The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942:
A New Deal Case Study

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Chapter 1

1. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Roosevelt, III, The Politics of Upheaval (Boston, 1960), 428-429.

2. Schlesinger, Age of Roosevelt, I, The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston, 1956), 251.

3. George P. Rawick, "The New Deal and Youth: The Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth Administration, the American Youth Congress" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1957), pp. 18-29.

4. Kenneth Holland and Frank Ernest Hill, Youth and the CCC (Washington, 1942), p. 12; Stuart Chase, "Where the Crop Lands Go: Spendthrift America's Dwindling Estate," Harper's, CXXXV (Aug., 1936), 225-233.

5. William James, Memories and Studies (New York, 1912), pp. 290-291.

6. Roosevelt to Prof. I. C. Keller, Nov. 15, 1934, in Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers, Official File 268—Miscellaneous (hereinafter cited as Roosevelt Papers, O.F. 268), Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.

7. R. F. Hamnmatt, "The Forest Service and Emergency Conservation Work" (typescript in National Archives), pp. 1-3. Records of the CCC, Chronological Reference Material by Subjects (hereinafter cited as C.R.M.), No. 782(a), in National Archives. See also R. L. Deering, "Camps for the Unemployed in the Forests of California," Journal of Forestry, XXX (May, 1932), 554-557; F. A. Anderson, Executive Committee, Mississippi Forest Service, to Roosevelt, Nov. 5, 1931, in E. B. Nixon, ed., Franklin D. Roosevelt and Conservation, 1911-1945 (New York, 1957), I, 49.

8. The best book on European labor camps is Kenneth Holland, Youth in European Labor Camps (Washington, 1939); see also Stephen H. Roberts, The House That Hitler Built (London, 1937), pp. 211-218.

9. Schlesinger, Age of Roosevelt, II, The Coming of the New Deal (Boston, 1959), 335-336; Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt, III, The Triumph (Boston, 1956), 224-225.

10. Schlesinger, II, 335.

11. Freidel, III, 232; Schlesinger, II, 336.

12. Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt, I, The Apprenticeship (Boston, 1952), 136-138; II, The Ordeal (Boston, 1954), 84, 149; see also Nixon, I, 38-41.

13. Freidel, III, 231; see also Bernard E. Bellush, Franklin D. Roosevelt as Governor of New York (New York, 1955), pp. 94-98.

14. Congressional Record (hereinafter cited as C.R.), 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 77, Pt. 3, pp. 3004-3005, where a speech by Morgenthau to the twenty-first annual meeting of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce is reprinted.

15. Nixon, I, 112.

16. New York Times, July 6 and 7, 1932.

17. Nixon, I, 119-126.

18. C.R.M., Appendix I, Documents 3 and 4.

19. Hammatt, pp. 1-3.

20. Ibid., pp. 3-6; see also John Jacob Saalberg, "Roosevelt, Fechner and the CCC—A Study in Executive Leadership" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 1962), pp. 9-10.

21. Finney to K. Rucker, March 11, 1933, Roosevelt Papers, O.F. 268, Box 1; see also Nixon, I, 138n.

22. Chicago Tribune, March 11, 1933.

23. For details of this important interview, see Raymond Moley, After Seven Years (New York, 1939), pp. 173-174.

24. Roosevelt to Secretary of Agriculture, March 14, 1933, Files of the Secretary of Agriculture—Conservation in National Archives. The memorandum is also printed in Nixon, I, 138. The secretary of labor was now included in the discussions, partly because of the new approach to the CCC as part of a general scheme to relieve unemployment, but also to forestall opposition to the Army's recruiting of the men. This job was now to be done by the U.S. Employment Service. See Francis Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York, 1946), pp. 178-179.

25. The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes, I, The First Thousand Days (New York, 1953), 7. The other prongs were (1) federal appropriations for grants-in-aid to the various states for direct relief work, and (2) "A measure for a large, practical, labor-producing program of public works under the control of a board which can allocate them in such a manner as to drain the largest pools of unemployment in the country. . . " See Nixon, I, 141-142.

26. Moley, p. 174.

27. Samuel I. Rosenman, ed., The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin Roosevelt (New York, 1938-1950), II, 69-71.

28. A memorandum from the chief forester, Major Stuart, forwarded by the secretary of agriculture, Henry Wallace, to the President on March 20, 1933, foreshadowed much of the eventual organization of the CCC, including enrolment and conditioning by the Army, a director, and an advisory council composed of one representation for each department involved. Stuart suggested Frederick A. Delano as a possible director for the work. See C.R.M., No. 780(a), Organization.

29. For the message, see Rosenman, ed., Papers, II, 80-81.

30. C.R., 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 77, Pt. 1, pp. 650-651, 701. The Senate measure (S. 598) was introduced by Sen. Joseph T. Robinson (Ark.), the House measure (H.R. 3905) by Rep. Joseph W. Byrns (Tenn.). Charles Price Harper, in The Administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps (Clarksburg, W. Va., 1939), p. 9, says that the "original bill, introduced in Congress March 13, by Senator Costigan, evolved much criticism," and he cites C.R., 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 77, Pt. 1, p. 247, as his source. Here Harper is clearly in error. No such bill was introduced that day; indeed, at that early date very little had been made final about the CCC. Sen. Costigan did introduce S. 325, "To Provide Emergency Financing Facilities for Unemployed Workers, to Reduce Their Distress, to Increase Their Purchasing Power, and Employment, and for Other Purposes." This bill had nothing to do with the CCC and was referred to the Committee on Manufactures without debate.

31. For the original bill, see Unemployment Relief: Joint Hearings Before the Committee on Education and Labor, United States Senate, and the Committee on Labor, House of Representatives, 73rd Congress, First Session, on S. 598, March 23 and 24, 1933 (Washington, 1933), p. 1. Hereinafter cited as Unemployment Relief, Joint Hearings, 1933.

32. New York Times, March 22, 1933.

33. Ibid., March 22 and 24, 1933.

34. Ibid., March 15 and 24, 1933; Literary Digest, CXV (April 15, 1933), 6.

35. New York Times, March 23, 1933; see also Time, XXI (April 2, 1933), 11.

36. Unemployment Relief, Joint Hearings, 1933, p. 3.

37. Ibid., pp. 9-14.

38. Ibid., p. 19.

39. Ibid., pp. 22-27.

40. New York Times, March 24, 1933. The role of the Army was to increase greatly in the following weeks.

41. Unemployment Relief, Joint Hearings, 1933, pp. 34-36.

42. Ibid., p. 41.

43. For Green's testimony, see ibid., pp. 44-61.

44. Ibid., p. 46.

45. Ibid., p. 48.

46. Ibid., pp. 53, 61.

47. Schlesinger, II, 295; see also Unemployment Relief, Joint Hearings, 1933, p. 72.

48. Ibid., pp. 72-73.

49. See Chicago Tribune, March 27, 1933; New York Herald Tribune, March 23, 1933; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 25, 1933.

50. C.R. 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 77, Pt. 1, p. 862.

51. Nixon, I, 146-147.

52. C.R., 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. 77, Pt. 1, p. 864. The only amendment of any importance which was added in the Senate extended the President's authority under the act from one to two years; see ibid., p. 929.

53. Ibid., p. 863.

54. Ibid., p. 934.

55. Ibid., p. 936.

56. Ibid., pp. 929-936.

57. Ibid., pp. 876-878.

58. Ibid., pp. 957-959.

59. Ibid., pp. 972, 974-975.

60. Ibid., pp. 963-967.

61. Ibid., p. 991. Other Republicans who supported the bill included Reps. George W. Blanchard (Wis.), p. 972, and Clyde Kelly (Pa.), p. 975.

62. Ibid., pp. 980-981.

63. Ibid., p. 983.

64. Ibid., pp. 983-990.

65. Ibid., pp. 1012-1013; see also Harper, p. 19.

66. Chicago Tribune, March 30, 1933.

67. New York Times, March 31, 1933; New York Herald Tribune, April 1, 1933; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 31, 1933; New Republic, LXXIX (April 5, 1933), 202; Literary Digest, CXV (April 15, 1933), 6.


The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942: A New Deal Case Study
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