1Frank Porter, "Behind the Frontier: Indian Survival in Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine, 75 (March 1980), 42.
2Robert Mitchell, "Revisionism and Regionalism," in Appalachia: A Regional Geography, Mitchell, Raitz and Ulack eds. (Boulder, Co., 1984), 9.
3Frank W. Porter, Maryland Indians: Yesterday and Today (Baltimore, MD, 1983), 2-3.
4Porter, Maryland Indians, 5-11, 30. Scholars continue to debate the total number of native Americans in Maryland at the point of contact with Europeans. Estimates range from roughly 6,500 to 8,500. By 1756, a conservative estimate had only 140 Indians living in Maryland.
5Robert Brugger, Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980 (Baltimore, 1988), 67.
6Dennis C. Curry and Maureen Kavanaugh, "The Middle to Late Woodland Transition in Maryland," North American Archaeologist, 12 (1991), 3-28.
7C.E. Schildknecht, Monocacy and Catoctin, vol. 1 (Shippensburg, PA, 1985), 8.
8Spencer O. Geasey, "Albert's Cave," Maryland Archeology 9 (March-September 1973), 3-9; Geasey, "The Tuscarora-Rock Shelter," Journal of the Archeological Society of Maryland, 7 (March 1971). Geasey also reports finding pottery bits on Catoctin Mountain, .5 miles southwest of Hamburg Fire Tower.
9Maureen Kavanagh, "Archeological Resources of the Monocacy Region," (Annapolis, MD, 1982), 68, 97-100.
10Ibid., 117. In 1980, the survey group excavated one such "periodically revisited temporary camp," named Myers' site, on Owens Creek in the foothills of Catoctin Mountain. Projectile points found on the site suggest habitation in the late Archaic to Middle Woodlands eras.
11Tyler Bastian, "Preliminary Notes on the Biggs Ford Site, Frederick County, Maryland," (1974), Maryland Geological Survey, Division of Archeology, File Report 16.
12Archaeological Society of Maryland, "Field Procedures for the 22nd Annual Field Session in Maryland Archeology: the Rosenstock Village Site," 1992; Donald Peck, "Archaeological Resources Assessment of the Monocacy River Region," January 1979, 178. Other sites which may have featured permanent inhabitants include those on Nolands Ferry and near Devilbiss bridge.
13John Dern and Grace Tracey, Pioneers of the Old Monocacy, 1721-1743 (Baltimore, 1987), 50; Schildknecht, vol.1, 15.
14Barbara Leitch, Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America (Algonac, MI, 1979), 447-485.
16Porter, Maryland Indians, 12-14.
17Elizabeth Kessel, "Germans on the Maryland Frontier: A Social History of Frederick County, Maryland, 1730-1800," (Ph.D. diss., Rice University, 1981), 16.
19James Merrell, "Cultural Continuity Among the Piscataway Indians of Colonial Maryland," William and Mary Quarterly, (1979) 36, 548-570. Frank W. Porter, "A Century of Accommodation: The Nanticoke Indians in Colonial Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine, 74 (June 1979), 175-188. The Nanticokes of the Eastern Shore followed a similar route of exile, reaching Pennsylvania by the 1940s.
20Kessel, 17, Frederick Hoxie, Encyclopedia of North American Indians (Boston, 1996), 582-583.
23Frank W. Porter III, "From Backcountry to Country: The Delayed Settlement of Western Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine 70 (1975), 329.
24Kessel, "Germans on the Maryland Frontier," 22.
25Paul and Rita Gordon, A Textbook History of Frederick County (Frederick, Md, 1975), 9-11.
27Brugger, 68; also see Charles Dutrizac, "Local Identity and Authority in a Disputed Hinterland: The Pennsylvania-Maryland Border in the 1730s" Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 115 (1991), 35-61.
28John Hinton, "A New Maps of the Province of Maryland in North America," from Universal Magazine 66 (1780), in Atlas of Historical Maps of Maryland, 1608-1908, Papenfuse and Coale, eds. (Baltimore, 1982), 44. Hinton's map designates a "Great Wagon Road to Philadelphia." Also see Park Rouse, Jr., The Great Wagon Road, Philadelphia to the South, How the Scotch-Irish and Germanics Settled the Uplands (Richmond, Dietz Press, 1995).
34Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British North America (New York, 1986), 34. The Palatinate, itself, was something of a "melting pot," and, at times, a catchall term. Anyone traveling down the Rhine, including a Bavarian, a Westpahalian, or a Swiss, might have been called a Palatinate at the time.
35Jerome R. Reich, Colonial America (Saddle River, NJ, 1998), 138.
36Elizabeth Kessel, "Germans in the Making of Frederick Country, Maryland," in Appalachian Frontiers: A Regional Geography, Mitchell et als. eds., (Boulder, 1984), 95.
37Bailyn, 36-40, 71.
38Kessel, "Germans on the Maryland Frontier," 75.
39Kessel, "Germans in the Making of Frederick County," 95. Kessel notes an "average ten-year span between the immigrant's's arrival in Philadelphia and appearance in Frederick County records." Most, she concludes, settled for a period in Pennsylvania.
40Tracy and Dern, 33-35.
41Albert L. Oeter, The History of Graceham, Frederick County, Maryland, (Frederick, 1913), 12; Schildknecht, vol., 1, 91, 86; Schildknecht, vol. 3, 81, 127; Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland (1882, reprint, Baltimore, 1967), 612.
42Schildknecht, vol. 1., 168; Tracey and Dern, 212.
43Schildknecht, vol. 1, 63, 97,134, 158; Dern and Tracy, 210-213.
45Ibid, 48; Scharf, 473. Willhides' son, also named Frederick, served in the colonial army, fighting at Brandywine, Trenton, and Yorktown.
46Schildknecht, vol. 3, 56-57; Scharf, 630. As of 1806, Peter Shover was recorded owner of the land that later became tract 5 purchased as part of the Catoctin RDA.
47Schildknect, vol., 3, 124.
48Dern and Tracey, 196-198; Schildknecht, vol. 3, 64-65. Moser name intermittently appears as Leonard Mozar, Johann Leohardt Moser, and Leonart Moser.
49Paula Stoner, "Early Folk Architecture of Washington, County," Maryland Historical Magazine, 72 (Winter 1977), 513, 522; Charles S. Martin and Thomas Rose, The History of Wolfsville and the Catoctin District (Frederick, 1972), 9.
50Brugger, 71-72; Gordon, 15.
51Kessel, "Germans and the Making of Frederick County," 96.
52John B. Frantz, "The Awakening of Religion Among German Settlers in the Middle Colonies," William and Mary Quarterly (April 1976), 268.
53Elizabeth Anderson, Faith in the Furnace A History of Harriet Chapel (1985), 3.
54Millard Milburn Rice, New Facts and Old Families (Redwood, CA, 1976), 173-174; Frantz, 270-271.
57Ibid, 614; Paul and Rita Gordon, 184, picked up Scharf's claims in their 1974 history of Frederick County.
58Richard Walsh, "The Era of the Revolution," in Richard Walsh, Maryland: A History (Annapolis, 1983), 83. "The wheat farmer," noted historian Richard Walsh, "brought changes to the economic structure. By 1775, Maryland was in a transitional stage economically with all of its attendant uncertainties of promise for some and altered conditions. As a saleable commodity, wheat had its benefits and limitation...good for the small producer, since there was no restriction locally such as the tobacco inspection Act." But it remained on the list of enumerated items that must be sold either locally or to the motherland (England).
59Kessel, "Germans in the Making of Frederick County", 101.
60Kessel, ""Germans in the Making of Frederick County," 95-98.
61Thomas J.C. Williams, History of Frederick County, (1910, reprint, Baltimore, 1967), 29-34.
64Mark Stegmaier, "Maryland Fear of Insurrection at the Time of Braddock's Defeat," Maryland Historical Magazine, 71 (Winter 1976), 467-482.
69Michael Thompson, The Iron Industry in Western Maryland (Baltimore, 1976), 14-15; Michael Robbins, Maryland's Iron Industry During the Revolutionary War Era, (Baltimore, 1973), 6-8.
70Michael W. Robbins, The Principio Company: Iron-Making in Colonial Maryland, 1720-1781 (New York, 1986), 13.
73Basil L. Crapster, "Hampton Furnace in Colonial Frederick County," Maryland Historical Magazine 80 (Spring 1985), 1-5.
74Maryland Gazette, 22 May 1767.
75Robbins, Maryland's Iron Industry During the Rev War Era, 9. Iron manufacturing in Western Maryland, with its rich natural resources, offered real advantages over eastern production. Eastern furnaces, for instance, often used oyster shells fro Chesapeake Bay to create lime to serve as furnace flux. At the Catoctin site, however, lime and iron ore could be mined directly from the mountain.
77Williams, 101; Thompson, 61.
78Thompson, 67-68. The deed from Lord Baltimore conveying Green Springs to Jacques and Johnson is reprinted in Scharf, 106-107.
79Schildknecht, vol. 1, 149.
80Patent BC & GS 42:3-8. A third partner in the purchase was John Davidson.
81National Heritage Corporation, "Catoctin Iron Furnace, Cunningham Falls, State Park, Thurmont, Maryland: A Report on an historical Survey," (December 1975), 4.
82John Milner Associates, "Archeological Excavations at Site 18 FR 320, Catoctin, Maryland," (July 1980), 3. John Means, Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Parks, An Interpretive Guide to Catoctin Mountain Park and Cunningham Falls State Park (Blacksburg, VA, 1995), 100. Means estimates the original furnace site as 3/4 of a mile from the ruins.
83James Johnson letter, 1 September 1842, Johnson Family Papers, Frederick Historical Society, Frederick, Maryland.
84Bernard Steiner, Western Maryland in the Revolution, (Baltimore, 1902), 7; Brugger, 97.
85Maryland Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Patriots All: Being a History and Report on Seventy-five Years of Leadership in Frederick County, (Frederick, MD, 1895), 33.
86Walsh, 59; Brugger, 103.
88Maryland Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 34.
90Historical Society of Frederick County, "Three Historical Sketches of Frederick County: From its Foundation to the End of the Revolutionary Period," (Frederick, 1974), 18.
Last Updated: 21-Nov-2003