Catoctin Mountain Park
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Chapter Three:

1Brugger, 248.

2Frederick Examiner, 19 October 1859.

3Gordon, 77.

4Frederick Examiner, 14 November 1860; Bart Rhett Talbert, Maryland: The South's First Casualty, (Berryville, VA, 1995), 15. Bell narrowly won the state of Maryland over Beckinridge. Statewide, Douglas received 5% of the vote--Lincoln, 1.9%.

5Brugger, 272.

6Gordon, Textbook, 82.

7Paul and Rita Gordon, Never the Like Again, (Frederick, 1995), 13, 16.

8Ibid, 45.

9Ibid, 48.

10W.W. Goldsborough, The Maryland Line in the Confederate Army, 1861-1865 (Gaithersburg, 1987, reprint of 1900 edition). The name Zollinger, perhaps a relation to the Zollingers living in Harbaugh's Valley, does however, show up.

11Gordon, Textbook, 85.

12Catoctin Clarion, 13 February 1896.

13Oeter, 120. Since the Frederick-Emmitsburg Turnpike passed through Graceham, rather than Mechanicstown to the west, it is strange that the wounded would be taken through Mechanicstown. They may have feared being chased down by Confederates along the main road.

14Mrs. Walter Rice, "Recollections of the Civil War," Thurmont Historical Society.

15Gordon, Never the Like Again, 128-129.

16Oerter, 121.

17Ibid, 121.

18Gordon, Textbook, 106; Gordon, Never the Like Again, 203.

19John Schildt, Roads to Gettysburg, (Parson, WV, 1978), 357-358; Oerter 122.

20Maude Luken, "Catoctin Furnace--A Different Village," American Motorist, September 1930.

21Schildt, 362.

22Ibid, 365.

23Oerter, 123.

24John Schildt, Roads from Gettysburg (Shippenburg, PA, 1998), 17-18; Oeter, 123; also see M. Jacobs, Notes on the Rebel Invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania and the Battle of Gettysburg, (Gettysburg, PA 1909).

25Schildt, Roads from Gettysburg, 64-66.

26Oeter, 123.

27Rice, "Recollections of the Civil War."

28Frederick Examiner, 2 September 1863.

29Luken. The quote comes from Catoctin Furnace resident Henry Fraley.

30Frederick Examiner, 2 September 1863.

31Frederick Examiner, 14 October 1863

32Oeter, 124.

33Paul and Rita Gordon, Frederick County Maryland: A Playground for the Civil War (Frederick, Maryland, 1994), 198-200.

34Oeter, 124.

35William N. Still, Monitor Builders, (Washington, 1987), 10-12.

36The story about Catoctin iron used on the U.S.S. Monitor, for instance, can be found in TheFrederick Daily News, 10 August 1940, and in a report prepared for President Roosevelt on the construction of his Shangri-La retreat: "Summary of the Development of 'Shangri-La': The Presidential Lodge in Catoctin Mountain, Maryland," 1942, Album 461, Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY.

37Malcolm Davies, "Iron Forging and Smelting in the Maryland: A Relict Industry After the Civil War," (Ed.D. diss., Columbia University, 1972), 10; Mark Howell, telephone interview by author, Frederick, Maryland, 18 May 1999. Mark Howell, a local historian interested in iron manufacturing has come to these conclusions about the iron manufactured at Catoctin.

38Jason Damuth was a Mechanicstown local killed during the Wilderness campaign of 1864.

39Catoctin Clarion, 7 June 1900.

40Catoctin Clarion, 16 November 1934; Catoctin Clarion, 5 November 1937.

41Oeter, 128.

42Catoctin Clarion, 4 March 1871.

43Catoctin Clarion, 11 March 1871.

44Scharf, 1007.

45Catoctin Clarion, 11 March 1871.

46Joseph Gitt, "Report of the Survey and Location for the Extension of the Western Maryland Railroad," 1865, 48-51. Catoctin Clarion, 4 March 1871. The arrival of the railroad was still of great benefit to the furnace. On February 18, 1871 the first load of pig iron from the furnace was hauled six miles north to the Western Maryland Railroad depot then shipped to Woodberry, near Baltimore. The local newspaper declared the shipment: "the beginning of a trade which will prove highly lucrative in the future." "Catoctin Furnace Historic Notes: Information from Mr. Edward Nunemaker, 1967," interview by Howard Damuth, Thurmont Historical Society. With the construction of the new Deborah coke-burning stack, coke was also shipped by rail to Mechanicstown then transported by wagon to the furnace.

47Davies, 1-6.

48Davies, 68.

49Catoctin Clarion, 24 February 1872.

50Thompson, 107; Davies, 85; Singlewald, 147. Kunkle also patented what he hoped would be a new technology that involved lining the furnace with magnesian limestone to help free iron from phosphorus. The experiment largely failed.

51Thompson, 107. Norman Waesche, "Economic History of Catoctin Furnace," Term Paper, Johns Hopkins University, 1936," Waesche, who used as a source his relative L.R. Waesche, former property manager of the Catoctin Furnace estimates roughly 350 workers at the furnace.


53Catoctin Clarion, 1 January 1885.

54Davies, 48-50. In the area around the furnace, Davies notes "10,000 acres was compromised of literally one vast ore bank."

55"Information from Edward J. Nunemaker, Sr., Catoctin Furnace, 28 January 1958," interview by Howard Damuth, Thurmont Historical Society.

56Davies, 93.

57Strain, 49; Kenneth Orr, "The Catoctin Furnace Archeological Mitigation Project Final Report of the 1979 Excavation," February 1982, 29. The Cunningham Fall State Park superintendent managed to recover a mining cart from the pond now covering the former open-mining pit near the old furnace. The cart bore Lobdell wheels.

58Davies, 60-64. A steam power to drive the blast and possibly other equipment at Catoctin was also introduced probably in the 1860 and 1870s.

59"Monocacy Valley Railroad," verticle files, Thurmont Historical Society.

60"Information Edward J. Nunemaker, Sr, Catoctin Furnace, 28 January 1958, Interview by Howard Damuth," verticle files, Thurmont Histoical Society.

61Catoctin Clarion, 9 April 1885.

62Davies, 89-90.

63Davies, 105.

64Catoctin Clarion, 1 February 1900.

65Catoctin Clarion, 17 May 1900.

66Catoctin Clarion, 29 November 1900.

67Kenneth G. Orr, Ph.D., "The Catoctin Furnace Archaeological Mitigation Project Final Report of the 1979 Excavation," Feb 1982, 29.

68Waesche, 9.

69"Operations of Catoctin Furnaces, Edgar Miller, interview by Howard Damuth, Thurmont, Maryland, 25 March 1959; Lukens.

70Catoctin Clarion, 14 January 1876.

71Catoctin Clarion, 12 May 1876.

72Catoctin Clarion, 19 May 1876.

73Elizabeth Y. Anderson, "Catoctin Furnace: portrait of An Iron-Making Furnace Community," (Hood College, Honors Thesis, 1982), 67.

74Lukens, Anderson, "Catoctin Furnace," 69.

751870 Census. The workers included sixty-year old John Fitzgerald, thirty-year old John Cramer, thirty-five year old Michael Brice and Thomas Craig, thirty-eight year old Patrick McGill, fifty-year old James Crosby, and forty-five year old James O'Connor. Many of the Irish workers had families. For instance, John Cramer had a wife, Mary, and three children.

76"Information Edward J. Nunemaker, Sr, , nnterview by Howard Damuth, Catoctin Furnace, Maryland, 28 January 1958, Thurmont Historical Society.

77Democratic Advocate, 21 February 1874. Neither Norris nor Mitchell appeared in the 1870 census. While no African-Americans lived in Hauver's District, west of Catoctin mountain, in the Mechanicstown District that included Catoctin Furnace, twenty-six African Americans appear, but none appeared to have worked at the furnace. The census listed most as farm workers.

78"Operations of Catoctin Furnaces," Edgar Miller, interview by Howard Damuth, 25 March 1959, Thurmont Historical Society.

79Catoctin Clarion, 7 November 1889.

80Evers G. Eylers, interview by Howard Damuth, 16 August 1965, Thurmont Historical Society.

81Donald Wolfe, interview by author, Frederick Maryland, 26 October 1998.

82Asa P. Stotelmyer, "The Black Rock Hotel on Bagtown Jugtown Trail," Baltimore Sun, 15 November 1970. A popular pre-Civil War trail was the Bagtown trail running near the current Appalachian trail on South Mountain. Hikers to the peak would enjoy picnics and water from the two natural springs nearby. On the fourth of July, picnickers were known to enjoy toasts of rye whisky to each of the thirteen colonies.

83Catoctin Clarion, 26 May 1876.

84Catoctin News (Wolfsville), 10 August 1888.

85Judith Schlotterbeck, The Pen Mar Story, (Funkstown, MD, 1978), 1.

86Catoctin Clarion, 5 September 1889.

87Ibid, 155.

88Breed Publishing Company's Directory of the Western Maryland Railroad for the year 1892 from Baltimore to Williamsport (Newburgh, New York, 1893).

89Catoctin Clarion, 22 September 1890.

90Catoctin Clarion, 25 June 1885.

91Catoctin Clarion, 23 June 1885.

92Catoctin Clarion, 24 July 1890.

93Catoctin Clarion, 28 August 1890.

94Catoctin Clarion, 23 July 1885. The exact location of these homes now appear to have been lost.

95Catoctin Clarion, 23 July 1885, 30 July 1885.

96Catoctin Clarion, 30 July 1885.

97Maryland Agricultural Week Committee, 10.

98Figures based on 1860 Agricultural Census; 1873 Bond Map.

991880 Agricultural Census; Hitselberger, 154. In 1850, Wiant identified himself as a laborer. Subsequent census entries have him as a farmer. In the 1870 census, Wiant is listed as the owner of 5 cows and a horse.

1001870 Agricultural census.

1011870 Agricultural Census.

102Catoctin Clarion, 15 June 1876.

103Catoctin Clarion, 10 August 1876.

104Catoctin Clarion, 4 August 1889.

105Catoctin Clarion, 6 June 1889; Louise McPherson, "Recollections of Catoctin Parish, Protestant Episcopal Church," nd.

106Charles S. Martin and Tom Rose, The History of Wolfsville and the Catoctin District (Frederick 1972), 13. A study of nineteenth-century Wolfsville concludes that "trade, barter and cooperation" held the local together. Any supplemental income was earned by practices such as "coaling" for Catoctin furnace.

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Last Updated: 21-Nov-2003