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Field Division of Education
Chronology for Tumacacori National Monument
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CHRONLOGY


LOCAL HISTORY 1772-1835
(See Engelhardt, 1899, 179-189)

San Xavier del Bac
1780-1794 Father Baltasar Carrillo was superior. His assistant was Narciso Gutierrez.
1794-1799 Guitierrez was superior. He had the following successive assistants: Mariano Bovdoy, Ramon Lopez, and Angel Alonzo de Prado.

The only other missionary mentioned by Engelhardt was Pedro Arriquibar, who was at Bac in 1819.

1783-4 Robinson calls the period from 1785 to 1815 the golden period of missions and settlement in Pimeria Alta. Certainly the Apaches were kept in better control then the period before or after. Settlement was encouraged. Commerce thrived and mining revived. It seems that most of the extant mission churches date from this period. The present church at San Xavier was begun about 1783. Tradition has it that the Gaona brothers were the architects. It is not known whether or not they were connected with the Franciscan order.
1797 It is thought that this was the year in which the church at San Xavier was dedicated. This date is carved above the front door. After the establishment of a presidio at Tucson, a birch church was erected, probably of adobe bricks for the most part. (For details of location of church and presidio enclosure se Lockwood and Page, "Tucson the Old Pueblo.")
Los Santos Angeles de Guebavi and San Jose de Tumacacori
1772-1780 It seems that Father Baltazar Carrilo was in charge of Guebavi. It was difficult to deal with the Indians. They refused to work and paid little attention to the priests beyond attending mass.
1784 By 1784, the Indians seemed to have largely abandoned Guebavi, the prey of so many Apache attacks. The mission was removed to Tumacacori. Guebavi may have been used as a visita now and then later for it is recorded that a new roof was put on the church building before 1791.

San Ignacio de Sonoita east of Tumacacori as also abandoned, although a new brick church had been erected there. San Cayetano de Calabasas had no church in 1772, but before 1791 a church and a father's house was erected.

According to Bancroft, there were no soldiers at Tubac for some time after 1776, although the settlers living there were required by the government to remain. After repeated petitions that soldiers be sent to Tubac, a company of Pima allies was established there before 1784. Later Spanish soldiers were added to the garrison. The law of 1826 provided for a permanent presidio at Tubas as well as at Tucson. In 1828 a silver mine was being worked near Tubac. In 1842 a friendly pueblo of 1694 Apaches lived near Tubac. The spiritual interests (1784-1828) were attended to by the missionary located at Tumacacori. The church here was called Santa Gertrudis de Tubac. (Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, 362-3) Father Carrillo went to Tumacacori in 1794, where he remained until his death in 1798. Narciso Gutierrez succeeded him. Gutierrez died at Tumacacori about 1820. Ramon Liberas succeeded him. Bancroft names Juan B. Estelric as being the missionary, 1821, 1822. (opus. cit. 385) Tumacacori during this period was a flourishing mission. Before 1791 a new roof had been put on the church and many other improvements made. "Houses of adobe for the Indians and a wall of the same material for the protection of the mission were likewise constructed." The present church at Tumacacori was probably erected at the beginning of the 19th century. It had extensive gardens, orchards, and vineyards with an excellent system of irrigation.

(For the names of the missionaries located at the other missions see Bancroft, North Mexico States, I, 689-690; and Engelhardt, 1899, 180-183)

The mission at Caborca continued to prosper and in 1782 there were still 1,265 Indians there. The church was renovated. A brick church was erected at the visita of Pitic.

The churches at Ati and Oquita were renovated.

The missionary at Tubutama from 1774 to 1778, Father Felipe Giullen, was killed by Indians in the latter year while on his way from Santa Teresa to Ati. Father Giullen initiated the erecxtion of a nicely ornamented brick church.

Tubutama was the head mission of Pimeria Alta. Father Pedro Font wrote out his diary of the Anza Expedition here. The bodies of the Colorado Martyrs rested here from 1782 to 1794 when they were transferred to Queretaro.

A brick church was erected at San Ignacio and its two visitas, Imurs and Magdalena, continued to be ministered to. In 1776 Magdalena was attacked and nearly destroyed by Apaches.

The old presidio of Terrenate was located at or near the abandoned mission Santa Maria de Suamca in the early part of the 19th century, and was known as Santa Cruz. (Bancroft, Ariz. and N. Mex., 386)

See Bancroft, op. cit., 407, for origin of Robinson's statement that the golden era of Pimeria Alta history extended from about 1790 to 1820. This was only so "in comparison with past and future misfortunes." The Apaches were under control and this gave a chance for the missions to have some prosperity. Mines at Aribaca, Tubac, Calabasas and other places were worked "and stock raising ranchos and haciendas were built up in the region extending from Tucson to the south-east and the southwest."



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