4Frederick Examiner, 14 November 1860; Bart Rhett Talbert, Maryland: The South's First Casualty, (Berryville, VA, 1995), 15. Bell narrowly won the state of Maryland over Beckinridge. Statewide, Douglas received 5% of the vote--Lincoln, 1.9%.
10W.W. Goldsborough, The Maryland Line in the Confederate Army, 1861-1865 (Gaithersburg, 1987, reprint of 1900 edition). The name Zollinger, perhaps a relation to the Zollingers living in Harbaugh's Valley, does however, show up.
13Oeter, 120. Since the Frederick-Emmitsburg Turnpike passed through Graceham, rather than Mechanicstown to the west, it is strange that the wounded would be taken through Mechanicstown. They may have feared being chased down by Confederates along the main road.
24John Schildt, Roads from Gettysburg (Shippenburg, PA, 1998), 17-18; Oeter, 123; also see M. Jacobs, Notes on the Rebel Invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania and the Battle of Gettysburg, (Gettysburg, PA 1909).
36The story about Catoctin iron used on the U.S.S. Monitor, for instance, can be found in TheFrederick Daily News, 10 August 1940, and in a report prepared for President Roosevelt on the construction of his Shangri-La retreat: "Summary of the Development of 'Shangri-La': The Presidential Lodge in Catoctin Mountain, Maryland," 1942, Album 461, Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY.
37Malcolm Davies, "Iron Forging and Smelting in the Maryland: A Relict Industry After the Civil War," (Ed.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), 10; Mark Howell, telephone interview by author, Frederick, Maryland, 18 May 1999. Mark Howell, a local historian interested in iron manufacturing has come to these conclusions about the iron manufactured at Catoctin.
46Joseph Gitt, "Report of the Survey and Location for the Extension of the Western Maryland Railroad," 1865, 48-51. Catoctin Clarion, 4 March 1871. The arrival of the railroad was still of great benefit to the furnace. On February 18, 1871 the first load of pig iron from the furnace was hauled six miles north to the Western Maryland Railroad depot then shipped to Woodberry, near Baltimore. The local newspaper declared the shipment: "the beginning of a trade which will prove highly lucrative in the future." "Catoctin Furnace Historic Notes: Information from Mr. Edward Nunemaker, 1967," interview by Howard Damuth, Thurmont Historical Society. With the construction of the new Deborah coke-burning stack, coke was also shipped by rail to Mechanicstown then transported by wagon to the furnace.
50Thompson, 107; Davies, 85; Singlewald, 147. Kunkle also patented what he hoped would be a new technology that involved lining the furnace with magnesian limestone to help free iron from phosphorus. The experiment largely failed.
51Thompson, 107. Norman Waesche, "Economic History of Catoctin Furnace," Term Paper, Johns Hopkins University, 1936," Waesche, who used as a source his relative L.R. Waesche, former property manager of the Catoctin Furnace estimates roughly 350 workers at the furnace.
57Strain, 49; Kenneth Orr, "The Catoctin Furnace Archeological Mitigation Project Final Report of the 1979 Excavation," February 1982, 29. The Cunningham Fall State Park superintendent managed to recover a mining cart from the pond now covering the former open-mining pit near the old furnace. The cart bore Lobdell wheels.
751870 Census. The workers included sixty-year old John Fitzgerald, thirty-year old John Cramer, thirty-five year old Michael Brice and Thomas Craig, thirty-eight year old Patrick McGill, fifty-year old James Crosby, and forty-five year old James O'Connor. Many of the Irish workers had families. For instance, John Cramer had a wife, Mary, and three children.
77Democratic Advocate, 21 February 1874. Neither Norris nor Mitchell appeared in the 1870 census. While no African-Americans lived in Hauver's District, west of Catoctin mountain, in the Mechanicstown District that included Catoctin Furnace, twenty-six African Americans appear, but none appeared to have worked at the furnace. The census listed most as farm workers.
82Asa P. Stotelmyer, "The Black Rock Hotel on Bagtown Jugtown Trail," Baltimore Sun, 15 November 1970. A popular pre-Civil War trail was the Bagtown trail running near the current Appalachian trail on South Mountain. Hikers to the peak would enjoy picnics and water from the two natural springs nearby. On the fourth of July, picnickers were known to enjoy toasts of rye whisky to each of the thirteen colonies.
991880 Agricultural Census; Hitselberger, 154. In 1850, Wiant identified himself as a laborer. Subsequent census entries have him as a farmer. In the 1870 census, Wiant is listed as the owner of 5 cows and a horse.
106Charles S. Martin and Tom Rose, The History of Wolfsville and the Catoctin District (Frederick 1972), 13. A study of nineteenth-century Wolfsville concludes that "trade, barter and cooperation" held the local together. Any supplemental income was earned by practices such as "coaling" for Catoctin furnace.
Last Updated: 21-Nov-2003