1. Herbert E. Gregory, "A Geologic and Geographic Sketch of Bryce Canyon National Park," Zion-Bryce Museum Bulletin No. 4 March 1940, p. 22, "Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah," pamphlet, U.S. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1941, p. 8.
7. Clifford C. Presnath, "The Legend of Bryce Canyon as Told to the Park Naturalist by Indian Dick," Zion and Bryce Nature Notes. V. 8, No. 1. March 1936. Quote cited by Gregory, "The Geology and Geography of the Paunsaugunt Region," p. 17. The source for the quote is erroneously ascribed to Gregory on page 3 of Bryce Canyon National Park. Wonderland of the Pink Cliffs published by the Zion-Bryce Nature Association in May 1953.
8. Presnath, p. 3. "Both Johnnie and Dick were raised in the Bryce region, Johnnie having been born near the site of Escalante between 1870 and 1875, and Dick being still older with no memory of his birth place. They belong to the Av-o-ats-in, a Paiute clan which once roamed over all the Pink Cliff country east of the East Fork of the Sevier River, a country which they called Av-o-av, and which we now call the Paria valley."
11. Regional Archeologist, Memorandum to Superintendent, Bryce Canyon/Zion. November 29, 1951. Zion History Files. This memo includes a discussion of H. E. Bolton's definitive article on the Escalante expedition, titled "Pageant in the Wilderness," Utah Historical Quarterly, v. 18, 1950.
16. Bailey's description is often erroneously cited as the earliest known of Bryce Canyon. Actually, this distinction rightfully belongs to Grove Karl Gilbert, based on the excerpt cited from his 1872 notebook. The source for Bailey's description can be traced to the files of the Public Survey Office in Salt Lake City. In the mid-1930s the District Cadastral Engineer in Salt Lake, G.D.D. Kirkpatrick, found the description and sent it to the Zion-Bryce Canyon Superintendent, P. P. Patraw, Zion-Bryce memorandum for the press; October 1935, Denver Federal Records Center, Accession 52-A-100, Container 746149-50.500, publicity, Bryce Canyon. Captain George M. Wheeler, for whom the Wheeler survey was named described Bryce as "a work of genii now chained up in a spell of enchantment while their structures fall in ruins." This statement, written in the mid-1870s, also antedates Bailey's. See America's Wonderlands. The Scenic National Parks and Monuments of the United States Washington, D.C., The National Geographic Society, 1959, p. 191. "Bailey 'lost' two days at Bryce... looking for his large meerschaum pipe, which was usually chained to him. The hunt was unsuccessful, but the pipe turned up several years later." Utah. A Guide to the State compiled by Workers of the Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Utah. American Guide Series, New York: Hastings House, 1941, p. 460.
17. Gregory's work on local Mormon settlement near Bryce Canyon has yet to be matched. Much of this section is abstracted from "The Geology and Geography of the Paunsaugunt Region...," ," pp. 17-18. Also see Ida Chidester and Eleanor Bruhn's Golden Nuggets of Pioneer Days. A History of Garfield County, Garfield County Chapter of the Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1949, pp. 107-34.
18. Bliss reputedly has the distinction of being the first person to cross the park in a wagon. He traversed the rough area, near the present highway which enters Tropic from the north, in 1875. Orley needed the help of "a good cow mule" to help lower his wagon into the Valley. Utah. A Guide to the State p. 459.
19. Elnora A. Bryce, Family Genealogist. "Biography of Ebenezer Bryce," assistance of Annie Larson, et al. n.d., received into Bryce Canyon History Files March 27, 1959, p. 2, William R. Ridgway appears to have abstracted this biography for the article "Bryce Canyon is Memorial to Pioneer Farmer." The Arizona Republic, Phoenix, July 12, 1953.
20. Two accounts detail the construction of Tropic Ditch and the early days of Tropic: (1) A. J. Hansen, "The Village of Tropic," and (2) Ole Ahlstrom, "The Early Days of Tropic." Both accounts were collected and edited by park Ranger/Naturalist Maurice Cope in September 1935. Bryce Canyon National Park History Files.
21. Cited from J. Cecil Alter's "The Temple of the Gods," Improvement Era, v. 22, no. 5, March 1919, p. 395. In the late teens Alter was a meterologist working for the U.S. Department of Interior Weather Bureau in Salt Lake City. He played a significant role in popularizing Bryce Canyon.
22. Robert Sterling Yard, The New Zion National Park Its Relation to the Grand Canyon also the Relation of both and of Bryce Canyon to the brilliantly colored Plateau Country of Southern Utah. "To the few resident farmers, the painted canyons in the plateau rim were but a part of the rugged landscape that characterizes all southern Utah. Of more direct concern to them was the fact that the great cliffs, narrow canyons, and the meager supply of water and tillable land made the region unsuitable for large-scale agriculture. To the stockman, the rougher parts of the terrace now admired as scenery were obstacles." Gregory, "A Geologic and Geographic Sketch of Bryce Canyon National Park," p. 12. "The sense of awe awakened today by such inspiring spectales of nature's handiwork appears to have been largely lacking in the hard-working pioneers who spent all their energy in wringing a meager existence from the wilderness." Angus M. Woodbury, "A History of Southern Utah and Its National Parks," Utah Historical Quarterly, v. 12, nos. 3 and 4, July-October 1944, pp. 111-209, revised and reprinted 1950. This attitude, on the part of Mormon settlers, purportedly applies to other scenic areas of southern Utah, as the following excerpt makes clear. "...It is a marked example of our incurious absorption in the business of living that so vast a region of scenic sublimity is only now beginning to become publicly known. Its slender population seems to have taken its beauty for granted. One of the natives of Springdale, at the entrance to Zion Canyon, said to me last September, 'I've been in this canyon hundreds of times but I didn't know there was anything to see till people came in two or three years ago and raved about it. It is pretty, ain't it?' So it was with Bryce Canyon; people had to 'come in' before it was appreciated . . .." Washington, D.C.: The National Park Association, 1919, p. 24. Yard was the Executive Secretary of the National Park Association.
23. Eivind T. Scoyen and Frank J. Taylor, "The early pioneers in this country were a hard-working, God-fearing group of people, and in their struggle for existence, with Indians, drought, and circumstances combined against them, they had very little time to enjoy or appreciate the magnificent scenery which in recent years has become the greatest asset of southern Utah." The Rainbow Canyons foreword by Horace M. Albright. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press, 1931, p. 86. Scoyen was the first Superintendent of Bryce Canyon.
29. Mark Anderson, "Autobiography." Uintah National Forest Correspondence, September 2, 1946. Microfilm A-622. Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City. Humphrey stresses that the movie was taken in color. "Notes, Comments, and Letters." Also see: (1) History of Garfield County, p. 293, and (2) The Inverted Mountains: Canyons of the West, ed., Roderick Peattie. New York: Vanguard, 1948, p. 149. The latter publication does not note that a color movie was made. Anderson indicates that the Assistant District Forester criticized Humphrey and others "for wasting money on this project." "Autobiography."
35. Curt B. Howley, "Discover of Bryce Canyon." The Utah Magazine v. 2, no. 5 (1936), pp. 11 and 38. Howley's contention the Hawley "discovered" Bryce Canyon in 1917 is untenable. Grimes states that he first heard of Bryce about February 1917 from Seegmiller, who considered Bryce even more picturesque and unusual than Zion. Later, Grimes' memory was jogged into a recollection of Bryce by a change encounter with a "traveling man" at Marysvale. Salt Lake Tribune, August 25, 1918. I have attempted to reconcile both the Grimes and Howley accounts, but Grimes is undoubtably the more reliable of the two.
37. Memorandum to Mr. Chatelain regarding Dr. A. M. Woodbury's historical work on Zion. The author was LeRoy Jeffers. Humphrey once showed Jeffers about the Canyon and includes this amusing anecdote in "Notes, Comments, and Letters""He [Jeffers] came into my office on his way to the North Rim of Grand Canyon, and wondered whether it was worth while to make the side trip from highway 89, over to Bryce. I assured him that by all means he should see Bryce Canyon, and as he still hesitated, I told him that if he would go over to the canyon, and was disappointed in what he saw, I would give him $10 to cover the cost of the trip. The next day he came all the way back to Panguitch to thank me for insisting that he see Bryce Canyon." Horace M. Albright, the second Director of the National Park Service, has this to say about Jeffers: "As to Bryce Canyon, I heard of it on my trip in 1917 [to Zion] but could not get over to it. My recollection is, that during the summer LeRoy Jeffers, of the New York Public Library and Secretary of the Associated Mountaineering Clubs of America, who was afterwards killed in Yosemite Park in an airplane accident, also visited Southern Utah in 1917 and saw Bryce Canyon. He wrote an article about it, which appeared in Scientific American early [sic] in 1918 and which caused me to inquire then whether it would not be well to establish a national monument of it. Finding that this canyon was in a national forest I could not go ahead with the monument idea. I did not see Bryce Canyon until 1925." August 4, 1933, Zion History Files.
39. I have taken information regarding the Syrett family from the "Biography of Rueben (Ruby) Carlson Syrett and Clara Armeda (Minnie) Excell Syrett," anonymous, typed original loaned to Bryce Canyon by Mr. Lerande Farnsworth in February 1962, p. 10, Bryce Canyon History Files.
43. The State Land Board normally did not work this way. Written permission was granted, or a negative reply was sent to the applicant. The following documents prove that Syrett never had any kind of legal claim to the land on which the Tourists Rest complex was built. On June 18, 1921 Syrett wrote to John T. Oldroyd, State Land Commissioner, stating this position:
The letterhead on this piece of correspondence reads: "On the Rim of Bryce Canyon, Utah's Scenic Wonder, Tourists' Rest. Ruby Syrett, Manager." On March 6, 1922, Syrett directed another letter to O. D. Eliason, Chief Clerk of the State Land Board, which reads:
On December 4, 1922, Syrett again wrote to the State Land Commissioner asking for two blank land loan application forms. Source: "Land Board, State Administration. Correspondence SE-24 00.4 SU-TAI 1896-1923. Utah State Archives. A Bill of Sale effected between Syrett and the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Company on September 25, 1923, makes no mention of land legally entailed by Syrett in the SE1/4 of Section 36, T. 36, R. 4 W., SLM. Only personal property on the school section and water rights located outside the section were purchased by the railroad. Source: Box 1324: Utah Parks, HotelsRoads," microfilm, Union Pacific Archives, Omaha.
46. E. A. Sherman, letter to Frank A. Waugh, June 22, 1922. Record Group 95, Records of the Forest Service, 86; Records of the Division of Recreation and Lands, 1906-51. Box 1659, General Correspondence, Dixie and Powell National Forests. National Archives.
48. "Recreation Problems in District 4 National Forests." Record Group 95:86. Box 1659. National Archives. Waugh headed the Division of Horticulture at Massachusetts Agricultural College in Amherst. During the early 1920s he contracted out his services as a recreation engineer to the Forest Service for summer surveys, pp. 8-12.
52. Alfred Runte's recent article contends that western railroads were the logical source of support for a development of national parks by early conservationists. "Pragmatic Alliance. Western Railroads and the National Parks," The Environmental Journal April 1974, pp. 14-21. This may be true, but the alliance between Union Pacific officials and policy-making National Park Service personnel was always an uneasy one. Forest Service officials in District 4, one of whose primary concerns was to maximize the recreational potential of southwestern Utah, readily accommodated the Union Pacific while Bryce Canyon was a National Monument. After 1928 the National Park Service was not so eager to please.
55. "James Bolitho, 90, who piloted the first train into Marysvale on August 7, 1890, will be unable to leave his bed at Rest Haven Home, 2171-5th East, to see the train's final run." Salt Lake Tribune August 27, 1949.
56. Agatha May, interview with Nick Scrattish July 30, 1979. "A Brief Resume of the History of Marysvale." Centennial Edition "Piute County News." Junction, Utah, June 20, 1947. The depot was closed to the public on December 9, 1963, and demolished shortly thereafter. Irene Elder, "Marysvale history," n.d. unpublished essay. No photographs of the structure are known to exist.
60. "The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad Company. Southern Utah and Northern Arizona Tours. Summer Excursion Fares and Automobile Rates. 1922 Season," advertisement, Railroad Collection 513. "Correspondence and Documents," Documentary Resources, State Historical Society of Colorado, Box 20. LeRoy Jeffers considered the Marysvale approach "the simplest" to Bryce Canyon, 1922, The Call of the Mountains, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1922, p. 177.
66. This figure includes construction costs for a 32 mile stretch of track from Delta to Fillmore [south-central Utah]. Track laying then cost about $50,000 per mile. "Utah Construction Program of the U.P. Involves $5,000,000," The Union Pacific Magazine v. 1, November 1922, p. 15. Also see "The Deseret News," Salt Lake City, October 16, 1922.
68. Union Pacific Archives, September 23, 1921, Box 1324. Four railroads transported passengers to Yellowstone Park. The Northern Pacific detrained tourists at the Gardiner, Montana, station. The Oregon Short Linea Union Pacific subsidiaryused the West Yellowstone terminal. Both the Burlington Northern and Milwaukee Railroad dropped off passengers at Cody, Wyoming, who then rode busses to the park. In the early 1920s the Northern Pacific commanded approximately 40 percent of this carriage trade; the Oregon Short Line, 35 percent; the Burlington, 15 percent; and the Milwaukee about 10 percent. Estimates furnished by Dr. Berle Clemenson, National Park Service Historian. Interview with Nick Scrattish September 19, 1979. Why the Union Pacific wanted to establish competition between two of its subsidiariesthe Short Line and the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, which ran through Lundis beyond the scope of this study.
71. The Los Angeles "Times" reported that these deposits were "said to be the greatest in the world." September 3, 1922, Cedar City itself was established c. 1831 when Brigham Young sent a company of English and Scottish settlers into the region to mine and manufacture iron. This project was known as the "Iron Mission," and resulted in the first smelter west of the Mississippi. See L. A. Borah, "Utah, carved by winds and waters," National Geographic Magazine, v. 69, May 1936, pp. 577-623.
73. "Columbia Steel Corporation." Appendix G in Building the Iron Mission Park, prospectus directed to the Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha, Nebraska, prepared by the Iron Mission Park Committee, Cedar City, Utah, n.d. (c. 1970-71[?]).
75. Los Angeles Times, September 3, 1922. The Iron County Railroad Company did not withdraw its application before the Utah Public Utilities Commission until mid-October 1922. Both the Interstate Commerce Commission and State agency were involved since construction of the Lund-Cedar City Spur could be legally construed to come under the protection of both interstate and intrastate commerce. Columbia probably did not want to withdraw its application with the State Commission until a definitive agreement had been worked out with Union Pacific. See "U.P. Now Has Open Way to Iron Ore Beds," Salt Lake Tribune, October 17, 1922.
84. Letter to Mr. Hanchett, March 6, 1922. Box 1324, Union Pacific Archives. Mills was an influential lobbyist who labored indefatigably for conservationist interest. Veterans of Capitol Hillpossibly Mater himselfconsidered Mills a parasite. He did play a significant role in the establishment of Rocky Mountain National Park. See Robert C. Black's Island in the Rockies, Boulder, Colorado: Pruett, 1969, p. 311.
87. "Articles of Incorporation of Utah Parks Company," p. 2. Box 3649. File 617.2. "Contracts, Conveyances, Permits, Franchises, etc., pertaining to Southern Utah Scenic Facilities and Tourist Traffic." Union Pacific Archives.
96. These individuals included: (1) L. B. Hampton, President, Chamber of Commerce; (2) Sam Smith, Assistant Secretary; (3) C. B. Hawley; (4) Frank H. Fisher; and (5) W. R. McKell. Adams to Gray. File A. May 24, 1923. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
119. Haugh, office memo to Gray. "The Park Service has been concerned about the plans for this building [Zion Lodge] and have asked that we secure the services of a competent architect and suggested Mr. Underwood, whose work has met their entire approval." May 2, 1923. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
121. E. E. Adams to Underwood. "It is understood that you will work through our organization in the matter of preparation of detail working plans, but that you will supervise the job from the beginning until completion.
"The agreed upon fee for such services is to be a lump sum of five thousand dollars ($5,000), plus necessary traveling expenses in connection with this work, it is further understood that after the general design, perspectives, etc., have been completed, that if the project is not carried out, then the fee for services up to that point shall be two thousand dollars ($2,000) plus necessary traveling expenses." May 1, 1923. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
131. Shakespeare, interview with Nick Scrattish. "Contract" Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives. In the spring of 1923 the saw mill used to prepare lumber for Bryce Lodge was purchased from Leo Barton, Myron Bybee and Archie Adair. Purchasers were R. Syrett, Owen Orton, and Harmon Shakespeare. Subsequent to the purchase the mill was moved to East Creek and reassembled. A 30 H.P. Case tractor engine, No. 33,537, was used to actually saw the wood. East Creek furnished a ready supply of ponderosa (yellow) pine. After the wood had been sized, it was taken up by teams to the future lodge site and stacked. Shakespeare was responsible for sawing lumber, and became proficient at turning out "deluxe slabs." His overseer was Bert Wood. July 30, 1979.
Melford Ahlstrom, interview with Nick Scrattish. Lumber for the lodge came out of East Creek, between Whiteman's Bench and Tropic Reservoir. Ruby Syrett was part owner of the sawmill. Archie Burchanan, a foreman for the Utah Parks Company, was associated with the project. Bert Wood directly supervised the sawmill. July 30, 1979.
136. Ibid. Lancaster to Gray. An additional reason for the use of stone was cited by Lancaster, who once remarked that sand for cement was difficult to find in the vicinity of Bryce Canyon. May 2, 1923. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
152. The Parrys' Utah and Grand Canyon Transportation Company, which operated from Cedar City and Marysvale to the North Rim, was not controlled by the Utah Parks Company until April 1927. "Utah Parks Company," in Motor Coach Age, p. 4. February 1970.
153. "Contract between Utah Parks Company. . .and. . .Parry Brothers, A Co-Partnership. . ." March 4, 1924. Article I, Section 1, "Partnership to Continue Present Transportation Service," p. 2, and Article VI, Section 1, "Sale of Partnership Franchises," p. 14. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
161. Gray, telegram to Omaha. "I am opposed to participation in road construction. Believe that it would create a most unfortunate precedent. We will simply have to hold back on Bryce Canyon and Cedar Breaks development until this road question is satisfactorily disposed of." September 19, 1923. Box 1324. Union Pacific Archives.
169. This rating implies the road was in a comparatively undeveloped condition. "Comparative Condition of Roads." Assistant Chief Engineer's Office. Oregon Short Line Railroad. January 26, 1922. Mabey correspondence, United States Archives.
179. "When the engineers found that it was impractical to start the tunnel at either end [of the mountain range], they did the next best thing. They started in between, and eventually at five points in between. They erected a scaffold, an eerie looking but perfectly safe scaffold high up the face of the cliff, and started drilling in. When they had got in to the point where the tunnel was to be, as determined by the survey from the footpath, they began boring in either direction from that point, on the tunnel proper. "Then they drilled into the face of the cliff at other points and started similar "headings," as the different sections of a tunnel are called, and after months of labor all these headings were brought together into a consecutive tunnel, with never more than 3-100 of a foot of variation from where they should be. Presently alsofrom inside the cliff in both instancesthe east and west entrances to the tunnel were opened up." "New Zion-Mount Carmel Road One of World's Great Highways," The Union Pacific Magazine, v. 8. April 1929, pp. 5 and 32. Also see: (1) Borah, "Utah, carved by winds and water," p. 590; (2) Eivind T. Scoyen, interview with Lucy C. Schiefer, January 28, 1971, pp. 6 and 7, Zion History Files; and (3) "The East Rim Road," Zion-Bryce Nature Notes, v. 4, no. 1, April 1932.
181. Not everyone agreed the project was a good thing. For a negative view, based on conservationist principles, see Dorr G. Yeager's "Comments on the Impairment of Park Values in Zion National Park," unpublished essay. March 23, 1944. Zion History Files.
182. Smoot's motivation is not clear, but was probably tied to improving Utah's business climate and his chances for reelection. The following statement from Mark Anderson certainly indicates Smoot was no conservationist: "Senator Smoot had little knowledge or interest in public land and conservation problems. I would hesitate to write this about our venerable Senator Smoot without first checking my old files. The record supports my conclusion. . . [Congressman] Don B. Colton was well informed on public land and conservation problems. We could always agree." Anderson to C. C. Anderson, Editor in Charge, "History of Grazing," Utah Writer's Project. January 6, 1941. Forest Service Correspondence. Microfilm A-622. Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah.
183. Yard, The New Zion National Park, p. 26. Legislative summary of Bryce Canyon history from April 22, 1920 to September 11, 1931. Record Group 79:7. 601. Lands (general). Box 842. National Archives.
184. Payne to Smoot. April 22, 1920, correspondence regarding Bryce Canyon's general legislation, April 22, 1920, to March 16, 1942, pp. 52, Record Group 79:7. 101-01. Dedication. Box 840. National Archives.
188. The Powell National Forest was originally the "East Division" of the Sevier National Forest, established by Presidential Proclamation on October 24, 1903. A consolidation of the Dixie, Sevier, and Powell Forests on July 1, 1919, to June 30, 1922, the eastern edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau was part of the Powell-Sevier National Forest. President Harding's Executive order, dated February 14, 1922, instructed that the "Sevier" be dropped from Powell-Sevier National Forest, and this was made effective from July 1, 1922. "Powell National Forest," unpublished essay. n.d. Zion History Files. Chapter XXXII: "History of National Forests as Pertaining to Garfield County, Utah," in History of Garfield County, pp. 250-60.
189. Sherman to Waugh. January 3, 1923. "General correspondence, Dixie and Powell National Forests." Record Group 95. Box 1659. National Archives. Secretary Wallace (Agriculture) to Secretary Fall (Interior). April 28, 1923. Boundary extension correspondence, April 28, 1923, to July 16, 1930, pp. 34. Record Group 79:7, 602-01. Boundary extensions. Box 842. National Archives.
195. There is no evidence bearings on Senate Bill 668, 68-1, were published in: (1) the Index of Congressional Committee Hearings, (2) the Monthly catalogue of Government Publications, or (3) Congressional Document Catalogue, 1774-1940.
196. A. W. Burney, National Park Service Maintenance, Engineer, report on Bryce Canyon, to F. A. Kittredge, Chief Engineer, National Park Service. October 1, 1927, pp. 22. Record Group 79:7. 631-02. Roads budget. National Archives. Brown's relationship to Maurice Cope, who also worked in Bryce at the time, is unknown.
197. Secretary Wallace, Agriculture, to I. L. Lenroot, Chairman, Committee on Public Lands and Surveys. February 26, 1924. Appendix B, "Public Documents Relating to Legislation (68th Congress)," in History of legislation relating to the National Park System through the 82nd Congress, compiled by Edmund B. Rogers, Denver, 1958.
201. Burney report, p. 2. "Some repairing was done on trails, four new tables built in the automobile camp, and a small amount of lime and creosote purchased for use in the dry toilets." Record Group 79:7 631-02. National Archives.
209. Lodge plans, as well as those for other Utah Parks Company buildings drawn up by Underwood, were sent to the author in August 1979, courtesy of Union Pacific's Engineering and Public Relations Departments, 1416 Dodge Street, Omaha.
211. Burney report, "The main lodge building is substantially constructed of native stone and timber, architecturally pleasing to the eye and generously proportioned." P. 12. Record Group 79:7. 631-02. National Archives.
216. The Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Company had original title to the buildings at Bryce for obscure corporate reasons. In order to emphasize the Utah Parks Company's role as the exclusive agent of the Union Pacific System in the construction and operation of hotels, camps, and other facilities in Bryce, the September 10, 1928, Bill of Sale was drawn up.
226. Cammerer, memorandum for the Secretary of the Interior. July 21, 1927. Record Group 79:7. 900-02. Part 1. Box 209. National Archives. "In the original Expenditure Program it was proposed to let a contract of approximately $100,000 for work in Mesa Verde. Surveys and plans have not yet been completed by the Bureau in order that a contract of this size can be let. It is therefore recommended that force account work be authorized at Mesa Verde to the extent of $50,000, to be done under the direction of Superintendent Nusbaum but a Bureau engineer to be in charge of the work. (paragraph) "Proposed force account work in Yellowstone under Bureau direction will be deferred to permit of the recommended transfer to Zion."
228. Record Group 79:7. 900-02. Part 1. Box 209. National Archives. The State of Utah did not relinquish mineral rights to Section 36 until 1937. See Record Group 79:7. 605-02. Part 1. "Bryce Canyon Entries, School Lands." August 17, 1928, to May 26, 1937, p. 45. National Archives.
230. When this bill became public law on February 25, 1928, Ebenezer Bryce received the distinction of being the only individual for whom a national park is named. Union Pacific Press Release. April 15, 1952. Union Pacific Archives.
231. The February 25, 1928, Act erroneously described land acquired in Section 20 of T. 36. S., R. 3 W. as "the east half southwest quarter." This was amended in the May 14, 1928, Act to read "the east half and southwest quarter." Unsurveyed Sections 28 and 33 in T. 36 S., R. 3 W., as well as, Section 20 in T. 37 S., R. 3 W. were included in the February 25, 1928, and May 14, 1928, Acts. See Part 1, p. 5 and Appendix A, Senate Bill 1312 and House Report 12487 in History of legislation. . .through the 82nd Congress.
236. "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That for the purpose of preserving in their natural state the outstanding scenic features to the south and west of Bryce Canyon National Park, the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized, upon the joint recommendation of the Secretaries of Interior and of Agriculture, to add to the Bryce Canyon National Park, in the State of Utah, by Executive proclamation, any or all of unsurveyed townships 37 and 38 south, range 4 west, Salt Lake meridian, not now included in said park, and all the lands added to said park pursuant hereto shall be, and are hereby made, subject to all laws, rules, and regulations applicable to and in force in the Bryce Canyon National Park." From House Record 11698 in Appendix A. History of legislation relating to the National Park System through the 82nd Congress.
240. Maurice Cope, Park Ranger, to E. T. Scoyen, Bryce Canyon/Zion Superintendent. September 29, 1930. Record Group 79:7. 609-1. Part 1. Box 843. National Archives. Frost received a letter from Mary L. Jolley dated November 24, 1930. This he forwarded to Taylor. In the letter Mary Jolley stated she was the purchaser of Frost's interests and had taken possession of the land after paying Frost $1,000 "cash down." Mrs. Jolley was under the impression the Jolleys had a right to the unsurveyed land, and that Frost would deliver deeds when be obtained them. T. C. Havell, "Settlement claim in national park," to Albright. January 9, 1931. Record Group 79:7. 609-1, Part 1. Box 843. National Archives.
242. Ibid. The letter's context suggests Scoyen came to this conclusion independently of information he received from the General Land office in Salt Lake City. Record Group 79:7. 609-1. Part 1, Box 843. National Archives.
243. "You state that a letter from Frost addressed to the State Land Board, complaining of an order by the Park Service that he move his buildings and improvements from the land, has been referred to your office for answer, and that you have called upon him to furnish corroborated affidavits as to his settlement and the purported transfer of his interest in the land. Nothing of record has been found in regard to the settlement claim and it does not appear that any investigation was ever made to determine its validity." (Paragraph) "You will make report in due course by special letter, showing whether the showing required by you has been made and, if made, you will transmit same to this office for appropriate action." Record Group 79:7. 609-I. Part 1. Box 843. National Archives.
246. Harold M. Ratcliff, Forester, "History of Grazing, Bryce Canyon," to Regional Forester. March 18, 1954. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691. ACN 3. Federal Record Center 36474. File L3019. Denver Federal Record Center. Also see History of Garfield County, p. 261.
249. A History of Garfield County, "The total allowance for 1907 on both the Powell and Sevier was 21,463 cattle and 178,790 sheep. The total allowance for the Powell and Sevier Division. . . in 1940 was 13,933 cattle and horses for 69,730 cow months and 100,050 sheep for 352,438 sheep months. The above shows that the total forage produced per annum has been slowly but surely decreasing." P. 261.
254. History of legislation relating to the National Park System through the 82nd Congress, "Nothing herein shall affect. . . the rights of stockmen to continue to drive stock over the lands now under an existing stock-driveway withdrawal . . .." From Proclamation No. 1952. Part II.
258. Joseph G. Rumburg, Acting Assistant Superintendent, Bryce Canyon, "Corrected Annual Summary of Livestock Grazing. . ." to Paul R. Franke, Superintendent, Bryce Canyon/Zion. January 10, 1956. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691.3. 36474. File L3019. Denver Federal Record Center.
260. Wayne R. Howe, Acting Superintendent, Bryce Canyon, "Annual Summary of Livestock Grazing. . ." to Regional Director, Region Three. February 8, 1957. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691.3. Federal Record Center 36474. File L3019. Denver Federal Record Center.
261. Louis W. Hallock, Superintendent, Bryce Canyon, "Summary of Livestock Grazing. . ." to Regional Director, Southwest Region. January 14, 1963. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691.3. 36474. File L3019. Denver Federal Record Center.
262. Bryce Canyon Master Plan, Chapter 1, "Basic Information, The Land," p. 6. "In the spring of 1964, water was piped from Riggs Spring to a tank just outside the park boundary between the mouths of Horse Hollow and Corral Hollow . . . ." January 1965. Bryce Canyon History Files.
263. Hallock, "Summary of Livestock Grazing. . ." to Regional Director, Southwest Region. December 17, 1963. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691.3. 36474. File L3019. Denver Federal Record Center. Available evidence suggests the Utah Parks Company quit grazing its pack and saddle stock after the 1957 season. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-691.3. 36474. File L3019. In various places. Denver Federal Record Center.
264. "Bryce at present is a seasonal park, open six to eight months of the year, and must remain so until prospective winter visitation has increased to the point where the expense of snow removal on roads and footpaths becomes justifiable. This situation would make the need for a separate administration all the more difficult to substantiate." P. P. Patraw, Superintendent of Bryce Canyon/Zion. "Memorandum for Associated Civic Clubs of Southern Utah." December 28, 1934. Record Group 79:7. 201. Part 1. "Bryce Canyon Administration and Personnel." Box 840. National Archives.
266. "Pursuant to the authority conferred by the Act of Congress approved August 25, 1916 (39 Stat. 535), establishing the National Park Service, as amended June 2, 1920, (41 Stat. 732). . .the "General Regulations" of the rules and regulations for the government of Zion National Park are hereby extended and made applicable in the Bryce Canyon National Park." Signed, John H. Edwards, Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Record Group 48. Records of the Department of Interior. Office of the Secretary. Central Classified Files 1907-36. File 12-1. Part 1. "Bryce Canyon." Box 1989. National Archives.
267. "List of all permanent and temporary departmental appointed positions," fiscal year 1930. Undated. Record Group 79:7. 201-013.2. Part 1. "Bryce Canyon. . .Organization Lists (Per Annum)." Box 840. National Archives.
268. Vita of Maurice Newton Cope (April 1900 to November 1930) in the Cope Family Papers. A copy of this document and other family papers are now in the possession of the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah, with the Cope Family's permission.
280. These and additional visitation statistics through 1954 were taken from page 5 of Bryce Canyon's Master Plan Developmental Outline, dated March 1955. Record Group 79. Accession 61-A-499. Federal Record Center 745090 ACN 1. "Planning Program (General Correspondence), Bryce Canyon." Denver Federal Record Center.
285. This is not to imply that during the war no consideration was given to the postwar era. As early as August 1944, representatives from Region III's Branch of Plans and Design sketched a "Postwar Rehabilitation Program" for Bryce. After the war nothing came of this proposal. Superintendent's Monthly Reports, August 1944 and May 1945. Record Group 79. Accession 55-A-269. 932218. 207-02.3. Denver Federal Record Center.
294. Bryce Canyon Monthly Narrative Report, January 1957, pp. 1 and 2. File A2823. Bryce Canyon History Files. "Campground usage increased from 26,045 in 1955 to 27,404 in 1956 or a 5 percent increase." Ibid. I am indebted to Viola B. Rose of the Bryce Canyon administrative staff for locating and making available File A2832.
299. "MISSION 66 is a Federal Government program, personally sponsored by President Eisenhower in 1956, and passed with welcome bipartisan support by the Congress. It is designed to rehabilitate and improve the public scenic facilities in every area included in the National Park System." Department of Interior Information Service Release for 2:30 p.m., MST, Saturday June 18, 1960. Record Group 79. Accession 66-A-98. Federal Record Center 211620. "Dedication, Bryce Canyon Visitor Center." Denver Federal Record Center.
301. Ibid. Bean was Assistant Superintendent of Bryce Canyon/Zion until the split. On July 1, 1956, he was promoted to the Superintendent of Bryce Canyon. Bryce Canyon Monthly Narrative Report, July 1956, p. 2. File A2823. Bryce Canyon History Files.
307. Ibid., Article I. Providing food included the operation of a general merchandise store. Article III. Two subsidiary provisions deserve mention. Park Company employees coming into direct contact with the public were required to wear a uniform or company badge. Article VII., (d). The company was to furnish free accommodations to employees of the Department of Interior, or "other persons visiting [the] Park" who were conducting official government business. Article VII., (f).
318. "At one time last year I briefly discussed with Mr. Ashby the possible sale of the Utah Parks Company to a corporation or a group financially able to purchase the Utah Parks Company's properties at a figure of approximately $2,000.000, net. . . When in Los Angeles recently attending the Park Operators meeting, I contacted Joe Minster, Owner and Publisher of the Pacific Coast Record, a hotel magazine. He is also a Hotel Broker. . .Mr. Minster did not believe he would have any difficulty in finding a prospective purchaser for the Utah Parks holdings as he has several parties who are anxious to invest surplus money. Nothing further will be done until I have discussed this with you." W. P. Rogers to W. M. Jeffers, p. 1 (p. 3), May 21, 1945. Box 3649. Union Pacific Archives.
323. Ibid., p. 3. "Utah Park Company: Facilities," p. 1, May 15, 1945. Box 3649. Union Pacific Archives. The proposal to buy fifteen 29-passenger GMC sightseeing buses at $9,500 each was first made in this document. These vehicles constituted the backbone of Utah Parks Company's postwar transportation fleet. p. 1.
324. "The Utah Parks Company Camp Center and Lodge continue to serve capacity crowds. With the exception of Mondays and Tuesdays, all accommodations are fill by 5:00 p.m." Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 1947. Record Group 79. Accession 55-A-269. 932218. 207-02.3. Denver Federal Record Center.
325. "Both Bryce Lodge and the Camp Center have operated to capacity since the weather became warm the latter part of the month." Superintendent's Monthly Report, June 1949. Record Group 79. Accession 55-A-269. 932218. 207-02.3. Denver Federal Record Center.
327. Following hearings at Denver on November 30 and December 1, 1948, the Act was amended. Thence, paragraph (b) of section 28.5 read as follows: "(1) Until December 31, 1949, no less than one and one-quarter times the regular rate of pay at which the employee is employed shall be paid for all hours worked in excess of 48 per week. (2) From January 1, 1950, to and including December 31, 1951, no less than one and one-half times the regular rate of pay at which the employee is employed shall be paid for all hours worked in excess of 44 per week. (3) On and after January 1, 1952, no less than one and one-half times the regular rate of pay at which the employee is employed shall be paid for all hours worked in excess of 40 per week." Rouse statement, p. 5.
343. General Host Corp., prime concessionaire in Yellowstone National Park, wants to purchase the Utah Parks Co., and has offered to invest all money made in the southern Utah parks on upgrading the tourist facilities. "S. Utah Parks May Be In for Facility-Lifting." Salt Lake Tribune, December 25, 1969.
352. Murray interview with Scrattish, July 12, 1979. Murray subsequently became Assistant Manager of Union Pacific's Commissary Services Department until his retirement in 1976. H. H. Noar, Manager of Commissary Service to Marray, February 11, 1976. Utah Parks Company Information File. Union Pacific Archives.
355. "The Superintendent and the Assistant Landscape Architect have been instructed to study a possible new road approach from the rear of the Lodge. ." H. M. Albright, National Park Service Director, to T. J. Allen, Bryce Canyon/Zion Superintendent, July 6, 1931. Record Group 79:7, 631-2. Box 209. National Archives.
356. H. K. Bishop, Chief, Division of Construction, Bureau of Public Roads, to A. E. Demaray, Senior Assistant Director, National Park Service, May 31, 1932. Record Group 79:7. 631-2. Box 209. National Archives.
375. "Design and Construction" and "Monthly Progress Report" in Bryce Canyon, May 1957. File A2823. Bryce Canyon History Files. The park's Monthly Narrative Reports do not include the name of the contracting company for the by-pass.
383. Ibid. Extant correspondence (June 18, 1930) from Acting National Park Service Director Demaray to Bryce Canyon/Zion Superintendent Scoyen makes clear the park normally forwarded original tracings for a proposed building to Washington for approval. Upon approval, these were returned to San Francisco, but blue prints were retained in the Washington office. Record Group 79:7, 620. Part 1, "Bryce Canyon Buildings (general)." Box 843. National Archives.
392. Edward A Nickel, Report on Public Works Building Program National Park Service Branch of Plans and Design Western Division 1933 to 1937. San Francisco: Western Division, National Park Service, 1938, p. 1.
411. "Physical Improvements" in Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1935. Additional Public Works Administration funds, however, were received for a number of miscellaneous physical improvements. A telephone line to Rainbow Point was constructed with allotment F.P. 331, and completed in October 1934. Allotments F.P. 10, 12, and 13 permitted improvements to the water and sewer systems in the public campground. F.P. 15A financed the construction of a cattle guard at the park's north entrance. "Minor Projects (Roads and Trails)." The park's roads and trails similarly benefitted from four allotments during the 1935 fiscal year.
421. Ibid. The comfort station at Rainbow Pointcompleted in early September 1940was not constructed with Emergency Relief Appropriations Act funds. "Contract for the construction of a comfort station at Rainbow Point was approved by the Director's office on June 5 , and construction was started shortly afterward by contractor Harvey Rosenberg of Cedar City, Utah. Funds are provided for this building in the park's annual appropriation."
422. Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1941. "Presidential approval of park-sponsored Works Projects Administration project calling for the expenditure of $77,915 for improvements in Bryce Canyon National Park and Capitol Reef National Monument was received during February 1941." 207-01.4. Bryce Canyon History Files.
423. "Protection" in Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1942. "In October 1941, 1382 linear feet of logs which had been cut by a park-sponsored Works Projects Administration crew under permit from the Forest Service, were stolen while still lying in piles on Forest Service land." 207-01.4. Bryce Canyon History Files.
435. Harlan B. Stephenson, Assistant Landscape Architect, "Report on Landscape Work, Bryce Canyon, Utah," October 1934, p. 1. Record Group 79. Accession 52-A-100. 746149. Denver Federal Record Center.
454. Warren's transfer date was July 17. ". . . Narrative Report of Project Superintendent. . . Camp NP-3. . .," July 1938. Record Group 79. Accession 52-A-100. 746149. File 200. "Civilian Conservation Corps, Administration and Personnel, Bryce Canyon." Denver Federal Record Center.
470. "Maintenance," in Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1932. "Maintenance, Improvement, and Construction," in Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1933. "Maintenance," in Bryce Canyon, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1934.
505. "Monthly Progress Report," in Bryce Canyon, Monthly Narrative Report, September 1957. File A2823. Bryce History Files. Through August 1957 the amount allotted for this project increased to $29,495. The park's building inventory (1972) lists the cost of each at $13,835. "Building Inventory, Park Summary," p. 2.
Last Updated: 25-Aug-2004