1966, and July 1, 1966-June 30, 1967, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 76A1102, FRC.# 131595, box 2, file A 2621, NA-PSR.
43. Presidential Proclamation #2499, July 18, 1941, 55 statute 1660. "Easement, Craters of the Moon National Monument to State of Idaho," nd, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 630, NA-PSR. One issue was the realignment of the road and the new road's entrance into the monument. See development chapter. There were other considerations presented but ignored. One suggestion was to transfer all of Section 36, a school section, in T. 2., N., R. 24, E., to the government and resolve other land issues in the process, but this failed. See, Memorandum, B.F. Manbey, Acting Regional Director, to Director, April 11, 1940, CCF, CRMO, file 630, NA-PSR.
45. The Land Board worried that it was setting a bad precedent by accepting the Craters of the Moon appraisal which was on average less than the Atomic Energy Commission's average of $6 per acre--for land of a considerably larger size. (It is interesting that one of the appraisers was C.A. Bottolfsen, long time park supporter.) As for the Service, it wished to have excluded 2.41 acres of Section 36 ceded for the highway right of way in 1941. Basically, the Park Service could not buy land it had ceded in 1941, and did not want to own some two and a half acres of highway. In the end, negotiations proceeded amicably -- the state selling the land less the small acreage, and the Park Service paying the original price as a political gesture.
46. Documents relevant to the school lands purchase can be found in RG 79, CCF, CRMO, 1930-1953, file 610, NA-PSR. See in particular Memorandum, Guy E. McCarty to the Regional Director, February 13, 1948; Memorandum, Assistant Director Hillory Tolson to Regional Director, Region Four, April 6, 1950; Memorandum, Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, Region Four, May 21, 1950; Note for Regional Director from B. F. Manbey April 1951 (states he does not think lands are a threat but should follow course set in motion by AEC); United States of America vs. 793.19 Acres of Land, more or less, in Butte County, Idaho. State of Idaho, February 13, 1952, Preliminary Order of Condemnation.
47. Memorandum, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, to Regional Director, Region Four, October 20, 1958, "Report on Proposed Addition to Craters of the Moon," file N, folder 3, CRMO Archives, 4-5. This report, by Superintendent Floyd Henderson and Park Service Biologist Adolph Murie, quotes the Fosberg-Tisdale report, entitled "Proposed Addition to Craters of the Moon National Monument."
49. Ibid., 3. Min Hironaka, of the Boise Research Center for the United States Forest Service, for example, stated that there was evidence of Indian trails, rodents, big game animals, and cheatgrass near and in the kipuka. Even so these were minor concerns given the fact that all representative grasslands might disappear entirely. Attesting to the site's research significance, researchers in addition to Fosberg and Tisdale had established plots in the kipuka.
50. This comes from Boundary Status Report, March 8, 1960, which states that this information is contained in "First Field Investigation Report...September 3, 1958..." by Murie and James Cole, published February 1959.
55. Memorandum, Acting Director, National Park Service to Regional Director, Region Four, August 8, 1960. Superintendent Floyd Henderson garnered support from Idaho commercial organizations, the state's Department of Commerce and Development, the governor, among others. See file L 1429, CRMO Archives.
58. The agency stated that while it had not planned to, it could make the "inaccessible" grassland accessible to tourists, complete with interpretive displays, "as the need arises." The Park Service also recognized that the lava barrier was in fact penetrable with some work. See, for example, John A. Carver, Jr. to Senator Church, September 7, 1961, Church Collection, box 32, file 17, BSU. Secretary of the Interior Horace Udall to David E. Bell, October 2, 1962, file L 1417, CRMO Archives.
60. Apparently the stipulation that all withdrawals of over five thousand acres be reviewed by House and Senate land committees was still adhered to but really a formality considering the previous hearings for the bill. See Acting Director Jackson E. Price to Wayne N. Aspinall, July 18, 1962, and Price to Clinton P. Anderson, July 18, 1962, CCF, file L 1417, CRMO. Stewart L. Udall to Bell, October 2, 1962, CCF, file L 1417, CRMO.
62. General information on the establishment of the monument's wilderness is contained in a report entitled, "Wilderness Recommendations for Craters of the Moon National Monument," Idaho, National Park Service, United States Department of Interior, August 1967. Memorandum, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon to Monument Staff, July 22, 1965, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 76 A1102, FRC# 131597, box 4, file, L 48, NA-PNR. Memorandum, Superintendent Roger Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, August 30, 1966, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 74 A207, FRC# 13184, box 7, file L 48, NA-PSR. Unless otherwise noted, material from Contor's activities are from a personal interview. Contor's brother maintained lifelong connections with the Indians of the Fort Hall Reservation, and provided Contor with contacts within the tribe, and helped fulfill his desire to emphasize the Native American culture in the area.
71. "Congressional Record--Senate," April 1, 1969. Church's emphasis on the space program was not mere patriotic rhetoric. Senator Len B. Jordan, member of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, wanted to use the monument's lunar-like terrain for simulated lunar landings. This was more important than wilderness if the one precluded the other. Len B. Jordan to George B. Hartzog, Jr., May 10, 1968, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 76 A1102, FRC# 131597, box 4, file L 48, NA-PSR.
72. H.R. 16821 and 16822, 91st Congress, 2d Session. Apparently, proposals went as high as 5,000 acres. For estimates on the size of the addition, see Frank Church to Bruce Bowler, May 28, 1970, Frank Church Papers, Series 2.3, box 2, file 1, Boise State University.
73. Fritz also opposed the road because it was not well designed and thought out from a landscape architect perspective. Moreover, Fritz thought that the proposed buffer around the monument was a mistake as well.
74. Memorandum, Theodor R. Swem to Regional Director, Western Region. December 23, 1966, file D 18, CRMO Archives. Memorandum, Superintendent Paul Fritz to Regional Director, Western Region, February 20, 1967, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 74 A207, FRC# 131184, box 7, file L 48, NA-PSR.
75. Interview with Paul Fritz, August 30, 1990. According to Fritz, McClure's interest was political, who used the wilderness bill to get a Senate seat, and Fritz gives McClure the most credit for the bill's passage. Since McClure was not from the Second District, but from the first, he needed Hansen's assistance.
82. Most of these ideas stem from my reading of Hal Rothman, "Second-Class Sites: National Monuments and the Growth of the National Park System," Environmental Review, 10 (Spring 1986), 44-56. The point here is that at least in the beginning monuments were not the primary focus of the young Park Service attempting to preserve nationally significant sites of spectacular scenery. A young agency put its funding elsewhere and monuments were left largely on their own. But monuments were significant because they preserved and protected various natural and cultural features; most often though they were small and mono-focused in nature. The public it appears seemed to be drawn more to sections of land that reminded them of their natural heritage.
86. Fritz was the first to make a formal effort. In 1940, for instance, Custodian Guy McCarty proposed that the Park Service acquire the Shoshone Ice Caves. See Assistant Regional Director B.F. Manbey, "Comments and Notes...Special Inspectional Trip to Craters of the Moon National Monument," June 12, 1940, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 101, NA-PSR.
87. Pat Ford, "Now Idaho Wants National Parks," High Country News, October 10, 1988, 18, for Bullard quote. Other quote is from personal interview with Fritz, August 30, 1990. Unless otherwise stated, the story of the monument's expansion that follows is taken from both of these sources.
89. Service Center Planning Directive: Craters of the Moon National Monument, March 15, 1973; Draft: Assessment of the Environmental Impact of the Proposed Master Plan and Proposed Additions to Craters of the Moon National Monument, October 30, 1973, in Craters of the Moon file, Maintenance Division, PNRO.
105. "Chairman Noncommittal on Park Status for Craters," Post-Register, August 15, 1991. Information on the future of the bill is sketchy at this time. This is a general assessment from regional office staff.
1. Barry Mackintosh, Shaping the System (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991), 16-23, discusses administration and quantity of monuments at the time of NPS creation. See also John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1961), 154-160, 191. Little work has been done on national monuments and their roles in building the system. An excellent study for monuments, primarily cultural monuments of the southwest, is Hal Rothman's Preserving Different Pasts: The American National Monuments (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989). It seems that Rothman's conclusion that Mather and Albright were averse to monuments as a rule is still open to debate.
7. Rothman, in Preserving Different Pasts, points out the importance of the New Deal to monument management as a benchmark for acceptance within the park system, but Mission 66 supplied the administrative infrastructure necessary to carry out the missions of individual monuments.
8. The Atomic Energy Commission established the National Reactor Testing Station in the desert some seven miles east of Arco in 1949 (around 25 from CRMO). The testing station set off a construction boom, provided jobs to nearby communities, and increased the region's base population by about 10,000 in the subsequent decade. For general information on the National Reactor Testing Station, later Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, see Carlos A. Schwantes, In Mountain Shadows: A History of Idaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991), 218-219.
11. For accounts of Albright's trip, see "Here to Inspect Craters of the Moon," and "Government Officials Inspect Craters," Arco Advertiser, September 19, 1924, and September 26, 1924. For Albright's feelings on the monument see, Albright to Smith, October 2, 1924, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 1, NA. His reservations about the site are drawn from a phone conversation with Marian Schenck, Horace Albright's daughter.
15. Arco Advertiser, September 26, 1924. Albright to the Director, July 24, 1927. Estimates vary, see Bert H. Burrell to Director, National Park Service, July 21, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 035, part 3, NA.
17. Paisley to Mather, April 27, 1925, Bottolfsen to Smith, April 27, 1925, Mather to Paisley, May 6, 1925, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, Part 2, NA. Apparently there was some question as to the feasibility of allowing Paisley run an exclusive service, since some homesteaders had been operating similar services for some years. See Arno B. Cammerer to Horace M. Albright, June 23, 1925, ibid.
18. "Paisley Resigns as Craters Custodian," Arco Advertiser July 1, 1927. The paper reported that Paisley was allowed to choose his successor based on his "labor of love." For details on the guide business, see discussion in section on concessions.
24. Custodian's Annual Report, 1926. Quotes from Paisley to NPS, October 1, 1926. Other known waterholes showed signs of depletion, while those with a good supply, such as the Big Sink hole, were beyond easy access.
26. Burrell was accompanied by Assistant Landscape Engineer Davidson who submitted a separate report, which has not been located, but is said to contain reactions to the monument's layout and assess the situation from a visitor's perspective. See Burrell's report.
35. Executive Order 1843, 45 Stat. 2959. See also Acting Secretary of the Interior John H. Edwards to the President of the United States, July 21, 1928, and reply, July 26, 1928, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 4, NA.
38. For an outline of events see, Robert Zink, "Short History: Craters of the Moon National Monument," "Water Development" chapter, 1-13. For other information see legislative history, and Custodian's Monthly Report, June 1931.
44. Robert Moore to Horace M. Albright, March 12, 1931; Albright to Burton C. Lacombe, March 14, 1931; Moore to Albright, March 18 and 26, 1931; John Thomas to Albright March 30, 1931; A.E. Demaray to Moore, March 31, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA.
45. Albright to Guy D. Edwards, March 5, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA. Ironically, Albright ideally did "not want to have to put old timers on the ranger force into these kinds of positions, simply because the parks want to get rid of them. Placing Lacombe at Craters was a favor to him. Lacombe retired after two years at Craters, but successive custodians and superintendents advanced in the Service after passing through tenures at the monument.
48. Information from the Park Service during the New Deal comes from Harlan Unrau and G. Frank Williss, Administrative History: Expansion of the National Park Service in the 1930s (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1983).
50. Bicknell assumed management of the monument for the retiring Lacombe on November 1, 1933 and transferred to Casa Grande National Monument on December 20, 1936. He had worked at Casa Grande National Monument in the off season and upon leaving Craters embarked on a long career there.
51. This quote is not Bicknell's but is related in the recommendations by Kenneth C. McCarter to Thomas C. Vint, in a memo entitled, Preliminary F.Y. 1935 Construction Items, submitted by Custodian, Craters of the Moon, February 16, 1933, CCF, CRMO, 1930-53, file 600, National Archives-Pacific Sierra Region, 1.
69. The only documentation for this is found in the signing of the monthly reports. See Custodian's Monthly Report, November 11, 1948. In addition, the change was one merely in name rather than rank. As one superintendent, and former custodian recalled, visitors mistook custodians for janitors rather than managers.
70. Memorandum, Tomlinson to McCarty, December 28, 1944, and Memorandum, Tolson to Tomlinson, September 28, 1949, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 306-06, and file 304, NA-PSR, entire. Also see Memorandum, Tomlinson to Tolson, September 20, 1950, and reply, Tomlinson to Tolson, September 26, 1950, as well as scribbled note by Sanford Hill to Merriam, November 13, 1950, in which Hill states that this transfer might still be viable and more cost effective; Memorandum, Regional Director, Region Four to Files, October 7, 1952, tile 201, ibid. Memorandum, Marlow Glenn to Regional Director, Region Four, January 12, 1950, file 306-06, ibid. It is unclear as to how long Mount Rainier continued in this capacity; likely it discontinued this after Mission 66.
75. Tomlinson to Houston, February 9, 1950, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 600, NA-PSR. It should be noted that camping was not ruled out, but other concessionaire development was. It is likely that since the concession business had been struggling that the Service favored its discontinuance. See concession chapter.
88. Master Plan for Preservation and Use, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1966. See also section on developments. Contor was arguing that the confined area of the headquarters would eventually, if not already, outgrow its usefulness.
90. According to Fritz, he had the full approval of Director George Hartzog, who was all for publicizing national parks and had created the state coordinator position. At the regional office level though, Regional Director John Rutter objected to the superintendent's cavalier attitude and transient behavior. Fritz, an avowed environmentalist, sometimes created a conflict of interest, being a board member, for example, of some environmental groups opposing the Park Service; or, in a more serious vein, his travel outside the region and state was being subsidized by the monument, which Rutter did not approve of. Moreover, Superintendent Robert Hentges believed and was told by the regional director in 1974 that the monument was in bad shape because of Fritz's absences. Personal interview with Fritz. See also discussion in resource management section.
94. For further discussion of these topics, see related chapters. Of note, though, is that Hentges found the pay scale at the monument to be out of control. The administrative officer was a GS-11, the save level as the superintendent, and the maintenance foreman was paid a similar wage, a result, perhaps, of Fritz's neglect.
95. Personal interview with Robert J. Hentges. Hentges, for the record, still maintains his innocence in regard to his suspension, the proof for which was insufficient in his mind, but enough to give the government no recourse.
4. "State of the Parks--1980: A Report to the Congress." Also see the follow up report, "State of the Parks: A Report to Congress on the Service-wide Strategy for Prevention for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural and Cultural Resources Management Problems, 1981."
9. The management guidelines that the 1966 plan followed were the monument's enabling legislation, the 1916 Organic Act, Secretary of Interior Lane's 1918 directive, the Leopold Report of 1963, the 1965 Long Range Wildlife and Range Management Plan, and the 1966 Master Plan.
10. The most recent resource management plan was approved in the final stages of this document; the plan is important because it follows a new format, comprehensive and cross-referenced with past plans. An adequate inventorying of geologic resources was accomplished, and groundwork was laid in biological resources through deer population studies, bird and mammal species lists, vegetation mapping and the recording of published research documents. See the 1990 Statement for Management, 21, for this and future trends information listed below.
11. The collection of volcanic rocks and other features at the monument is by far the most serious problem, being as old or older than the site itself. Although more random, vandalism takes place where visitors intentionally harm resources, such as breaking off stalactites from caves, chopping out bright red pumice from craters walls, and filling in fissure vents and cones with rock fragments and refuse.
12. For quote see "Congressman Plans to Get National Park for Southern Idaho," Arco Advertiser, February 25, 1924. Note this article reprints an earlier story by the Boise Capital News, hence the 1923 time period. Also refer to earlier sections on creation of monument.
19. Evidently the treasure hunters kept the location a secret until pressed to reveal it for sake of the permit. Once they had, regional landscape architects determined that such activity would impair monument resources. For the series of memoranda on this subject, see: Newton B. Drury to Regional Director, Region Four, January 19, 1950; Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, Region Four, February 2, 1950; Lawrence C. Merriam to the Director, March 2, 1951; Alfred C. Kuehl to Regional Director, Region Four, April 11, 1951; Lawrence C. Merriam to J.M. England, April 20, 1951, RG 79, Central Classified Files, Craters of the Moon, 1930-1953, file 901, National Archives-Pacific Sierra Region.
22. Superintendent's Monthly Report, August 6, 1963, 4; see also report for August 4, 1964, 3, for a similar action by a driver crossing Paisley Cone. Resource Management Plan, 1966, 33. Of greater significance, it seems, was that raking, while considered the best form of rehabilitating the fragile cinders, never returned the sites to their original conditions, and it was costly in terms of labor especially if not carried out by the perpretrators themselves.
24. Superintendent's Monthly Report, November 8, 1952. There is no indication as to the extent or amount of cinders removed from the monument (or for that matter the location). Even though cinder hauling does not appear as an issue in the monument's records after this, the potential always seems to exist. The 1976 Statement for Management notes that lava landscaping for new housing in the area poses a risk.
30. For early information on Devil's Sewer consult Robert Zink's section on trails and natural history. A 1943 monument map edition shows both the Devil's Sewer and the Lava Snake referred to by Houston. Later Devil's Sewer disappears from monument maps. For description of the site, see Edgar P. Menning, Interpretive Prospectus for Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1964, 16. Superintendent's Monthly Report, September 7, 1962, 3.
34. Ibid., 50-51. Note: it seems that this was the first time guidelines were set for scientific research; it is unclear what the guidelines said, or if they were just judgement calls based on the staff's discretion. Also it is unclear as to what state laws could have been established; the monument is a proprietary jurisdiction, I think. There are some county ordinances that apply specifically to the monument. Contor may have been concerned with being able to try cases in local as opposed to regional or district courts.
39. Essentially, Contor was advocating removal of camping altogether since most visitors used the monument as a rest area or cheap camping spot. There were also questions of aesthetics and design; the campground lay too close to the administrative and park housing structures and highway. RMP, 1966, 50, and CRMO Master Plan, 1966, 5. For an in depth explanation of Contor's plan, see Memorandum, Superintendent Roger Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, January 17, 1966, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 71A1326, FRC# 416899, box 1, file D 18, NA-PSR. See development section for more discussion on this topic. Note this recommendation also harkens back to Stearns' 1927 plan.
40. The Master Plan for Preservation and Use: Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1966, 6 and 10. The road would have circumnavigated the butte, allowing visitors to see all the representative features of the monument by completing the road tour of the area with the tree molds near Trench Mortar Flat.
46. Telephone interview with David Clark. See also Memorandum, Superintendent Jonathan B. Jarvis to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, February 24, 1992, Central Classified Files, file N 16, CRMO.
50. Monument records for the spatter cones' management are sparse, due to the purging of records in the past, yet more research might yield better information. One source of information is the monument's photo collection which gives some indication of the density of visitors and their relatively unrestrained activities. See discussion under developments for more information on trails.
51. CRMO Photo Collection, D 30, Negative No. 1171. Note also that the 1964 Interpretive Prospectus, 29, discusses the site, stating that railings should be installed, trails to back cones obliterated, the trail up the second cone paved, and descriptive and explanatory signs about the geology and sensitivity of the site created and installed.
53. Resource Management Plan for Craters of the Moon National Monument, 31. Note: the trails around the cones and partially up Big Craters were paved or hard packed in 1954. See Superintendent's Monthly Report, August and September 1954.
54. Memorandum, Superintendent Paul Fritz to Chief, DCSSC, October 31, 1966, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 70A1355, FRC# 34935, box 3, file D 2215, NA-PSR. This file includes photos of Fritz's plans. Other information comes from personal interviews with Fritz.
56. Quoted in 1982 Resource Management Plan, 21. Funding for the project and delays exemplify Hentges' decision to await special funding rather than using available cyclic maintenance money. This approach extended to other matters as well, representing the superintendent's procedure of saving money to return to the regional pool at the end of the fiscal year. Interview with Robert Hentges.
58. RMP, 1982, 21. The monument also enlisted the aid of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, inquiring as to their experience and suggestions on rehabilitation projects of spatter cones. See Memorandum, February 17, 1982, Craters of the Moon National Monument, Central Classified Files, file N 16.
60. Details of the rehabilitation projects are somewhat sketchy but the overall accomplishments are well documented. Consult the RMP for 1982 and 1987, 5-6, 20-22 and 43-45 respectively. Also consult Memorandum, June 13, 1983, CRMO, CCF, Yellows, file L 7617.
74. RMP, 1982, 35. Investigation of the caves would also determine which caverns will be actively managed for visitor use, and which ones will be used for research, or simply documented and left alone.
75. Great Owl had the chain ladder, outfitted in 1929, then the wooden stairs. Indian Tunnel had wooden stairs, then metal stairs. Moreover, ladder access predated monument establishment. See discussion of area's creation.
77. Superintendent's Report for 1974, 3 and 1983, 4. Information on recent impacts come from conversations with monument staff. Twice during 1974 monument staff had to repair the gate as a result of vandalism. For similar reasons, the tunnel received further impact and rehabilitation in the 1980s and most recently within the last few years.
78. The monument did this even though the act's guidelines exempt the Park Service caves from being nominated for significance, since Craters of the Moon's enabling legislation, for instance, mentions the caves as an important feature of the monument's mission--making them significant without any analysis.
80. Memorandum, entitled, Grazing in Craters of the Moon National Monument, February 16, 1931, RG 79, Central Classified Files, Craters of the Moon National Monument, file 0.35, part 5, National Archives. The sections were 25, 26, 27, and 34, T. 2 N., R. 24 E.
85. John Thomas to Thomas C. Stanford, January 31, 1931; Thomas to Stanford, February 20, 1931, Thomas C. Stanford Papers, box 2, file 6, Boise State University. Also see discussion in section on legislation and land issues.
86. There is an abundance of correspondence which relates to this issue in Thomas C. Stanford's papers. However, for a specific reference, see F. W. Mondell to John Thomas, February 12, 1931, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA. Horace Albright to John Thomas, February 12, 1931, ibid.
87. Moore to Albright, February 17, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA. Arno B. Cammerer to Addison T. Smith, June 10, 1931, Thomas C. Stanford Papers, box 2, file 6, Boise State University.
89. Burton C. Lacombe to Director, National Park Service, July 6, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 035, part 8, NA. Lacombe pointed out that deer were valuable scenically to visitors and that also sheep trampled vegetation in addition to grazing, ruining sage hen habitat as well.
92. Albright to Lacombe, August 12, 1931; Lacombe to Albright, August 28, 1931; Toll to Albright, October 15, 1931; Albright to Lacombe, November 25, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 8, NA. Jo G. Martin to Horace M. Albright, December 31, 1931, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 9, NA. By no means did objection to the policy disappear; only the Service had established itself and found a majority backing for its policies. See discussion in sections on legislative history and lands.
99. Superintendent's Monthly Report, September 8, 1965, 3; October 5, 1965, 3; November 5, 1965, 2. Interview with Roger Contor, September 6, 1990. Having come from a sheep herder family, Contor felt advantaged in dealing with the rancher. Sheep could be controlled, and the repeated violations warranted legal action. Contor monitored Barker's activities by either walking or riding on horseback the northern boundary, and warned Barker not only by ticket but verbally.
106. The water supply fencing is covered under a later heading, but Hentges was pointing out the fact that this fencing met the same fate from snow as he predicted for the proposed fencing project mentioned above.
111. Memorandum, Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region to Files, February 2, 1976, CCF, L 3019, CRMO. See also Robert J. Hentges to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, November 13, 1975, CCF, file L 58, CRMO for water quality discussion.
116. Superintendent's Annual Report for 1978, 10. It should be noted that other documents, such as the 1987 RMP, indicate that the project was undertaken in 1976, while source materials prove otherwise.
117. Hentges believed that the Barkers should carry their weight and build on the state lands to the monument boundary, and refuse to supply materials if this did not happen. Evidently, he capitulated. See, for instance, Memorandum, Robert J. Hentges to Files, June 21, 1976, and for his inquiries to the possibility of state permission, Hentges to Bob Sherwood, Idaho Fish and Game Department, January 11, 1977, CCF, file L 3019, CRMO.
119. Memorandum, Robert J. Hentges to Richard G. Prasil, Resource Management Division, Pacific Northwest Region, March 24, 1976, RG 79 CCF, CRMO, Acc. 84 0006, FRy. 37277, box 1, file L 3019, NA-PNR. Memorandum, Acting Superintendent, Craters of the Moon to Richard G. Prasil, Resource Management Division, Pacific Northwest Region, August 8, 1977, RG 79, Acc. 84 0006, FRy. 37277, box 1, file L 3019, NA-PNR.
134. Memorandum, Harlan F. Hobbs, Chief, Division of Lands, Pacific Northwest Regional Office to Chief, Water Resources Division, National Park Service, February 11, 1988, file L 1425, ibid. For more discussion on this issue, see section on legislative history.
135. Superintendent's Annual Report, 1988, 3. Also see, Craters of the Moon National Monument: Boundary Fencing Project: North End Unit, Environmental Assessment, June 1988, Technical Service Center, Denver Service Center.
139. A brief list of non-native plants and plant pests can be found in the most recent resource management plan. Among these are tent caterpillars, for which DDT was applied. See Superintendent's Monthly Report, May 1961.
140. Edward L. Joy, Preliminary Observations on the White Pine Rust Control Problem in Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, September 30, 1940, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 883, NA-PSR. Joy worked for the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Plant Disease Control, located in Spokane, Washington.
141. John C. Gynn to Aubrey F. Houston, April 5, 1951, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 883, NA-PSR; Daniel E. Davis to Assistant Regional Director, Operations, Western Region, March 23, 1964, file Y 22. CRMO Archives. Gynn worked for the same division as Joy noted above.
151. Memorandum, Daniel Davis to Superintendent Robert Hentges, Craters of the Moon National Monument, December 17, 1976, file Y 22, CRMO Archives. Apparently Mahoney's "saw-log" forestry philosophy did not sit well with Davis and neither did his "obnoxious" personality. Mahoney avoided encountering Davis at the regional office and the monument. When he arrived at the monument in the summer of 1964 and he discovered that Davis was actually there, Mahoney left and returned several days later once Davis had left on other business.
154. Memorandum, John G. Lewis, Acting Regional Director, Western Region to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, October 14, 1965; Memorandum, John M. Mahoney, Regional Forester, Western Region to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, file Y 22, CRMO Archives. Memorandum, Roger J. Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, January 17, 1966, RG 79, Acc. 71A1326, FRC# 416899, box 1, file D 18, NA-PSR.
156. Memorandum, Paul Fritz to Regional Director, Western Region, December 12, 1967, CCF, file 2619, CRMO. "The advisability of using the most interesting and frequently used portion of the National Monument for an experimental control program has been strongly questioned by outside interests." Note that Fritz also comments that Mahoney recommended the program be deferred; apparently, he changed his mind.
162. RMP, 1966, 36-38. Quotes are from Memorandum, Superintendent Roger J. Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, January 17, 1966, RG 79, Acc. 71A1326, FRC# 416899, box 1, file D 18, NA PSR. Contor was most likely referring to the "Echo Crater" fire road built for the Coyote Butte fire. See section on developments.
177. Thomas R. Dunlap, "Wildlife, Science, and the National Parks, 1920-1940," Pacific Historical Review, 59 (May 1990), 187-202, provides a good introduction to changes in Park Service policy. It should also be noted that while the Park Service did not actively eliminate other species, livestock interests systematically killed grizzly bear known to exist in the monument, the last taken in 1923. Also elk, black bear, cougar, and bison were known to live in the region, but today many do not exist or are few in number due to loss of habitat or extermination.
178. The first three custodians reported only wildlife populations and observations in their monthly reports, giving the impression that active management was not practiced, or the threat did not exist to the extent it did as population increased in the region at mid-century.
179. There are essentially three types of illegal hunters: the ignorant hunter who is not aware he is on Park Service land; the potentially honest citizen who cannot resist the temptation to bring back a prize deer from within the monument, and the poacher who operates of business by guiding trophy hunters into the monument, or who wants to win a big buck contest. Either way, the latter pose the greatest threat, since they are hardest to catch and present the most serious threat to the breeding gene pool.
180. Memorandum, Custodian Craters of the Moon National Monument to the Director, October 16, 1945, RG 79, Central Classified Records, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1934-1953, file 720-047, National Archives-Pacific Sierra Region.
181. Memorandum, Acting Director to Regional Director, Region Four, January 11, 1946; Memorandum, Regional Director to Custodian, Craters of the Moon National Monument, October 29, 1945, ibid. As Tomlinson stated: "While it is realized that wildlife is not abundant at the Monument, nevertheless this 47,451 acre area sustains forms of fauna which should be continuously observed and evaluated. Wildlife conditions are never static and there should be much interest and value to report at the end of the yearly period. In the future we should like to have a more comprehensive summary of the year's activity and observations."
193. Wildlife reports cited elsewhere, for example, make note of vegetation conditions in the northern region. Also see Jennifer A. Blakesley, A Review of Scientific Research at Craters of the Moon National Monument, Bulletin 50, Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, (Moscow: University of Idaho, 1988), 19.
195. It is unclear as to when the first deer study was initiated; that is, who approached whom and when. Contor remembers starting the research of the herd, and Fritz recalls continuing the program. See respective interviews.
196. Memorandum, Merle E. Stitt, Acting Assistant Regional Director, Operations, Western Region to Superintendent Paul Fritz, September 30, 1968, RG 79, CRMO, Acc. 74A598, FRC# 19941, file N 22, box 7, NA-PNR.
200. For the boundary marking program, see Superintendent's Annual Report for 1976, 6 and 11. The markers consisted of rock cairns, about four feet high, set about fifty yards apart, marked with yellow paint.
206. Memorandum, Robert J. Hentges to Associate Regional Director, Recreation and Professional Services, Pacific Northwest Region, February 29, 1984, CCF, file N 22, CRMO, 2. Reducing the lawns was a more acceptable idea.
207. Beginning in 1992, the monument altered the type of vegetation monitoring; the original transects, put in place during Ritchie's study and modified by Griffith, were considered too difficult to read.
208. BLM is another agency concerned with the deer herd; an unsigned memorandum with this agency and Fish and Game exists, but there is at this writing no evidence that a formal written agreement was ever documented.
212. Interview with Robert Hentges. See also Neil King to Don Wright, District Conservation Officer, Department of Fish and Game, December 17, 1983, Yellows, file W 34, CRMO Archives, and Memorandum, Hentges to Regional Director, June 25, 1984.
214. The most recent, 1992, resource management plan notes that radionuclide monitoring has been ongoing since the early 1980s, and that restrictions apply to visitor use during hunting season in the form of hiking and biking.
215. Memorandum, Herbert Maier, Acting Regional Director, Region Four to Superintendent Aubrey Houston, Craters of the Moon, August 24, 1951, CRMO, CCF, file 700-01, National Archives--Pacific Sierra Region. The memo referred to a NPS trend in restoration. The superintendent it referred to was Aubrey Houston.
223. Memorandum, Roger J. Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, February 11, 1966, CCF, file N 16, CRMO. Quotation, Memorandum, John G. Lewis to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, August 20, 1965, CCF, file N 16, CRMO.
224. Brent W. Ritchie, "Status of the Craters of the Moon National Monument Deer Herd," M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho, 1968. Memorandum, Paul Fritz to Regional Director, Western Region, April 11, 1969, RG 79, CRMO, Acc. 74 A598, FRy. 19941, file N 16, box 7, NA-PNR.
229. Horace M. Albright to the Director, July 15, 1927, RG 79 CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 3, NA. Albright was acting on the recommendation of Acting Chief Civil Engineer Bert H. Burrell. For documentation of eradication see, for example, Custodian's Monthly Reports of August 1, 1927, 3; September 1, 1927, 3; July 1, 1928; September 1, 1928, 2; September 1, 1933.
243. Memorandum, Assistant Solicitor, Parks and Recreation Branch, Division of Conservation and Wildlife to Chief, Water Rights Branch, Water Resources Division, February 26, 1986; Memorandum, Chief, Water Resources Division to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, March 3, 1986, CCF, file L 54, CRMO. Quote from February 26 memo.
257. For general information on INEL, see Carlos Schwantes, In Mountain Shadows: A History of Idaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991), 218-219. Some of this material comes from an Craters of the Moon internal briefing paper on the air quality issue and the monument's relationship with INEL and the state of Idaho, dated October 1991, author's research files. Hereinafter cited as "Briefing Paper."
263. Memorandum, Robert E. Scott to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, August 12, 1987, CCF, file N 36, Yellows, CRMO. This was part of the Washington office's 1988 12 point plan air quality initiative.
276. This information is derived from a variety of sources. For planning status, see Memorandum, Superintendent Robert E. Scott to Chief, Air Quality Division, July 17, 1990; for state practices, see Nagel to Scott, July 25, 1989, and Memorandum, John P. Christiano, Chief, Air Quality Division, to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, June 14, 1990; for interagency agreement, see "Briefing Paper."
277. This is not to say that INEL represents the only threat, just the most apparent. As Superintendent Scott recalled, DOE may not be held accountable and its activities in assisting the monument just a public relations ploy--should studies "fingerprint" INEL operations.
279, See discussion under land issues. Even as late as 1950, new mining claims threatened the monument's resources, if only by accident. On July 29 of that year Elmo Howard accidentally located a mine and cabin within the monument's northern unit in Section 28. Acting Superintendent Robert Zink discovered that the claim actually resided within Craters of the Moon after conducting a northwestern boundary reexamination during the summer of 1952. After notification by Superintendent Aubrey Houston around August 15, Howard agreed to terminate his operations, and by September 20 had begun activity in a canyon adjacent to the boundary. Houston to Regional Director, September 20, 1952. The regional director was concerned about the removal of the cabin and the restoration of the mining site within the monument, and impressed this upon Houston. The Service because of what appeared to be an honest mistake with the northern boundary agreed to let Howard have several years to comply. It is not known what date Howard completed his removal and restoration. It is clear from Houston's memo that he did cancel his operation, however. See Memorandum, Acting Regional Director, Herbert Maier to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, September 30, 1952, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, 1930-1953, file 609-01, NA-PSR.
281. Superintendent's Annual Report for 1981, 2. See also, Robert J. Hentges to National Park Service EMM, October 16, 1984, CCF, file A 76, CRMO. One building had been removed by the owner in the 1960s.
290. Memorandum, Roger J. Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, May 18, 1966, file L 3031. Evidently, the REA had more heavy-handed ideas. They attempted to secure a permit along the monument's highway as a leverage tool to secure their proposed route across the northern section. The idea of cluttering the view with overhead lines along the highway was thought a good method of securing their original route. However, the state denied their request. It is not known at this time when, and if, the line was built. It would have only clipped a corner of the monument, leaving the Martin townsite, up Lava Creek and down Big Cottonwood. See Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 7, 1966.
293. Memorandum, Robert E. Scott to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1987. Scott was most writing in regard to Public Law 100-91, for the study of overflight noise in some units of the NPS system, which passed on August 18, 1987.
296. Robert W. Limbert, "Among the 'Craters of the Moon,'" National Geographic, 45 (March 1924), 303-328, for example, 328; Harold T. Stearns, "A Guide to the Craters of the Moon National Monument," Bulletin of the Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology, 13 (July 1928), 41. Custodian's Monthly Reports for July 1929 and 1935. A cave is called Moonshine after discovery of the still.
299. Memorandum, Aubrey Neasham to Assistant Regional Director, Region Four, May 1, 1952, CCF, CRMO, 1930-1953, box 267, file 101.01, NA-PSR. Barry Mackintosh, Assateague Island National Seashore: An Administrative History (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1982), vii.
302. Mission 66 Prospectus, Craters of the Moon National Monument, April 1956. Monument officials were aware of Limbert's importance to the monument in the late 1930s when it was suggested that Sunset Cone be renamed in his honor. See Acting Director Hillory A. Tolson to Custodian, Craters of the Moon National Monument, August 12, 1938, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, box 269, file 731-01, NA-PSR.
303. Earl H. Swanson to Dr. Paul J. F. Schumacher, April 21, 1960; Memorandum, Paul J. F. Schumacher to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, July 3, 1963; Memorandum, Superintendent Daniel E. Davis to Regional Director, Western Region, May 22, 1964, file H 22, CRMO Archives. Schumacher described Butler as an person with a volatile personality, questionable professional ethics, and something of a rogue. Schumacher cited several cases where Butler had worked with the Park Service, Mesa Verde and the Dalles, as evidence for his opinion. Davis formed his opinion of Butler after meeting with him and after receiving information from a colleague at Mesa Verde that Butler was "a dirty beatnik."
307. The 1966 master plan, for instance, noted the presence of archaeological sites, and that Goodale's Cutoff was the only site of historic significance. There were also a number of agency initiatives that seem to have been overlooked or ignored due to funding and lack of perceived need. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Superintendent Paul Fritz responded to regional proposals about resource studies in archaeology, history, and architecture as "desirable," but not "pressing." Some of these studies included historical base maps and historical surveys. See, for example, Memorandum, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument to Director, October 19, 1966; Memorandum, Regional Director, Region Four to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, March 26, 1969, file H 22, CRMO Archives. An Ethno-historical Study and Historical Base Map Basic Data Study was proposed for 1970, but was never funded.
308. For more discussion on monument buildings see sections on development. The only buildings left from the original period of the monument's establishment are an old warehouse and the log comfort station.
310. Memorandum, Robert J. Hentges to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, October 31, 1978, CCF, file H 30, CRMO. Memorandum, Acting Regional Director, Professional Support, Charles F. Bohannon to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, August 2, 1973; Memorandum, Associate Regional Director, Planning and Resource Preservation, Glenn D. Gallison to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, June 2, 1977, file H 22, CRMO Archives.
313. Lawrence originally gave the whole collection to the monument, which was not capable of handling the materials, nor interested in those that did not pertain to Craters of the Moon. After dividing the collection, Clark convinced Lawrence to donate the rest to BSU. The monument was incapable of managing such an important collection for a variety of reasons--staff, space, facilities. Currently, the monument's part of the collection is on a five-year, renewable loan agreement. Personal interview with David Clark, September 24, 1991. The following memoranda cover some of the Limbert collection's development: Robert J. Hentges to Regional Historian, Pacific Northwest Region, August 4, 1983; David Clark to Margaret Lawrence, November 14, 1983; Clark to Lawrence, May 10, 1984; Robert J. Hentges to Arthur Hart, August 2, 1984, CCF, file F 5415, Yellows, CRMO. See also Superintendent Annual Reports for the appropriate years.
316. See the 1992 resource management plan under its discussion of cultural resource projects. As for the log buildings, see Memorandum, Superintendent Robert E. Scott to Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region, March 12, 1991, CCF, file A 54, CRMO. Scott filled out a report of surveys on the structures thinking that with new developments proposed by the general development plan that they would no longer be needed. Yet since the buildings have not been evaluated, this action was blocked.
11. These figures represent an approximation of the land acreage totals presented in the draft general management plan, November 1991, 19. I exclude from the "natural zone" the "outstanding natural features subzone" of 779 acres because its features are adjacent to the loop drive, the area of concentrated recreation.
15. See, for example, Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Construction of a Wilderness Trail Spur, Craters of the Moon National Monument, August 1974, CCF, file L 76, CRMO. Hentges maintained that the trail was important to avoid visitors walking back along the road to reach the Broken Top or Buffalo Caves access; to avoid social trails from the parking lot across the proposed route, solving safety issues as well in the rough terrain, and making the wilderness access more readily apparent.
23. Mission 66 Prospectus, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 27. Yet it was also pointed out that weather just as much as cultural or technological changes influenced visitor-use patterns. Interest in winter skiing at the monument, for example, had waned as a result of poor snow conditions over the past fifteen to twenty years. This might also provide a reason for lack of continued interest in building a resort in the monument.
24. Master Plan for Preservation and Use, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1966, 8. Although the extension of the loop drive did not occur because of the redrawn wilderness boundaries, and the campground was never moved, for example, the theme was one of developing recreational opportunities as they were anticipated.
27. Resource Management Plan, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1987, 82-83. See, for example, discussion in sections on expansion. Increases in regional recreation influenced the master plan study of the early 1970s, and was also addressed in the recent expansion and general management plan studies.
8. Albert T. Bicknell to Everett W. Bright, October 9, 1956, file H 18, CRMO Archives. It is unknown at this time where Shepherd's material is. He was conducting the trip after his season was over at the monument. As Bicknell recalled, in the above citation, "I objected to him making the trip across the lava to Minidoka alone but he did get permission from the Washington Office. Of course, he made the trip at his own risk....He had to leave some of the pack he started with. Ran out of food, and came very close to not making it. He was a pretty scared and tired boy by the last day. Said that he was giad he did make the trip but nothing could induce him to do it again..."
9. See Ansel F. Hall, Chief, Field Division of Education to Custodian, A.T. Bicknell, August 9, 1935, CCF, CRMO, 1933-1953, file 620-46, NA-PSR. While Hall does not specifically mention the "new" emphasis Mackintosh does, and this letter documents the request for a prospectus from Craters of the Moon.
17. In 1951 the Research and Interpretation Division changed to the Interpretation in 1954; Ronald F. Lee was chief and there was a regional interpreter at each of the regional offices to run the programs in the parks.
26. Interpretive Prospectus for Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1965, file K, CRMO Archives, 1. All reference to the prospectus is drawn from this document in the subsequent discussion, unless otherwise noted.
30. Memorandum, Paul Fritz to Regional Director, Western Region, August 23, 1968, ibid., 2. This was part of the FOST system, which saw interpretation as a duty which could be performed by technical rather than professional staff. The irony at the monument was that the divisions still functioned separately after they were merged. A former chief naturalist, Robert Reynolds, remembered being instructed by the chief ranger, Robert Ferris, that he wanted nothing to do with interpretation, and Reynolds operated independently. Telephone interview with Reynolds, October 11, 1991.
31. The Superintendent's Annual Report for 1978 shows this change. For further discussion of Hentges' intention see personal interview, September 17, 1990, and for Park Service trends, see Barry Mackintosh, 98.
35. Ibid. Some research occurred during the late 1960s and early 1970s. But in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a substantial amount, unraveling some of the Great Rift's mysteries at the monument was conducted. This was initiated in 1977 by USGS geologist Mel Kuntz. Prior to this most information about the monument was derived from research on Hawaii. While some applied to the monument, not all information pertained to the monument. In addition, a significant amount of research has surfaced recently on the Snake River Plain and Yellowstone National Park, some of it precipitated by investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.
47. Superintendent's Monthly Report, August 10, 1959, 3. See Mission 66 Edition master plan for mention of auto caravan as important part of program. 1964 Interpretive Prospectus, 39-40 discusses the lack of activity in the guided walks program, but earlier reports describe this as both a case of lack of seasonal naturalists and interest by visitors. See Superintendent's Monthly Report, August 4, 1961, 3.
51. In addition, the sense is that with the introduction of collecting an entrance fee there were not enough man hours left to conduct the program at night, or perhaps that the end of the New Deal appropriations affected the monument in terms of staffing. See Zink study, chapter entitled "Trail Development and Natural History," 64.
52. Craters of the Moon Master Plan Development Outline, CCF, CRMO, 1933-1953, file 830, NA-PSR. See also Superintendent's Monthly Report, July 6, 1951 and June 5, 1953 for examples of interpretative activity during Houston's tenure.
56. Memorandum, Chief Park Naturalist to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, June 3, 1963, file A, folder 2, CRMO Archives. The screen periodically blew down in high afternoon winds, and the electrical wiring was rigged from the comfort station fuse box.
70. Superintendent Paul Fritz to Louise Shadduck, April 3, 1971, file K 34, CRMO Archives. Fritz noted that travel statistics showed an increase after ending Opening Day, but he did, it seems, emphasize that the monument would observe its establishment day.
85. Superintendent's Monthly Report, January 3, 1964. Some sites have been changed or modified. Interpretation of the North Crater Flow replaced the Devil's Sewer; there used to be two Inferno Cone pullouts or viewpoints, and since approximately the mid-1970s, the crest of Inferno Cone has functioned as a scenic viewpoint of the lava landscape within and around the monument.
90. Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 5, 1961; August 4, 1961. See also Memorandum, Edgar Menning to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, July 2, 1963, file A, folder 2, CRMO Archives.
92. Calling the Devil's Sewer a lava tube might be misleading. The site is something of a mystery since it no longer exists, making it difficult to identify. Some photos exist yet do not seem to correspond with any physical evidence. The feature might be better labeled a fold or roll of pahoehoe. Whatever the case, it was significant enough to have the whole area called the "Devil's Sewer."
94. Ibid. Plans for the signs appear in the 1964 Prospectus and in the Sign and Wayside Exhibit Plan, January 25, 1965; the latter indicates that most signs were installed around this time. For the date of the trail design, see, Superintendent's Monthly Report, September 8, 1965, 2.
98. The location and content of the waysides presented a point of contention between the regional office and the monument staff. The monument favored the location on the highway while the regional specialists favored a site within the park, atop Big Craters. The intent with this suggestion was apparently to comply with a Park Service initiative to interpret air quality from within a park and using park resources. The monument staff argued that the monument was not large enough to adequately demonstrate the visibility problems associated with air pollution, while the landmark of Big Southern Butte provided the best feature to exemplify this issue. See Memorandum, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument to Chief, Interpretation and Visitor Services, Pacific Northwest Region, February 17, 1987; Memorandum, Deputy Regional Director, Pacific Northwest Region to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, March 19, 1987, CCF, file D 6215, Yellows, CRMO. Clark interview.
102. For more information see section on concessions. Essentially, like all natural history associations, the business at the monument serves an important role in supplying the interpretive program with funding it would otherwise not receive or would receive too late through bureaucratic channels.
1. Ronald A. Foresta, America's National Parks and Their Keepers (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1984), 29-30. Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979), 170-173. In 1917, national parks saw around 487,000 visitors and in 1983 around 240 million. See National Parks for a New Generation (Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 1985), 69.
5. See discussion in section on the monument's administrative evolution. Specifically, Memorandum, Superintendent Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, Region Four, January 27, 1950, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 306-06, NA-PSR.
8. Craters of the Moon Preliminary Master Plan, 1973, file D, CRMO Archives. Fritz envisioned that a proposed recreation area-resort at the Blizzard Mountain junction, three miles northeast of the monument, would provide camping and overnight facilities for monument visitors, and envisioned that the monument's administrative offices would be transferred to Arco, leaving the headquarters complex intact but without any additions.
11. Information for the building of the loop road is not complete. See Robert Zink's chapter, "Loop Drive and Approach Road Developments," 34-44. Also see, completion report maps for Public Works Project F.P 245.
12. Zink, "Loop Drive and Approach Roads Development," 35. It is still somewhat unclear as to where the exact location of the entrance roads were. Apparently, people from both Arco and Hailey worked to shorten and ease the route to the monument.
13. Arno B. Cammerer to Addison T. Smith, April 13, 1925, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 2, NA. Cammerer states that it was only a two year program offered, but other sources refer to it as a five year program. See Bert Burrell's 1927 report.
15. Bert H. Burrell to Director, National Park Service, July 21, 1927, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 035, part 3, NA, 3; Custodian's Monthly Report, October 1, 1927, 2. The Hailey entrance was apparently never fully abolished, and it seems that the reason the other entrance needed to be closed was due to the fact that it was located south of the new headquarters site. It was necessary to relocate here so that tourists could receive water from the concession, since the only reason visitors came to the first headquarters site was because of its waterhole.
18. It seems that the eastern entrance was located on the eastern side of Sunset Ridge--originally. The 1930s master plans called the new entrance constructed by Moore the "eastern" entrance since drivers from the east entered here.
19. Ibid. Besides adding to the quality of the visitor's experience, these improvements represented an important achievement because they meant less time that the custodian would have to expend on guiding the traveling public through the monument, since it was more self-guiding, and meant that he had more time to concentrate on other management issues.
20. After inspecting one such road proposal from Kimama in the summer of 1926, state and federal highway engineers were apparently so unimpressed with the idea that they never drafted a report. Custodian's Monthly Report, July 8, 1926.
21. Bureau of Public Roads, Preliminary Investigation Report on Craters of the Moon National Monument: Echo Crater Road, 1935, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 600, NA-PSR, 1-3. The system was made up of five sections.
24. Preliminary Investigation Report to Deputy Chief Architect on Construction Program and Reconnaissances of Inferno Cone [sic] to Echo Crater Road Locations--Craters of the Moon National Monument, January 6, 1936, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 600, NA-PSR.
26. J. Voiney Lewis, Road Location at Craters of the Moon National Monument, August 11, 1936, RG 79, CCF, CRMO 1934-1953, file 630, NA-PSR. For a more extensive report see, J. Volney Lewis, Proposed Road Extensions at Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho," September 21, 1936, ibid. Note in this latter study Lewis expanded on his observations and also on the location of the road south of Broken Top.
32. Memorandum, O.A. Tomlinson to the Director, August 21, 1944, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 304, NA-PSR. Tomlinson cited his earlier July 21, 1943 report as reason for eliminating the construction proposal.
35. Some discussion existed as to which would be more administratively advantageous, a connection inside or outside the boundaries, and no existing reference describes what happened. Yet it is assumed from the existence of old road sections in the northern unit that realignment occurred in the monument. See above reference for material on this issue.
39. Completion Report, Construction and Improvement of Roads, Craters of the Moon National Monument, [title is my own] RG 79, Acc. 73A1296, FRC# 28077, box 2, NA-PNR. One note of interest is that monument managers fought to have the length of road between the spatter cones and the spur to Broken Top paved; regional planners at first wanted to removed the road section and fill it in, leaving a huge scar in the process. Monument officials were able to convince the planners that visitors would object to the "Y" design in the road and solved the problem.
41. Henderson stated that the cinders were of poor quality for road construction due to their "excessive compaction rate, high oil absorption, and the extensive expansion and contraction during temperature changes..." He recommended that the cinders not be used in any further construction in the area. Furthermore some road sections never received adequate surfacing due to funding cutbacks; these were the spur roads to Broken Top and Devil's Orchard. See completion report. See completion report and Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 11, 1959.
42. Memorandum, P.E. Smith to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monument, May 4, 1965; James A. Burton to Superintendent Roger J. Contor, June 7, 1965; Memorandum, Donald L. Bressler to Region Director, Western Region, March 3, 1966, RG 79, Acc. 71 A1326, FRC# 416907, box 9, file D 30, NA-PSR. Information for tbe repavement is in the above citation, supplemented by a personal interview with Paul Fritz, August 30, 1990. The road revision eliminated the former parking lot and replaced it with a new one at the present location. A date of 1968 is an unconfirmed date for this construction.
44. Road System Evaluation Study, Denver Service Center, draft, January 1991. Note that the study proffers theories for the physical condition of the road and reiterates the theories expressed by Henderson in the late 1950s and early 1960s--that the cinder material was inferior, "crushing under the weight of traffic," and then the "expansion and contraction of the pavement caused by extreme temperature variations cause lateral cracks to form every 50 to 100 feet." (14)
45. The new general management plan brings some old issues to light, such as the fact that curbing might pin in cyclists but it also keeps drivers on the road and off the cinders. It should also be noted that there are other activities in road maintenance. Aside from general maintenance practices, snow removal constituted a costly form of maintenance during the winter months when the loop road was cleared to the Devil's Orchard junction. With the advent of the energy crisis in the early 1970s, however, the Park Service ended this practice. In December 1973, Superintendent Fritz announced that no portion of the loop drive would be kept open, and only the visitor center parking area would be free of snow.
54. Resource Management Plan, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 1982, 40-42. See discussion in resource management chapter. The trails on the spatter cones were relocated, and many were closed. Also another example was the Inferno Cone trail, although it was not paved. In the early 1960s, for example, Park Service officials recognized that the trails around the Big Craters and Spatter Cones needed revisions. These included the elimination of the trail around the rim of crater and the sidehill shortcut, as well as numerous revisions to the Spatter Cone trails. This included both pave and unpaved trails. See Memorandum, Regional Chief, Branch of Operational Plans and Requirements, Western Region to Regional Chief of Operations and Maintenance, Western Region, September 6, 1963, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 71 A1326, FRC# 416907, box 9, file D 30, NA-PSR. Also see sections on resource management.
59. Custodian's Monthly Report, October 1, 1927. Burrell to Moore, July 22, 1927, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 3, NA. See also section on concessions for the deal worked out between the Park Service and operator to supply water before the system was completed. The new headquarters was built as of July 30, 1927; See monthly report for August.
67. Custodian's Monthly Reports, July 3 and December 2, 1940 document the construction and completion of two of the cabins. The completion of the other two, which seems to have occurred, was delayed by bad weather.
74. For information on these years, see Memorandum, Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, February 20, 1952, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 600, NA-PSR; Houston to Regional Director, November 20, 1952, file 204, ibid. Quote in Memorandum, Sanford Hill to Superintendent, Craters of the Moon, January 15, 1951, file 204, ibid. It details the cuts in funding.
76. Custodian's Monthly Report, July 2, 1957; December 2, 1958. Completion Report, Obliteration of Structures, Abandoned Roads and Building Sites, Headquarters Area, RG 79, Acc. 76 A1062, FRC# 131596, box 3, file D 2621, NA-PNR. For concessions, see concessions section.
82. Contor to Regional Director, February 24, 1965. In addition to routine interior and exterior projects, storm windows were needed for the visitor center to reduce heating expenses, $900 a year in fuel oil, cutting deeply into the monument's operating budget.
84. Superintendent's Annual Report for 1982, 8. Telephone interview with Neil King, September 4, 1991. The housing issue was slightly more interrelated than stated here. It also represented Hentges' belief that staff should live on the monument in order to be "on call." However, a required occupancy did not apply, it seems, in this case. The poor living conditions apparently made it possible for permanent staff to live elsewhere.
86. Superintendent's Annual Report for 1990, 5. The final residence remodeling was scheduled to be finished in late 1990 or early 1991. The heating system conversion occurred in 1986. See annual report for that year.
88. In the planning stages it was suggested that elimination of the campground operation might add more needed and useful funds to interpretation. One thought was to locate a campground on Bureau of Land Management land in the Big Cottonwood Creek area. Planners, such as Contor, held the figure of 200 campers as the limit to campground capacity, after which no more expansion would occur. See Memorandum, Superintendent Roger J. Contor to Regional Director, Western Region, January 17, 1966, RG 79, Acc. 71 A1326, FRC# 416899, box 1, file D 18, NA-PSR.
89. The Master Plan for Preservation and Use, Craters of the Moon National Monument, 11. See also, Memorandum, Superintendent Roger Contor to Regional Director, November 18, 1964; Contor to Regional Director, May 19, 1965; Regional Director to Contor, May 25, 1966, file L 3415, CRMO, Archives. Contor planned to name the new campground after a John O'Connell of Arco, who was an avid and long-time supporter of the monument, as a way to honor O'Connell's commitment to Craters of the Moon.
95. Completion Report of Construction Project--Utilities, November 13, 1956; November 9, 1957; August 31, 1964, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, Acc. 73A1296, FRC# 28077, box 2, NA-PNR. The project relocated some of the water line in the Little Cottonwood drainage.
97. Memorandum, Superintendent Aubrey F. Houston to Regional Director, January 6, 1950; Memorandum, Chief Consul, Jackson E. Price to Regional Director, June 16, 1952, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 661, NA-PSR. See also, Zink, "Electric Power Development." The main issues were, it seems, providing power to a remote are as economically as possible. As local ranches went on line that made it more profitable for the REA, but even so, Zink notes, the Park Service seems to have agreed to pay a higher monthly rate to receive commercial power.
1. See discussion under the creation of the monument for the role of guides, and the appointment of Paisley. There is no evidence to suggest that other custodians operated their own guide services following Paisley's retirement. Stephen T. Mather to Samuel A. Paisley, May 19, 1925; Arno B. Cammerer to Horace M. Albright, June 23, 1925, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 2, National Archives.
2. "U.P. Officials Visit Craters," Arco Advertiser, July 9, 1926. "Pack Train Concession in Craters Given to Limbert," Arco Advertiser. May 6, 1927; "Limbert Organizes Craters Moon Tours," Arco Advertiser, June 10, 1927. There is no Park Service record available at this time for Limbert's concession. Perhaps low visitation and little interest in riding through the hot, dry, and strange environment caused the horseback tours to fail. Limbert's concession activities, in addition, were an outgrowth of his grander promotional schemes for Idaho travel. In the midst of establishing the Craters of the Moon Tours, for example, the promoter was also involved in creating hotels in the Sawtooth Mountains, and planning auto tours from the Sawtooths to Craters of the Moon and Yellowstone National Park. With so many irons in the fire, it seems possible that Limbert sacrificed the venture at the monument for these other endeavors.
3. Stephen T. Mather to Samuel A. Paisley, October 28, 1926, RG 79, CCF, CRMO, file 0.35, part 2, NA. The influence of Union Pacific officials seems particularly relevant to the approval of Crater Inn, since Mather's consent came shortly after President Carl R. Gray visited the monument and later said he would talk to Mather about getting conveniences in general, in which "refreshments" were included. See, Arco Advertiser, July 9, 1926.
15. Mission 66 Prospectus, Craters of the Moon National Monument, April 1956. The concession also ended because the one of the owners died and the other decided not to continue the business, in addition to being left out of the Mission 66 plan.
19. Paul Fritz to Ralph O. Peyton, June 15, 1967; Memorandum, Superintendent Paul Fritz to Regional Director, Region Four, October 17, 1967, file C 26, CRMO Archives. Much of this information also comes from a personal interview with Paul Fritz. Fritz was something of an opportunist who believed that the rising commercial traffic along the monument highway could be exploited by private business and at the same time help provide visitor services for the monument.
20. Memorandum, Fritz to Regional Director, October 17, 1967. See Kirk to Fallini, August 22, 1967 for a schematic map of the new site. The proposed campground would have been at the junction of the monument water system road and Goodale's Cutoff, it seems, and the new road would follow its general direction.
21. Memorandum, Jesse L. Kirk to Joe T. Fallini, Bureau of Land Management State Director, August 22, 1967, file C 26, CRMO Archives. The sections to be transferred from the monument were 16 and 22, two areas of chronic trespass grazing problems. The BLM phrased the exchange as one in which grazing lands were exchanged for nongrazing lands, suiting the purposes of both agencies.
Last Updated: 27-Sep-1999