1Baltimore Phoenix and Budget, May 1841.
3William Hinks, Centennial Celebration in Frederick County, on June 28, 1876 (Frederick, 1879), 26-27.
4Henry Retzer, The German Regiment of Maryland and Pennsylvania in the Colonial Army, 1776-1781 (Westminster, MD 1991), 1-2.
5That same year Montgomery County was created out of the lower portion.
6Archives of Maryland, Muster Rolls and other Records of Service of Maryland Troops in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 (Baltimore, 1972), 72-73, 224, 266-267. Maryland Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 4. A Martin Lantz does appear as a member of the German regiment in 1780, but the records provide no mention of individual soldiers specific homes.
9Maryland Agricultural Week Committee, "Breadbasket of the Revolution, Maryland Agriculture, 1776-1976" (Annapolis, 1976), 3.
12Frank F. White, Jr. The Governors of Maryland, 1777-1970 (Baltimore, 1970), 3-5.
14William Hand Browne, ed. Archives of Maryland, Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, July 7-December 31, 1776 (Baltimore, 1893), 55.
17Maryland Gazette, 2 September 1777.
18Board of World's Fair Managers, Maryland: Its Resources, Industries and Institutions (Baltimore, 1893),106. Thompson, 64.
19"It is agreed between Capt Daniel Joy. . ." RG 93, #29632, Roll 103, Frames 227-228, National Archives.
22Louise McPherson, "Recollections of Catoctin Parish, Protestant Episcopal Church," nd. McPherson identified two men, Blackford and Thronburgh, as Hessian soldiers who settled at Catoctin Furnace and eventually ran the operations for Baker Johnson in the early nineteenth century.
23Ella May Turner, James Rumsey: Pioneer in Steam Navigation (Scottdale, PA, 1930), 27.
25Turner, 32; James Rumsey, "A Short Treatise on the Application of Steam" May 7, 1788, 27th Congress, 2nd, sess, House. Docs, v.4, public document 189, 23-24.
26Rumsey, 23-24. In a short pamphlet describing the development of his steam engine, Rumsey reprinted a letter sent to him from Thomas Johnson on December 18, 1787. In the letter Johnson explained his efforts to cast the cylinders "at my brother's and my works; the attempt did not succeed."
27Scharf, 994; Turner, 81.
28Robert D. Arbuckle, "John Nicolson and the Great Steamboat Rivalry," Maryland Historical Magazine, 71 (Spring 1976), 60.
31Catoctin Enterprise, 21 November 1947; George Wireman, Gateway to the Mountains, (1969), 25-27.
32Baltimore Phoenix and Budget, May 1841; Oeter, 58; Wireman, 28.
33Baltimore Phoenix and Budget, May 1841.
34Wireman, 35; Paula Strain, The Blue Hills of Maryland: History Along the Appalachian Trail on South Mountain and the Catoctins, (Vienna, VA, 1993), 269; Gordon, 189; Baltimore Sun, 22 July 1951. The Weller match factory was the first in America to produce friction matches, known as "lucifers."
35Frederick Town Herald, 12 December 1802. In 1802, James Johnson attempted to sell the mill, located "nine miles from Frederick-Town no the road leading to Herman's Gap."
36Frederick Town Herald, 12 December 1802. Johnson's advertisement continued to run into 1803.
37Frederick Town Herald, 20 February 1813.
38Catoctin Enterprise, 5 December 1947, reprint of article from a 1882 edition of the Catoctin Clarion.
40Frederick Town Herald, 26 March 1803.
41Brugger, 132, 153.
42Frederick Town Herald, 25 October 1817; State Road Commission of Maryland, A History of Road Building in Maryland, (Baltimore, 1958), 40. A land advertisement from the 12 November 1831 edition of the Frederick Town Herald refers to 120 acres of land "lying near Miller's tavern, on the top of Catoctin Mountain. The turnpike road also runs through the property, and considerably enhances its value."
43Anthony Finley, "Maryland [map]," 1824, in Papenfuse, 58; David H. Burn, "Delaware and Maryland [map]," 1838, in Papenfuse, 68. Both maps show the Westminister-Hagerstown Turnpike as well as the north-south, Frederick-Emittsburg pike.
44Survey F-6-57, Maryland Historic Site Inventory Form, Frederick County Planning Commission.
45Donald Wolf, "The Oates/Hauver/Wolf Tavern," description attached to Survey F-6-57, Maryland Historic Site Inventory Form, Frederick County Planning Commission.
46Ledger of George Hauver Jr., Journal of his Ordinary (later Wolfe's tavern), Frederick County Historical Society.
47William J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (New York, 1979). According to the census of 1810, the young nation supported 14,000 distilleries that produced 25 million gallons of spirits per year. Soon the country's intense abuse of alcohol was gaining the attention of reformers which led to the temperance movement.
48John Marsh, The Land of the Living: The Story of Maryland's Green Ridge Forest (Cumberland, MD, 1996), 636.
49"How Hog Rock Got its Name," History/YCC Anecdotes, Catoctin Mountain Park, Thurmont, MD (subsequently to be referred to as CMP).
50James Van Ness, "Economic Development, Social and Cultural Changes: 1800-1850," in Maryland: A History, Walsh and Fox, eds., 188-190; Robert Mitchell and Edward K. Muller, Geographical Perspectives on Maryland's Past (College Park, Maryland, 1979), 24-26. Future research might focus on the impact of the Hessian Fly in Western Maryland.
51Neumann, 20; Singewald, 146; Thompson, 63.
52Frederick Town Herald, 20 September 1817.
53Frederick Town Herald, 19 March 1803.
55Louise McPherson, "Recollections of Catoctin Parish, Protestant Episcopal Church," (nd), 6. According to Louise McPherson, Benjamin Blackford, Hessian mercenary during the Revolutionary War, decided to remain in America, after the war and ended up working at the furnace.
56Frederick Town Herald, 13 July 1811. Frederick Post, 5 August 1987. In the late 1980s, supported by a grant from the Maryland Historic Trust, the Catoctin Furnace Historical Association restored one of the original log worker's houses, dating from circa 1800.
57Ibid; Thompson, 66. The Catoctin buyers paid for property in pounds, the primary currency used in Maryland during this period of competing and confusing currencies.
58Frederick Town Herald, 13 July 1811.
60Census Bureau, Census of Manufactures, 1820. Antietam Iron works was a larger operation than Catoctin, employing 150 men, and with roughly $200,000 invested.
61Frederick Town Herald, 1 April 1820.
62Census Bureau, Census of Manufactures, 1820.
63Denton Jacques to Col John McPherson, 26 December 1809, McPherson Family Papers, Frederick County Historical Society.
65Neumann, 21; Anderson, 12; Thompson, 84.
67Maryland State Planning Commission, "The Iron and Steel Industry: Blast Furnaces, Steel Works and Rolling Mills," (Baltimore, 1938), 8.
68Frederick Town Herald, 21 May 1825.
71Charles B. Dew, "Disciplining Slave Ironworkers in the Antebellum South: Coercion, Conciliation, and Accommodation," American Historical Review, (April 1974), 417.
72Robert Starobin, Industrial Slavery in the Old South (New York, 1970), 36.
74Kessel, "Germans on the Maryland Frontier," 172-178, 184.
76Frederick Town Herald, 11 July 1807. Census records reveal that virtually no slaves were held in the mountain area east of the furnace.
77Frederick Town Herald, 8 February 1817.
78James Young Henry, ed. Moravian Families of Graceham, Maryland, 1759-1871 (Silver Spring, Maryland, 1942), 121-123.
79Hagerstown Mail, 31 August 1832.
80George Anthony Douglas, "An Economic History of Frederick County, Maryland, to 1860," (Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1938), 13.
81Frederick Town Herald, 26 March 1803
82Starobin, 5, 17-21.
84Census Bureau, Census of Manufacturing, 1820.
86Frederick Town Herald, 20 October 1804. In 1804, James Johnson announced: "I have for fale feveral valuable negroes, confiting of men, men, boys and girls brought up to farming." The fact that Johnson would point to the farming background of these slaves, suggests the possibly that a differentiation, at least for Johnson, existed between industrial and agricultural slaves.
87As quoted in Anderson, 6.
88Oerter, 95. The Republican Citizen, 7 September 1838. A decade later, in September 1838, another fire broke out near "Brien's iron works." The home, barn, and entire crop of farmer James Hawkins, burned as did large portions of the mountain. The fire, according to a newspaper, "originated from the negro children's playing with fire during the absence of family residing on the place."
89Ahron Ann Brunston, "The Cemetery at Catoctin Furnace, Maryland: The Invisible People," Maryland Archeology: Journal of the Archeological Society of Maryland 17 (March 1981), 19.
90Jennifer Olsen Kelley and J. Lawrence Angel" The Workers of Catoctin Furnace" Maryland Archeology: Journal of the Archeological Society of Maryland 19 (March 1983), 1-3.
92Jean Libby, "African Ironworking Culture Among African American Ironworkers in Western Maryland, 1760-1850," (San Francisco State University, M.A. Thesis, 1991), 1.
93Michael Craton, "The African Background," in Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery,Miller and Smith, eds., (New York, 1988), 15.
96Baltimore Gazette and Advertiser, 17 September 1835. The Brien referred to in the piece was John McPherson Brien, son of John Brien. What may have been the same riot is mentioned in an article on Mechanicstown, published in The Baltimore Phoenix and Budget, May 1841. The date given for the riot, however, is 1832. The Catoctin Clarion, on February 18, 1896 also mentioned a riot between locals and furnace workers, but gave the date as 1836. It may have been that there were several riots. My thanks to Dr. David Grimsted, who came across the reference to the furnace riot in the Baltimore Gazette while researching his book: David Grimsted, American Mobbing, 1828‑1861: Toward Civil War (New York, 1998).
97Brugger, 229, 232.
98On the general topic of whiteness see Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York, 1995) and David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness, Race, and the Making of the American Working-Class (Chapel Hill, 1991).
Last Updated: 21-Nov-2003