HRA relied exclusively upon secondary sources for information on American Indian use and habitation and on the fur-trade era. Compilations of emigrant diaries, assembled during previous City of Rocks cultural resource investigations (Haines 1972; Wells 1992), provided the bulk of information on the emigrant experience and on the character and location of alternate routes. The remaining information was derived from a variety of sources, including published and unpublished manuscripts, aerial photographs, cultural resource reports, census documents, historic maps, patent files, United States Geological Service and General Land Office publications and archival records, oral histories, autobiographies, local histories, historic photographs, and newspaper clipping files. These documents are described in the Annotated Bibliography (Section 6.0).
HRA also relied upon a collection of oral history interviews conducted with residents of the Grouse Creek Valley of northern Utah, 20 miles south of the project area. We deemed this use appropriate for a variety of reasons. The topography, elevation, climate, soil types, and agricultural orientation are remarkably similar. As importantly, Grouse Creek was the southern component of the Raft River and Cassia stakes of the Mormon Church. Grouse Creek residents remembered that "headquarters for all our religious layout come in from that way . . . [We] had a lot of communication with Raft River but not so much from the South."  Thus cultural and geographic boundaries of the City of Rocks region embrace Grouse Creek; only political boundaries exclude it.
Although the boundaries of the national reserve define the limits to the field survey and to the federal government's cultural resource management responsibilities, it was impractical to confine the historic context study to this land unit. The City of Rock's most long-standing usage has been as livestock summer range, the high-elevation component of a larger land-use system that included the irrigable lower elevation valleys east and west of the reserve, as well as the commercial and social hubs of Albion, Almo, Elba, Junction Valley, and Oakley. This larger community forms the geographical parameters of the following historic context.
Information derived from a review of aerial photographs, patent records, and site forms prepared by David & Jennifer Chance and Associates (1989) guided the HRA field survey, completed in April and May of 1995. Field personnel attempted to locate and document "potential" resources identified during this document review. Field personnel also assessed the larger cultural patterns manifest in the landscape. HRA's investigation of setting and landscape included documentation of natural features, vegetation, circulation systems, views and vistas, landscape dividers, and site furnishings.
Gaps in Current Research
Some details of the historical development of the City of Rocks National Reserve and the surrounding area have yet to be clarified. Some questions will be difficult to answer, thus care should be taken to present an unbiased accounting during interpretive efforts. Others simply represent gaps in current research, which can be addressed through either additional documentary or field efforts.
HRA Associate Archaeologist Janene M. Caywood served as the primary point of contact with the National Park Service, directed the field survey, prepared the management summary, and edited the final report. Caywood was joined in the field by landscape architect Cheryl Miller of Amphion. Project Historian Ann Hubber of HRA conducted the historical research and prepared the historic context. Carol Conrad of HRA produced the final report.
Last Updated: 12-Jul-2004