|By 1784, the Indians seemed to have largely abandoned Guebavi, the
prey of so many Apache attacks. The mission was removed to Tumacacori.
Guebavi may have been used as a visita now and then later for it is
recorded that a new roof was put on the church building before 1791.
San Ignacio de Sonoita east of Tumacacori as also abandoned, although
a new brick church had been erected there. San Cayetano de Calabasas
had no church in 1772, but before 1791 a church and a father's house was
According to Bancroft, there were no soldiers at Tubac for some time
after 1776, although the settlers living there were required by the
government to remain. After repeated petitions that soldiers be sent to
Tubac, a company of Pima allies was established there before 1784.
Later Spanish soldiers were added to the garrison. The law of 1826
provided for a permanent presidio at Tubas as well as at Tucson. In
1828 a silver mine was being worked near Tubac. In 1842 a friendly
pueblo of 1694 Apaches lived near Tubac. The spiritual interests
(1784-1828) were attended to by the missionary located at Tumacacori.
The church here was called Santa Gertrudis de Tubac. (Bancroft, Arizona
and New Mexico, 362-3) Father Carrillo went to Tumacacori in 1794,
where he remained until his death in 1798. Narciso Gutierrez succeeded
him. Gutierrez died at Tumacacori about 1820. Ramon Liberas succeeded
him. Bancroft names Juan B. Estelric as being the missionary, 1821,
1822. (opus. cit. 385) Tumacacori during this period was a flourishing
mission. Before 1791 a new roof had been put on the church and many
other improvements made. "Houses of adobe for the Indians and a wall of
the same material for the protection of the mission were likewise
constructed." The present church at Tumacacori was probably erected at
the beginning of the 19th century. It had extensive gardens, orchards,
and vineyards with an excellent system of irrigation.
(For the names of the missionaries located at the other missions see
Bancroft, North Mexico States, I, 689-690; and Engelhardt, 1899,
The mission at Caborca continued to prosper and in 1782 there were
still 1,265 Indians there. The church was renovated. A brick church
was erected at the visita of Pitic.
The churches at Ati and Oquita were renovated.
The missionary at Tubutama from 1774 to 1778, Father Felipe Giullen,
was killed by Indians in the latter year while on his way from Santa
Teresa to Ati. Father Giullen initiated the erecxtion of a nicely
ornamented brick church.
Tubutama was the head mission of Pimeria Alta. Father Pedro Font
wrote out his diary of the Anza Expedition here. The bodies of the
Colorado Martyrs rested here from 1782 to 1794 when they were
transferred to Queretaro.
A brick church was erected at San Ignacio and its two visitas, Imurs
and Magdalena, continued to be ministered to. In 1776 Magdalena was
attacked and nearly destroyed by Apaches.
The old presidio of Terrenate was located at or near the abandoned
mission Santa Maria de Suamca in the early part of the 19th century, and
was known as Santa Cruz. (Bancroft, Ariz. and N. Mex., 386)
See Bancroft, op. cit., 407, for origin of Robinson's statement that
the golden era of Pimeria Alta history extended from about 1790 to 1820.
This was only so "in comparison with past and future misfortunes." The
Apaches were under control and this gave a chance for the missions to
have some prosperity. Mines at Aribaca, Tubac, Calabasas and other
places were worked "and stock raising ranchos and haciendas were built
up in the region extending from Tucson to the south-east and the