An Appreciation of the Man and his Times
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Harlan, Louis R., "Booker T. Washington in Biographical Perspective," American Historical Review, LXXV (1970). Insight into Washington's personality by the author of a forthcoming two-volume Washington biography.

Hawkins, Hugh, ed., Booker T. Washington and His Critics: The Problem of Negro Leadership (Lexington, Mass., 1962). Excerpts from Washington's writings and speeches, with a broad sampling of commentary.

Logan, Rayford W., The Negro in American Life and Thought: The Nadir, 1877-1901 (New York, 1954). A description of racial attitudes prevalent during Washington's lifetime.

Meier, August, Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915: Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T. Washington (Ann Arbor, 1963). More on racial attitudes in Washington's time.

Meier, August, "Toward a Reinterpretation of Booker T. Washington," Journal of Southern History, XXIII (1957). Throws added light on Washington's career and character.

Rudwick, Elliott M., W.E.B. Du Bois: Propagandist of the Negro Protest (New York, 1968). The most recent biography of Washington's most important critic; fully treats of their historic conflict.

Spencer, Samuel R., Jr., Booker T. Washington and the Negro's Place in American Life (Boston, 1955). To date, the best biography of Washington.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou, ed., Booker T. Washington (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1969). Presents Washington in his own words, in the views of contemporaries, and in analyses by leading historians and sociologists.

Washington, Booker T., Up From Slavery (New York, 1901). Washington's best-known autobiographical writing, available in a variety of editions.

Woodward, C. Vann, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge, 1951). The outstanding general history of the South spanning Washington's era.

Woodward, C. Vann, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (2d rev. ed., Oxford, 1966). Outlines the history of segregation from Reconstruction to the mid-1960's.

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Last Updated: 20-Feb-2009