The list of source materials that follows is arranged according to the outline which is immediately below. The York County Records, as normally is the case in studies of this sort, constituted a major source of data and special mention should be made too of the various maps, plans, and diagrams that came out of the siege of 1781 along with various narrative accounts by participants in the battle. Also, the numerous Service reports (historical, archeological, and architectural) often provided helpful material, primary as well as secondary.
I. OFFICIAL RECORDS
II. PAPERS, CORRESPONDENCE, COLLECTIONS, RECOLLECTIONS
III. TRAVELS, JOURNALS, DIARIES, AND RELATED CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTS
IV. SPECIAL WORKS, GENERAL STUDIES
A. National Park Service
V. CARTOGRAPHIC, PHOTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED MATERIAL
A. 1781 Siege Plans
VI. NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, PERIODICALS
York County Court and Other Records. These include a variety of types of manuscript records dating from 1633; Deeds, Orders, Wills; Deeds and Bonds; Deeds; Deed Books; Wills and Deeds; Wills and Inventories; Will Books; Orders, Wills, etc.; Judgements and Orders; Order Books; Orders and Bonds; Plat Books; Land Books; Yorktown's Hustings Court Records, 1787-1793; Claims for Losses of York County Citizens in British Invasion of 1781; Loose Papers, etc. (Individual note citations give title, volume numbers, etc.)
Digges, Dudley. "A List of all Claims against the French Army and the Continental Army, where no receipts or Certificates were given for the Articles mentioned therein, January 1st 1782." Manuscript report of Dudley Digges in the Virginia State Archives, Richmond, Va. Photostatic copy in Colonial NHP library.
Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Other Manuscripts . . . Preserved in the Capitol at Richmond (1652-1869). Edited by William P. Palmer et al. Richmond, 1875-1893.
Executive Journals of the Council of State of Colonial Virginia (1680-1775). Edited by H. R. McIlwaine et al. 6 volumes.
Journals of the Council of State of Virginia (1776-1786). Edited by H. R. McIlwaine et al. 3 volumes. Richmond, Va., 1931-1952.
Official Letters of the Governors of Virginia (1776-1783). Edited by H. R. McIlwaine. 3 volumes. Richmond, Va., 1926-1929.
The Statutes at Large Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature, in the Year 1619. Compiled by William Wailer Hening, 13 volumes. Richmond, New York, or Philadelphia, 1809-1823.
Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals. Cases Decided by the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia. 147 (March-June Terms, 1926, and January-March Terms, 1927), pp. 736-57.
Census, First United States. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Enumerations: 1782 and 1785. Washington, D.C., 1908.
Civil War Official Records. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies prepared under the Direction of the Secretary of War. Washington, D.C. (Especially Series, Volume XI, Part I (Reports), and Series I, Volume XXIX.)
Continental Congress. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. Edited by Gaillard Hunt. Washington, D.C., 1922. (Especially Volume 24.)
Anderson, Robert. "Account Book of Legal Transactions, 1804-1858." Collections of the Virginia Historical Society.
Barry, William T. "Letters of William T. Barry," William and Mary Quarterly, 1st ser., 13 (1904).
British Museum, Additional Manuscripts No. 15484. London, England.
Campbell, Charles. "Notes (by an itinerant, Charles Campbell, the historian), Jamestown, Williamsburg and Yorktown." William and Mary Quarterly, 1st ser., 21, 136-138 as copied from the Southern Literary Messenger, 3 (1837), 237-38.
Colonial National Historical Park. Library collections, records, files, maps and plans, photographs, photostats, etc. (Items used are individually cited in the appropriate notes.)
Comte de Grasse Chapter, National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution. Chapter files at headquarters in Yorktown, Va.
Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Virginia. Charleston, S.C., 1845.
Jameson, David. "'...to level the works at York . . .': A Letter of David Jameson" [July 16, 1783]. Edited by Donald O. Dewey, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 71 (1963), 150-151.
Kibler, J. Luther. "The Story of the Swan Tavern Told at the December Meeting of the Comte de Grasse Chapter, D.A.R., Yorktown, Virginia by Dr. Clarence Porter Jones, of Newport News, December 6, 1929." A typewritten report in the files of Colonial NHP.
Lossing, Benson J. Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War in the United States of America. 3 volumes. New York, 1868.
______. Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution. 2 volumes. New York, 1859.
Mutual Assurance Society against Fire on Buildings of the State of Virginia. Manuscript policy records (photostatic copies) in the Colonial NHP library.
Reynolds, William. "Letter Book 1 and 2: Yorktown: 1771-1783." A typescript copy of the manuscript letter book in the Colonial NHP library.
Sears, Robert. A Pictorial Description of the United States. New York, 1857.
Sheild, Mrs. Conway H. "Chain of Title to Lot 56." A paper in the files of Colonial NHP.
A Swan Tavern manuscript accounts ledger. A book which in 1939 was the property of D. Newton Davidson, Newport News, Va.
"Voyage of H.M.S. Success and H.M.S. Norwich to Nova Scotia and Virginia 1754-1756." A manuscript log book in the Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va.
Yorktown Branch, Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. "Minutes Book" (February 18, 1921 December 19, 1934). A manuscript record book on deposit in the College of William and Mary library, Williamsburg, Va.
Ashbury, Francis. The Journal of the Rev. Francis Ashbury, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, from August 7, 1771, to December 7, 1815. 3 volumes. New York, 1821.
Burnaby, Rev. Andrew. Travels Through the Middle Settlements in North America, in the Years 1759 and 1760: With Observations Upon the State of the Colonies. 3rd edition, London, 1798 (2nd edition, London, 1775).
Carson, Jane. We Were There: Descriptions of Williamsburg 1699-1859. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (by the University Press of Virginia). Williamsburg, Va., 1965.
Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels in North-America in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782. 2 volumes. London, 1787 (2nd edition, reprinted by Arno Press, 1968).
Closen, Baron Von. The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig Von Closen 1780-1783. Translated and edited by Evelyn M. Acomb for the Institute of Early American History and Culture. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1958.
Coleman, Elizabeth, and Hemphill, John. "View at Little York in Virginia [by Benjamin Latrobe]," Virginia Cavalcade, 1 (Autumn, 1951).
Doehla, Conrad. "The Doehla Journal." Translated and edited by Robert J. Tilden, William and Mary Quarterly, 2nd ser., 22 (1942), 229-274.
Feltman, William. "The Journal of Lieut. William Feltman," Pennsylvania Historical Society Collections, 1, No. 5 (May, 1853).
Gordon, Lord Adam. "Journal of an Officer's [Lord Adam Gordon's] Travels in America and the West Indies, 1764-1765," in Travels in the American Colonies. Edited by Newton D. Mereness. New York, 1916.
Hunter, Robert, Jr. Quebec to Carolina in 1785-1786: Being the Travel Diary and Observations of Robert Hunter, Jr., a Young Merchant of London. Edited by Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling. San Marino, Calif., 1943.
Jones, Hugh. The Present State of Virginia. Edited by Richard L. Morton. Chapel Hill, N.C., c. 1956.
Macaulay, Alexander. "Journal, February, 1783," William and Mary Quarterly, 1st ser., 9 (1902-1903).
Martin, Joseph Plumb. Private Yankee Doodle: Being a Narrative of Some of the Adventures, Dangers and Sufferings of a Revolutionary Soldier [Joseph Plumb Martin]. Edited by George F. Sheer. Boston, Mass., c. 1962.
Popp's [Stephan Popp] Journal 1777-1783. Edited by Joseph G. Rosengarten. Reprint from the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Philadelphia, 1902.
La Rochefoucauld-Liancount, Francois Alexandre Frederic. Travels Through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797; With an Authentic Account of Lower Canada. London, 1799.
Schoepf, Johann David. "Travels of Schoepf," in Travels in Virginia in Revolutionary Times. Edited by Alfred J. Morrison. Lynchburg, Va., 1922.
______. Travels in the Confederation [1783-1784]. Translated and edited by Alfred J. Morrison. Philadelphia, 1911.
Simcoe, John Graves. A Journal of the Operations of the Queen's Rangers: From the End of the Year 1777 to the Conclusion of the Late American War. New York, 1844.
Strother, David Hunter. "'Porte Crayon' [Strother] in the Tidewater." Edited by Cecil D. Eby. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 67 (1959).
[Tallmadge, Samuel]. Orderly Books of the Fourth New York Regiment, 1778-1780, The Second New York Regiment, 1780-1783, by Samuel Tallmadge and Others with Diaries of Samuel Tallmadge, 1780-1782 and John Barr, 1779-1782. The University of the State of New York. Albany, N.Y., 1932.
Tarleton, Banastre. A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781, in the Southern Provinces of North America. London, 1787.
Thacher, James. Military Journal of the American Revolution. Hartford, Conn., 1862.
Thorpe, Margaret Newbold. "Life in Virginia by a 'Yankee Teacher,' Margaret Newbold Thorpe." Edited by Richard L. Morton. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 64 (April, 1956), 180-207.
Tucker, St. George. "St. George Tucker's Journal of the Siege of Yorktown." Edited by Edward M. Riley. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 5 (1948).
Weld, Isaac, Jr. Travels Through the States of North America and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, During the Year 1795, 1796 and 1797. 4th edition, London, 1807 (1st edition, Dublin, 1798).
A. National Park Service Reports and Materials:
Bentzen, Conrad B., and Riley, Edward M. "Lot 24, Yorktown, Virginia (The Courthouse Lot): Historical Data and Report of Archeological Excavations in 1941." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated 1944.
Borresen, Thor. "Orientation on the Yorktown Battlefield Area Containing the Fortifications, Encampment Areas, Headquarters Sites and Artillery Parks Constructed by the British, French and American Armies in the Year 1781." A Colonial NHP typewritten report with illustrations and drawings dated February 21, 1940.
Cotter, John L. "West House Archeological Investigations, April 2 through 13, 1956." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated April 23, 1956.
______. "Archeological Report on Yorktown Sewer, Project 203." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated May 1957.
Harrington, Virginia Sutton. "Final Archeological Reports on Developed Units in the Town of Yorktown: I Swan Tavern Group Lot #25; II Reynolds House-Museum Unit Lot #31; III Corbin Griffin Medical Shop Lot #30." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated March 14, 1939.
Hatch, Charles E., Jr. The Ballard House and Family. Division of History, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. September 1969.
______. Dependencies (Outbuildings) of the Dudley Digges House in Yorktown. Division of History, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. April 1969.
______. "Final Historical Reports on Developed Sites in the Town of Yorktown: I Swan Tavern Group Lot #25; II Corbin Griffin Medical Shop Lot #30; III Reynolds House Museum Unit Lot #31." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated February 21, 1939.
______. Grace Church: a General Study. Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. Washington, D.C., May 1970.
______. The Nelson House and the Nelsons: General Study. Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. Washington, D.C., 1969.
______. The Thomas Pate House and Lot 42 in Yorktown. Division of History, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. October 1969.
______. Ringfield Plantation: Special Report. Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. Washington, D.C., September 1970.
______. "York Under the Hill": Yorktown's Waterfront. Historic Preservation Team, Denver Service Center, N.P.S., U.S.D.I. March 1973.
Jelks, Edward B. "Archeological Study of British and Confederate Earthworks on the Southeast Side of Yorktown: Final Report: Park Research Project No. 200." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated July 18, 1955.
Meade, William D. "Memorandum to Mr. [Malcolm] Gardner: Subject: The Court House Lot" dated June 13, 1935. In the files of Colonial NHP.
Nelson, Lee H. "Dudley Digges House: Historic Structures Report," Parts I and II. N.P.S. typewritten reports dated December 1959 and May 1960.
Riley, Edward M. "The Colonial Courthouses of York County, Virginia." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated April 21, 1941.
______. "The History of the Founding and Development of Yorktown, Virginia: 1691-1781." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated March 20, 1942.
Smith, Hubert G. "Report of Archeological Investigations on Lot 77 in Yorktown." A N.P.S. typewritten report dated April-May, 1960.
Trudell, Clyde F. "Final Construction Report on the Swan Tavern, Stable and Smokehouse at Colonial National Monument." A N.P.S. typewritten report dated May 21, 1935.
______. "Report on the Restoration of the Lightfoot [Somerwell] House." A Colonial NHP typewritten report dated November 23, 1937.
Armistead, Sarah C. DAR Devotion and a Unique Chapter House. A typewritten paper dated July 17, 1951, in the Colonial NHP library.
Arthur, Robert. The Two Sieges of Yorktown 1781 and 1862. The Coast Artillery School Press, Fort Monroe, Va., October 17, 1927.
Banton, Albert W., Jr. A Primer of Freemasonry in York Town, Virginia 1755-1955 (Yorktown Lodge No. 353, A.F.&A.M.). Yorktown, Va., August 1, 1955.
Brandon, Edgar Erving, compiler and editor. Lafayette: Guest of the Nation: A Contemporary Account of the "Triumphal Tour" of General Lafayette. 3 volumes. Oxford, Ohio, 1957.
Davis, Burke. The Campaign that Won America: The Story of Yorktown, New York, 1970.
Evans, Emory. The Nelsons: A Biographical Study of a Virginia Family. A dissertation presented in the Corcoran Department of History, University of Virginia, 1957. (A facsimile copy produced by University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1967 and 1969.)
Flippin, Percy Scott. The Royal Government in Virginia, 1624-1775. New York, 1919.
Freeman, Douglas Southall. George Washington: A Biography, 5. New York, 1952.
Hatch, Charles E., Jr. "Storehouse and Customhouse," Virginia Cavalcade, 16 (Autumn, 1966).
Houston, Harry R. The Peninsula of Virginia. 1934.
Lewis, Charles Lee. Admiral De Grasse and American Independence. United States Naval Institute. Annapolis, Md., 1944.
Reps, John W. Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. Williamsburg Architectural Series, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg-Charlottesville, Va., 1972.
Riley, Edward M. "Suburban Development of Yorktown, Virginia, During the Colonial Period," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 60 (1952).
Sheely, Horace J. "Windmills and Milling in the Eighteenth Century." A Colonial Williamsburg Foundation typewritten research report dated Williamsburg, 1956.
The Sheild House 1692-1931. A folder published c. 1931. Copy in Colonial NHP library.
Smith, Mrs. Sydney. Old Yorktown and Its History. Yorktown, Va., c. 1920.
Stevens, John Austin. Yorktown Centennial Handbook. New York, 1881.
Trudell, Clyde F. Colonial Yorktown. Richmond, Va., 1938.
Tyler, Lyon G. "A History of York County in the Seventeenth Century," Tylers Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine, I, No. 4 (April, 1920), 231-275.
Virginia's Annual Autumn Pilgrimage sponsored by the Colonial Churches of Tidewater, Va. Annual brochures for the years 1963 (3rd annual pilgrimage), 1966, 1967.
Ward, Robert D. An Account of General La Fayette's Visit to Virginia in the Years 1824-'25. Richmond, Va., 1881.
A. 1781 Siege Plans
Bauman, Maj. Sebastian. "To His E.G. Washington Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States of America. This Plan of the investment of York and Gloucester has been surveyed and laid down and is most humbly dedicated by his Excellencys Obedient and very humble servant. Sebast Bauman Major of the Newyorker 2nd Regiment of Art. This Plan was taken between the 22nd and 28th of October 1781." A manuscript map, photostat in Colonial NHP library.
______. "Plan of the investment of York and Gloucester" from a plan which "was taken between the 22nd & 28th of October, 1781." Philadelphia, 1782.
La Combe, Querenet de. "Plan D'York en Virginie avec les Attaques faites par les Armees francoise et Americaine en 8 bre 1781." Photostatic copy in Colonial NHP library of original in Library of Congress.
Fage, Captain. "A Plan of the Posts of York and Gloucester in the Province of Virginia, Established by His Majesty's Army under the Command of Lieut General Earl Cornwallis, together with The Attacks and Operations of the American & French Forces . . . Which Terminated in the Surrender of the said Posts and Army on the 19th of October 1781. Surveyed by Capt Fage of the Royal Artillery. Published according to Act of Parliament the 4th June 1782." London, England.
Gouvion, Lieutenant Colonel. "Plan of the Attacks of York in Virginia by the Allied Armies of America and France." Published as Washington's Official Map of Yorktown, National Archives Facsimile No. 21. Washington, D.C., 1952.
Hayman, John. A Plan of the Siege of Yorktown, an untitled manuscript map dated June 12, 1782 and signed John Hayman, "Lieut. 17th Infy." Photostatic copy in the Colonial NHP library.
Hills, John. "A Plan of York Town and Gloucester in the Province of Virginia, Shewing the Works constructed for the Defense of those Posts by the British Army . . . from an actual Survey in the Possession of Jno Hills late Lieut in the 23d Regt & Asst Engr." Engraved and printed for William Faden. London, October 7, 1785.
"Plan du Siege D'York par l'Armee Combinee par les Generaux Washington et Cte. de Rochambeau." Manuscript map in Clinton Papers, William L. Clements Library (Adams, British Headquarters Maps, No. 268). Photostatic copy in Colonial NHP library.
"Plan D'York en Virginie avec les Attaques faites par les Armees francoise Et Americaine en 8 bre. 1781."A manuscript plan. Photostat in Colonial NHP library (received November 12, 1956) from a copy in the U.S. Army Engineer Center, Fort Belvoir, Va.
"Plan du Siege d'york fait par l'armee Combinee d'Amerique et de france sous les ordres du General Washington: le place fut investie le 27 7bre 1781." Photocopy in files of Colonial NHP library made available by the French Archives in 1973.
"Plan du Siege d'York en Virginie par l'Armee Alliee d'Amerique et de France sous les Ordres des Genaux. Washington et Ct. de Rochambeau contre l'Armee Angloise Commandee par le Lord Cornwallis en Octobre 1781." Photocopy of a manuscript map in Colonial NHP library. (Essentially a variant of the plan of the same title listed immediately below.)
"Plan du Siege d'York, en Virginie par l'Armee alliee d'Amerique et de France sous les Ordres des Gaux. Washington et Cte. de Rochambeau, contre l'Armee Anglaise Commandee par Lord Cornwallis en Octobre 1781." Photocopy of a manuscript map in Colonial NHP library. (Essentially a variant of the plan of the same title listed immediately above.)
Sutherland, Lt. Alexander. "Sketch of the Posts of York Town and Gloucester Point shewing the french and rebel attacks upon the former in October, 1781." A manuscript map in Clinton Papers, William L. Clements Library (Adams, British Headquarters Maps, No. 270), photostatic copy in Colonial NHP library.
Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, compiled by Capt. Calvin D. Cowles. Washington, 1891-1895.
"Map of the Structural Development of the Town of York 1691-1800: From Documentary Evidence on Lots 1 to 85 (the original town) as collected to August 1940." Part of the Master Plan: Colonial National Historical Park: September, 1940: Plan NHP Col. 2160.
Nelson and Anderson Lands. "A survey of lands in a disputed ownership case between William Nelson and Robert Anderson as ordered by the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery."
Survey made by Thomas M. Ladd dated July 20, 1848. A copy, as traced for the Investment Corporation by the American Cement and Engineering Company (No. 161-B) on November 29, 1909, in files of Colonial NHP.
Peale, James. A copy of his painting of the "Meeting of the Generals at Yorktown," in the collection of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Va.
Peale, James. A painting of the "Meeting of the Generals at Yorktown," in the collection of the Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Md.
Major or special articles and accounts are entered individually in the appropriate section of the bibliography and particular issues are cited by date and such in appropriate notes.
Daily Press. Newport News Hampton (1968 issue).
Daily Republican. Richmond, Va., (1852 issue).
The Family Magazine. New York edition.
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. (1879 and 1881 issues.)
Southern Literary Messenger.
Tylers Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine.
Virginia Cavalcade. Published by the Virginia State Library.
The Virginia Gazettes. Issued in Williamsburg, Virginia, 1736-1780, by William Parks and then by various publishers individually or in partnership.
The Virginia Historical Register and Literary Advertiser.
The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography.
The William and Mary Quarterly. 3 series.
Last Updated: 22-Jan-2010