Capitol Reef
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1 Research biologist Gerald A. Hoddenbach to Superintendent Hambly, August 7, 1978. Park files.

2 Documentation suggests that Sulphur Creek was not used as heavily as the Fremont River due to poor water quality. Cora Smith interview with Kathy McKoy, Richfield, UT, May 8, 1993.

3 Daniel H. Wells, Mayor of Salt Lake City and counselor to Brigham Young, cited in Peterson, 1988, 5-6.

4 Cited in Jackson, The Mormon Role in the Settlement of the West, 91-106.

5 Peterson, "Imprint of Agricultural Systems of the Utah Landscape," 102; in Jackson, The Mormon Role in the Settlement of the West, 91-106. The term "Americanization" is also used and defined by Peterson as a major historical "trend" in Utah from 1890 to 1945 in a Dello G. Dayton Memorial Lecture given in 1988, entitled "'Touch of the Mountain Sod': How Land United and Divided Utahns, 1847-1985."

6 Francaviglia, The Mormon Landscape, 1978.

7 In a March 16, 1993 interview, Lamar Mulford had no difficulty in remembering the cultural and religious affiliation of some of those who last resided in Fruita: Krueger, Inglesby, Elizabeth Lewis, and Richard Sprang were not "LDS"; Brimhall was, but lived only a few years in Fruita. Neither did Dewey Gifford have trouble in identifying in a March 28 1980 interview who was active in the church and who was not, prior to World War II. He stated that 'Tine Oyler, Merin and Cora Smith, Alma Chesnut, and Cass Mulford were not LDS members. William Chesnut and Dewey Gifford, on the other hand, were both active in the priesthood.

8 Charles Peterson to Associate Regional Director Stanley L. Ponce, December 28, 1992. NPS, Intermountain Region, Colorado Plateau System Support Office files, Denver, CO.

9 Such fences evolved out of the Mormon farmer's practice of using whatever construction materials were on hand. They are still a distinctive feature of Mormon rural landscapes on the Colorado Plateau.

10 Lawrence B. Lee, "Homesteading in Zion," 30.

11 Lynn A. Rosenvall, "Defunct Mormon Settlements: 1830-1930," cited in Jackson, 51-70.

12 Two notable exceptions are the large tracts acquired about 1930 by Merin and Cora Smith (105 acres) and Cass Mulford (144 acres) which roughly corresponded to the original homesteads of Elijah Behunin and Hyrum Behunin, respectively.

13 Hoddenbach, op.cit.

14 Orchard records, 1987, Park maintenance files. Orchard Management Plan, 1988, 5.

15 Orchard records and Orchard Manager Kent Jackson interview with Cathy Gilbert, July 23, 1992.

16 Park orchard records. This shift also follows a historic pattern whereby open pasture lands were often replaced with orchards, reflecting a change in technology and the economic factors influencing land use (i.e., fruit growing was a more productive use of the land).

17 Aerial photographs, 1989, NPS, Denver Service Center's Technical Information Center, Denver, CO.; orchard records, 1987, park maintenance files.

18 O'Bannon, Capitol Reef National Park: A Historic Resource Study, 24-25.

19 Ibid., 21-39.

20 Historic Agricultural Area Management Plan for Capitol Reef National Park, 1979. NPS Denver Service Center Library, Denver, CO.

21 Gerald A. Hoddenbach to Supt. Hambly, Aug. 7, 1978, comments on public meetings; Malan R. Jackson to NPS Director, James Isenogle, Aug. 3, 1978, public hearings minutes. Park files.

22 Historic Agricultural Area Management Plan, 1979, 4.

23 Orchard Management Plan, 1988,6.

24 Ibid., 7-9.

25 Cultural Resources Management Plan, Capitol Reef National Park, 1983, 3. Park files.

26 The inventory does not take into account the isolated scattered fruit trees located throughout the district.

27 George Davidson, personal communication with Kathy McKoy, May 4, 1993.

28 The exception to this are trees located in the Guy Smith Place and Jackson Orchard; these were reinventoried after the 1996 division of the Guy Smith Place into two distinct orchards.

29 No explanation for the discrepancy between the photographic record and the historic period tax assessment records has yet been discovered. Cora Smith reported that the assessor conducted informal appraisals from year to year, and may not have noted increased acreage devoted to orchards over time. Landowners, on the other hand, had no incentive to report additional orchard acreage due to the much higher taxes levied on orchard land.

30 Cora Smith, personal communication with Kathy McKoy, June 26, 1993.

31 There is an increase in the orchard on this land from 5.5 acres to 7 acres during Krueger's ownership in the 1940s. Some of this difference may reflect additional planting and some may have simply resulted from the readjustment to all orchard figures after the 1947 survey. Prior to the resurvey, the tax rolls indicate Krueger planted .5 acre additional orchard between 1942 and 1945 (6 acres total in fruit land). The figure jumps to 7 acres in the 1947 assessment.

32 In Davidson's Red Rock Eden, the name is spelled "Abbie Clarke." Davidson writes that the Clarkes were contemporaries of the Cooks, but they are not recorded as landowners in Fruita in the deed history.

33 Kent Jackson, personal communication with Kathy McKoy, June 28, 1993.

34 The smokehouse may have been built by Calvin Pendleton about 1915. Personal communication to park staff by Alvin F. Pendleton (son of Cal Pendleton), on June 8, 1979. Park files. Dewey Gifford told a park employee that Pendleton built the house, barn, and smokehouse.

35 Supt. William Wallace directed the removal of the orchard in the 1970s. It appears a large number of peach trees (approximately 120) were removed between 1970-1975. Kent Jackson reported that a remaining 320 trees were removed between 1975 and 1977 (184 peach, 134 apricot, 1 pear, and 1 flowering plum). (Personal communication with Kathy McKoy, June 28, 1993.) It is significant to note that some locals believed Wallace did not like Mormons, and they recount his removal of this orchard as their "proof."

36 These estimates were made using 1989 aerial photographs; they are significantly less than the 4500 feet estimate of the walls' combined length made from the scaled site map prepared by the park's GIS specialist in 1996. The walls have not been directly measured.

37 Measurements of the walls were taken from 1989 aerial photographs. Descriptions of general condition were noted during field work conducted in March 1993.

38 Documented on the Fruita Township Map, surveyed in 1895, published in 1896. Park archives.

39 Commonly, the larger ditches that served multiple landowners were maintained by mutual labor; the smaller field ditches that fed into the orchards were maintained by individual property owners.

40 The historic record indicated that both the Fremont River and Sulphur Creek were used for irrigation. In an interview, however, Cora Smith indicated that the quality of the water in Sulphur Creek was so poor and water levels so unpredictable, it had limited use for irrigation. Cora Smith interview with Kathy McKoy, Richfield, UT., May 8, 1993.

41 Field review, Kent Jackson interview, and site documentation, July 20-24, 1992.

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Last Updated: 01-Apr-2003