An Isolated Empire: A History of Northwest Colorado
BLM Cultural Resource Series (Colorado: No. 12)
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Chapter I: Northwestern Colorado Prior to Exploitation

1Steve Payne, Where the Rockies Ride Herd, (Denver Sage Books, 1965), p. 244.

2See William W. Mallory, Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region, (Denver: Rocky Mountain Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1972).

3Linda L. Duchrow, "Geologic History of Colorado", (Typescript, University of Colorado at Denver, 1974), p. 8.

4See Nevin M. Fenneman, The Yampa Coal Fields, Routt County, Colorado, (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1906).

5See Ferdinand V. Hayden, United States Geologic Survey of the Territories, Annual Report, 1875 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1875). Gustavus R. Beckler describes Middle Park geology in this report.

6Marshall Sprague, Massacre: The Tragedy at White River, (Boston: Little Brown, 1957), p. 62. Sprague is a journalist whose history and anthropology should be used with care.

7Ibid, p. 63.

8Warren L. d'Azevedo, et al, (eds.), The Current Status of Anthropological Research in the Great Basin: 1964. (Reno, Nevada: Desert Research Institute, 1966), p. 173.

9Ibid, p. 178

10Herbert E. Bolton, Pageant in the Wilderness, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah State Historical Society, 1950), p. 6.

11Ibid., p. 2.

12Ibid., p. 9.

13Ibid., p. 20.

14Ibid., pp. 54-58.

Chapter II: The Fur Trade

1Ray, A. Billington, Westward Expansion, (New York: Macmillian 1974) pp. 379-389.

2LeRoy R. Hafen (ed.), The Mountain Men and The Fur Trade of the Far West, (Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark, 1966), VII, p. 57.

3F. W. Cragin Papers, Manuscripts, Pioneers Museum, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Notebook IV, p. 9.

4David M. Frost, Notes on General Ashley, (Barre, Mass.: Barre Gazette, 1960), p. 12

5Dale L. Morgan (ed.), The West of William H. Ashley, (Denver: Old West Publishing Co., 1965), pp. 272-273.

6Billington, op. cit., p. 385.

7Hafen, op. cit., III, p. 340.

8Hafen, op. cit., IV. p. 357; V. 197; VI. p. 208; IV, p. 301.

9Ibid, VIII, p. 34 and VIII, p. 373: VIII, p. 376

10Ibid., IV, p. 306.

11Ibid., V, p. 241; V, p. 241; V, p. 284; V. p. 371; VII, pp. 152-153; VII, p. 250; III, pp. 39-40; III, pp. 137-139; III, p. 361; and IV, p. 264.

12F. A. Wislizenus, A Journey to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1839, (St. Louis: 1912), p. 129.

13Hafen, op. cit., III, p. 341

14Ibid., IV, p. 309

15Cragin Papers, op. cit., not paginated.

16Hafen, op. cit., III, pp. 137-139

17Hafen, op. cit., V, p 322 and V, pp. 322-323

18Cragin Papers, op. cit., Notebook V, p. 2, Note 6 and Note 7.

19Hafen, op. cit., VII, pp. 152-153; and Forbes Parkhill, The Wildest of the West, (Denver, Sage, 1957), pp. 133-134.

20Hafen, op. cit., III, p. 40 and III, p. 46.

21Hafen, op. cit., III, p. 361.

22Christopher "Kit" Carson, Autobiography, (Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1935). Carson describes his life in this work.

23Rufus B. Sage, His Letters and His Papers, (Glendale, California, A. H. Clark, 1956).

Chapter III: Exploration in Northwestern Colorado

1See William H. Goetzmann, Army Explorations in the American West, 1803-1863, (New Haven: Yale University Press), 1959.

2LeRoy R. Hafen, Colorado and Its People, (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1948). p. 89.

3Reuben G. Thwaites, Travels in the Far West, (Cleveland: Arthur W. Clark, 1906), 2 Vols., p. 244 and p. 251.

4Ibid., p. 252.

5F. A. Wislizenus, A Journey to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1839, (St. Louis, n.p. 1912). p. 129.

6LeRoy R. Hafen, "With Fur Traders in Colorado, 1839-1840: The Journal of E. Willard Smith", Colorado Magazine, Vol. 27, Number 3, July, 1950, pp. 161-188.

7Goetzmann, op. cit., p. 86 and 87. See also: Donald Jackson and Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John Charles Frémont, (Urbana Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1970), 2 Volumes and Maps.

8Jackson and Spence, op. cit., p. 477.

9Goetzmann, op. cit., p. 101

10Ibid., pp. 101-103

11Jackson and Spence, op. cit., p. 470. See also Allan Nevins (ed). Narratives of Exploration and Adventure by John Charles Frémont, (New York: Longmans, Green, 1956).

12Goetzmann, op. cit., p. 119.

13Louise C. Harrison, Empire and the Berthoud Pass, (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1964), p. 203.

14Ibid., pp. 56-61.

15Ibid., p. 60.

16Richard Bartlett, Great Surveys of the American West, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962), p. 235.

17William K. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire. (New York: Knopf, 1963) p. 517. The boats were named: "Kitty Clyde's Sister, "Maid of the River", and "The Emma Dean".

18John W. Powell, U. S. Public Lands Commission, (Washington: Government Printing Office 1879), pp. 160-165.

19Powell, op. cit., p. 16.

20Ibid., p. 164.

Chapter IV: Mining and Transportation in Early Western Colorado

1Mark Fiester, Blasted, Beloved Breckenridge. (Boulder: Pruett Press, 1973), p. 16.

2Ibid., pp. 151-157.

3John Rolfe Burroughs, Where the Old West Stayed Young, (New York: Morrow, 1962), p. 90.

4Ibid., as quoted in Burroughs, p. 91

5Ibid., p. 90.

6Ibid., p. 91.

7Ibid., pp. 92-93. See also: Charles Leckenby, "Discovery of Gold at Hahn's Peak and the Tragic Death of Joseph Hahn" in Tread of Pioneers, (Steamboat Springs, Colorado: Steamboat Pilot, 1944).

8Burroughs, op. cit., pp. 94-95.

9Ibid., p. 97.

10Wilbur Stone, History of Colorado, (Denver: S. L. Clarke and Co., 1918) 4 Volumes, I, p. 298.

11CWA Interviews, Routt County, Colorado, 1933-34, Typescript, S. B. Reid Interview.

12William Blackmore, Colorado: Its Resources and Prospects, n.1., n.p., 1869) pp. 134-35

13Ibid., p. 21, p. 38, p. 77.

14Robert A. Corregan and David F. Livgane, Colorado Mining Directory, (Denver: Colorado Mining Directory Company, 1883), p. 314.

15Ibid., p. 315.

16Louise C. Harrison, Empire and the Berthoud Pass, (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1964), p. 203.

17Ibid., p. 203.

18Ibid., pp. 214-215.

19Burroughs, op. cit., p. 100.

20Frederick T. Townshend, 10,000 Miles of Travel, Sport and Adventure (London: n.p., 1869), pp. 155-156.

21Ibid., p. 157.

Chapter V: Settlement Versus the Ute Indians

1See: Robert Berkhofer, Salvation and the Savage, (Seattle. University of Washington Press, 1965).

2See Robert Emmitt, The Last War Trail, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955) and Marshall Sprague, Tragedy at White River, (Boston: Little, Brown, 1957) for general descriptions by modern journalists of the events leading up to the Ute removal. Other sources include: Elizabeth Nixon, "Meeker Massacre" (Greeley, Colorado: Colorado State Teacher's College, 1935), Master Thesis T. L. Iden, "History of the Ute Indian Cessions of Colorado" (Gunnison, Colorado: Western State College, 1928), Master's Thesis: Agnes E. Spiva, "Utes in Colorado" (Boulder, Colorado, University of Colorado, 1929), Master's Thesis; J. P. Boyd, Recent Indian Wars, (n. l., n.p. 1891): Thomas F. Dawson, The Ute War, (Boulder: Johnson Publishing Co., 1964): and Al Look, Last Stand at White River and Milk Creek, Western Colorado in 1879, (Denver: Golden Bell Press, 1972). The Colorado Magazine contains a number of excellent articles regarding the Utes. See page 276 of the Colorado Magazine Index, 1921-1948.

3Emmitt, op. cit., p. 26.

4Sprague, op. cit., p. 167.

5Emmitt, op. cit., p. 53. See also: Nathan C. Meeker, Letter to the Secretary of the Interior, 1879 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1880).

6Letter quoted in Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 53-54

7Emmitt, op. cit., p. 55 and Sprague, op. cit., p. 143.

8Sprague, op. cit., p. 176.

9Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 56-68.

10Meeker, op. cit., p. 71.

11Meeker, op. cit., p. 2.

12As detailed in Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 87-90.

13Sprague, op. cit., p. 120.

14Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 149-151.

15As quoted in Emmitt, op. cit., p. 155.

16Wesley Merritt, "Three Indian Campaigns", Harpers New Monthly Magazine, April, 1890, pp. 720-737, and Emmitt, op. cit., p. 166.

17Meeker to Thornburgh, September 27, 1879, as quoted in Emmitt, op. cit., p. 187.

18As described in Merritt and the Indian Wars (London: Johnson-Trauton Military Press, 1972).

19Merritt, op. cit., p. 732. Also described in: Maria B. Kimball, A Soldier-Doctor of Our Army, (n.l., n.p., 1917)

20Ibid., p. 733.

21Emmitt, op. cit., p. 221.

22As quoted from Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 233-234.

23Frederick Pitkin, quoted in Denver Daily News, October 13, 1879.

24See: Josephine Meeker, The Ute Massacre! (Philadelphia: Old Franklin Publishing Co., 1879).

25Emmitt, op. cit., pp. 282-287.

26Sprague, op. cit., p. 315. See also: Committee on Indian Affairs U. S. Congress. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880) 46th Congress, Session 2, House Document, Misc., #38. Also see: U. S. White River Ute Commission, (U.S. Congress, 56th, 2nd Session, Executive Document, 83, 1880).

27Sprague, op. cit., p. 329.

Chapter VI: Settlement in Middle Park and the Yampa Valley

1Ferdinand V. Hayden, United States Geologic Survey of the Territories, Annual Report, 1st-12th, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867-1878, 12 Volumes, 1873. p. 81.

2Ibid., Volume for 1875.

3Ibid., Volume for 1876, p. 344.

4Ibid., Volume for 1876, p. 346.

5Ibid., Volume for 1876, p. 347.

6Ibid., Volume for 1876, p. 353.

7Ferdinand V. Hayden, "Explorations Made in Colorado", American Naturalist, Vol. XI, Number 2, 1877, pp. 73—86.

8Richard A. Bartlett, Great Surveys of the American West, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962), p. 187.

9Ibid., p. 189.

10Ibid., p. 202.

11Ibid., p. 203.

12Robert C. Black, Island in the Rockies, (Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Press, 1969), p. 85. See also: Louise C. Harrison, Empire and the Berthoud Pass, (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1964); Mary L. Cairns, Grand Lake: The Pioneers, (Denver: World Press, 1946); Mary L. Cairns, The Olden Days: A Companion Book to Grand Lake: The Pioneers, (Denver: World Press, 1954) and Cora Belle Oberholtzer "The Grazing Industry of Middle Park, Colorado", (Boulder: University of Colorado, 1942), MS.

13Black, op. cit., p. 101, and Harrison, op. cit., p. 91.

14Ibid., p. 109.

15Harrison, op. cit., p. 270.

16Cairns, op. cit., pp. 99-105 and Black 90. op. cit., pp. 152-159.

17Cairns, op. cit., pp. 99-105 and Black, op. cit., pp. 152-159

18Charles Leckenby, The Tread of Pioneers, (Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Steamboat Pilot, 1944), pp. 120-121.

19George Crofutt, Grip-Sack Guide to Colorado, (Omaha: Overland Publishing Co., 1881), pp. 73, 81, 84, 87, 88, 92, 94, 110, 111, 116, 123, 124, 145, and 147.)

20Ibid., p. 69.

21Ibid., p. 133.

22See: Alice R. Donelson, The North Park Stockgrowers 1899-1970, (Steamboat Springs, Colorado: Steamboat Pilot, 1973). Also in Steven Payne, Where the Rockies Ride Herd. (Denver: Sage Books, 1965).

23Donelson, op. cit., pp. 1-5.

24Leckenby, op. cit., pp. 16-18.

Chapter VII: Development of the Cattle and Sheep Industry, 1868-1920

1John Rolfe Burroughs, Where the Old West Stayed Young, (New York: Morrow, 1962), p. 10. See also: Ernest S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattlemen (University of Chicago Press, 1929) and Maurice Frink, When Grass Was King, (Boulder: University of Colorado, 1956).

2Ibid., p. 16 and p. 23.

3Ibid., pp. 114-126.

4Ibid., p. 127 and "Butch Cassidy's Early Exploits Recalled", The Denver Post, September 17, 1972.

5Burroughs, op. cit., p. 11 and p. 81.

6As related in Both Burroughs and Osgood.

7CWA Interviews, Rio Blanco County, 1933. Document 31-32

8Meeker Herald, January 14, 1888, p. 1.

9Edward N. Wentworth, "Sheep Wars of the 90's in Northwest Colorado," in Denver Westerners Brandbook, (Denver: Denver Westerners, 1946), p. 135.

10Daniel Tyler, "F. R. Carpenter, Routt County, 1900-1920", (Fort Collins: Colorado State University, 1967) M.A. Thesis, p. 14 and in Burroughs, op. cit., pp. 204-216 and pp. 216-225.

11Tyler, op. cit., p. 21.

12Steven Payne, Where The Rockies Ride Herd, (Denver: Sage Books, 1965), p. 310.

13Tyler, op. cit., p. 34.

14Ibid., p. 42.

15Ibid., p. 65.

16Ibid., pp. 71-72 and p. 124 and p. 125.

17John Rolfe Burroughs, Steamboat in the Rockies, (Fort Collins: Old Army Press, 1974), p. 160.

18Steve Payne, op. cit., p. 178.

19Ibid., p. 123.

20Tyler, op. cit., p. 15.

Chapter VIII: Mining and Transportation, 1890-1920

1Henry E. Bender, The Uintah Railway: The Gilsonite Route, (Berkley, California: Howell-North, 1970), p. 16 and P. 21. See also: Richard A. Ronzio, "The Uintah Railway: The Gilsonite Road", in Denver Westerners Brandbook, (Denver: Denver Westerners, 1959), p. 41.

2Ronzio, op. cit., 50.

3Bender, op. cit., p. 57.

4Ibid., p. 111.

5Ibid., p. 185.

6Ibid., p. 190.

7Ibid., p. 191.

8Ibid., p. 201.

9Jackson County Library, Scrapbook, MSS in Colorado State Historical Society, Denver, Colorado, n.d. unpaginated. 3 volumes.

10Frank R. Hallenback, The Laramie Plains Line, (Denver: Sage Books, 1960), p. 10. See also: Laramie, Hahn's Peak and Pacific Railroad, n.l., d.d.). This is an excellent promotional book put out by the LHP&P as a prospectus in 1911. It contains many excellent photographs of North Park including Pearl, Centennial, and Walden in 1911. Other sources include: Adah Bailey, History of Jackson County, Colorado, (Walden: Jackson County Star, 1947) and Eva B. Mariette, "Memories of North Park", Xerox scrapbook, MS in Colorado State Historical Society, Denver, Colorado, n.d. unpaginated.

11As related in Hallenback, op. cit., pp. 15-20.

12John Rolfe Burroughs, Steamboat in the Rockies, (Fort Collins: Old Army Press, 1974). Burroughs provides a general view of the area prior to 1917.

13William Weston, The Yampa Coal Fields of Routt County, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907), p. 4 and p. 29.

14Ibid., p. 29.

15Nevin M. Fenneman, The Yampa Coal Fields, Routt County, Colorado, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1906), describes the area and draws conclusions as to its worth.

16See: Thomas Tonge, The "Moffat Road", (Denver: n.p., 1906) for a glowing description of what a railroad will mean to northwestern Colorado.

Chapter IX: The "Moffat Road" and Northwestern Colorado, 1903-1948

1See: Edgar C. McMechen, The Moffat Tunnel of Colorado, (Denver: Wahlgren Publishing Co., 1927), 2 Volumes; Edward T. Bollinger, Rails That Climb: The Story of the Moffat Road, (Santa Fe, New Mexico; Rydal Press, 1950) and Harold Boner, The Giant's Ladder: David H. Moffat and His Railroad, (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1962).

2Boner, op. cit., p. 77.

3Bollinger, op. cit., p. 309 and Boner, Ibid., p. 137.

4John Rolfe Burroughs, Steamboat in the Rockies, (Fort Collins, Colorado: Old Army Press, 1974).

5Bollinger, op. cit., p. 309.

6Boner, op. cit., p. 167 and p. 176.

7Ibid., p. 176 and p. 181.

8McMechen, op. cit., p. 127 and p. 161, Vol. 1.

9Ibid., p. 180.

10Bonner, op. cit., p. 195 and p. 201.

11Thomas Tonge, Handbook of Colorado Resources, (Denver: Smith-Brooks Printing Co., 1906), pp. 15-16.

12Ibid., p. 20.

13R. D. George, The Denver and Salt Lake Railroad: Coal, Oil Shale and Hydrocarbons, (Denver, n.p., 1918), pp. 8-26.

14See Hoyt S. Gayle, Coal Fields of Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1910); E. G. Woodruff, Oil Shale of Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1914); A. L. Beekly, Geology and Coal Resources of North Park, Colorado, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1915); Dean E. Winchester, Oil Shale in Northwestern Colorado and Adjacent Areas, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1916); Marius R. Campbell, The Twenty Mile Park District of the Yampa Coal Field, Routt County, Colorado, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923); and E. T. Hancock, Geology and Coal Resources of the Axial and Monument Butte Quadrangles, Moffat County, Colorado, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1925).

15Federated Commercial Clubs of Northwestern Colorado, "An Imperial Empire: Northwestern Colorado", June, 1924, Steamboat Pilot, Steamboat Springs, Colorado.

16See: Moffat Tunnel District Development Association, "Resource Edition", (Steamboat Springs, Colorado: Steamboat Pilot, 1926), and Moffat Tunnel League, "Resource Edition", (Steamboat Springs, Colorado: Steamboat Pilot, 1927).

17Oak Creek Times, "Centennial Edition", Volume 18, Number 23, March 25, 1926.

18See: Frank Wolcott, "Monarch of Grand County", Westerners Brandbook, Denver, 1954.

19Ibid., p. 152.

Chapter X: Development of Northwestern Colorado, 1890-1940

1CWA Interviews, Moffat County, 1933-1934, MSS, Pamphlet 356.

2Ibid., 1933-1934.

3Hayden High School, "Early History of Routt County", MS, Hayden Colorado, 1925, p. 3.

4Ibid., p. 10.

5CWA Interview, op. cit., Pamphlet 356.

6CWA Interviews, Rio Blanco County, 1933-1934, MSS.

7Ibid., 1933-1934.

8Ibid., 1933-1934

9Meeker Herald, March 17, 1888

10CWA Interviews, Rio Blanco County, 1933, Document 108.

11U. S. Forest Service, History of Routt Forest, (Steamboat Springs, Colorado. n.p., 1972), p. 242.

12CWA Interviews, Rio Blanco County, 1933

13Ibid., 1933-1934

14Ibid., 1933-1934. In Routt, Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties.

15See: Ronald F. Lee, The Antiquities Act of 1906, (Washington: National Park Service, 1970).

16See: Wallace Stegner, This is Dinosaur, (New York: Knopf, 1955).

17See: Enos A. Mills, The Rocky Mountain National Park, (Estes Park, Colorado: n.p., 1932).

18CWA Interviews, op. cit., 1933-1934. See Also: State of Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, Oil and Gas Statistics, 1974, (Denver: State of Colorado, 1975), p. 141.

19Oil and Gas Statistics, 1974, op. cit., pp. 132-145.

20Colorado State Board of Immigration, Colorado Mineral, Oil and Shale Resources, (Denver: n.p., 1925), pp. 25-30.

21Oil and Gas Statistics, 1974, op. cit., pp. 65-67.

22Ibid., p. 66.

23John Rolfe Burroughs, Where the Old West Stayed Young, (New York: Morrow, 1962), pp. 328-330.

24Ibid., p. 332.

25Ibid., p. 333.

26Ibid., pp. 336-337.

27"Early History of Routt County", op. cit., p. 21.

28See: Nell Pauly, Grand Lake: Ghosts of the Shootin', (Grand Lake Colorado: n.p., 1961), p. 75 and Burroughs, Steamboat in the Rockies. op. cit., pp. 189-191.

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