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Field Division of Education
Chronology for Tumacacori National Monument
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1700 Spring Kino began a systematic investigation of the origin of the blue shells which he had on more than one occasion received as a gift from Indians living on the Gila River. He had seen similar shells on the Pacific shore of Lower California and was certain that they had come overland from California, indicating that California was not an island but a peninsula.
April 21st-May 6 Kino went to San Xavier del Bac to have a conference with Indian delegats who were to come there from all directions to discuss the blue shells and their origin. He passed en route, Cocospera, where 150 native had just returned to settle and were repairing the little church and father's house. Next, San Lazaro was reached, and, in turn, San Luis Bocoancos, Guebavi, and San Cayetano de Tumacacori at all of which were cattle, cultivated fields, and adobe houses.
April 28th "The foundations of a very large and capacious church and house of San Xavier del Bac" were begun.
April 30th-May 1 Kino had conversations with Indians, who had come from far and near, as to the blue shells. It was agreed that they did not come from the Gulf of California but from the south sea.
May Kino said mass at sunrise and Tumacacori on the return journey. At Tumacacori a messenger met Kino begging him to hurry to San Ignacio to intercede for an Indian with the soldiers in order to save his life. The ride to San Ignacio was a remarkable one for endurance.
September 24th-October An expedtion was made by Kino to the north and northwest in searhc of a land route to California. He reached as far as the junction of the Gila and Colorado rivers. He went by way of Busanic and Tucubavia, Santa Eulalia, and Batki. He returned the more direct way, via Sonoita.

According to Duell's computation there were twenty-nine missions and seventy-three visitas in Pimeria Alta and Sonora (Duell, 1919, 57.) Very few places had resident missionaries, however, Kino ministered at Dolores, Remedios, Cocospera, etc. Agustin de Campos was at San Ignacio de Caborica, having charge also of Santa Maria Magdalena and San Jose de Imuris.

Gifts of cattle were sent to Lower California.

1701 January-February There were many Apache raids on the frontiers of Sonora. Kino called them "their accustomed annual robberies". Soldiers were sent in pursuit. Kino provided for the defence of his missions by erection of towers and by sending Pimas in pursuit of the enemy.
February - April Kino, Salvatierra, and Mange made an expedition westward to the gulf, to Puerta de Santa Clara (Adair Bay) from which place it was hoped supplies could be shipped to Lower California. Salvatierra started ahead with a pack-train and Kino followed, going by a more northern route via Remedios, San Ambrosio de Busanic and San Pedro de Tubutama and Caorca, where he caught up with Salvatierra. On March 14th the party arrived at San Marcelo de Sonoita. From there they went westward past Carrizal to the Gulf, hoping to be able to go around its head to California. This was found to be impossible. Salvatierra returned by the southern route while Kino went the northern route eastward to San Xavier del Bac, leaving Sonoita April 6, 1701.
April 4th A small chapel was begun at San Marcelo de Sonoita.
April 10th Kino, with Mange, arrived at Bac, where he found prosperity, and that many men had gone in pursuit of Apaches.
April 11th On the night of April 11th Kino and Mange slept in the adobe house at Tumacacori, which had been erected for the missionary that the natives were awaiting to come to live among them.
April 12-15 Passing San Gabriel Guebavi, San Luis Bocoancos, they arrived at Cocospera the night of the 13th, where Kino spent two days in supervising the erection of a church and a house. While there, he received reports of a successful outcome of the Pima campaign against the Apaches.

Four new missionaries were sent to Pimeria Alta by the father provincial, Francisco de Arteaga. Father Juan de San Guebavi, San Cayetano de Tumacacori and San Luis Bacoancos. A house and church were erected at Guebavi, "small and neat". Foundations of larger structures were laid. Father Francisco Gonzalvo was stationed at San Francisco Xavier del Bac of the Sobaipuris. He died August 10, 1702, at San Ignacio. Father Ignacio de Yturmendi went to San Pedro and San Pable del Tubutama. Father Caspar de las Barillas was placed over the mission at La Concepcion del Caborca. Buildings were begun at all of the above places.

November 3rd Kino started the expedition to the Quiquima Indian Country on the lower Colorado River, accompanied by twelve servants. He passed through Remedios, Cocospera, San Lazuro, San Luis Bacoancos, San Jose de Guebavi, where he said mass in Father Martin's little church. From Guebavi, Kino went southwest on November 5th for San Ambrosio del Busanic, passing the new ranch of San Simon y San Judas del Siboda, where there were a thousand cattle and seven droves of mares. From Busanic they passed northwestward through San Estanislao del Ootcam, Santa Eulalia, and Santa Ana del Anamic, to San Marcelo de Sonoita, where they arrived the night of November 11th. The little church of Nuestra Senora de Loreto was roofed and white-washed. There was a plentiful harvest of wheat and maize and the cattle had been well cared for. Kino's party arrived at the confluence of the Gila and Colorado rivers on November 17, 1701. On the 19th, accompanied by three hundred Pimas and Yumas, who wished to get provisions, he arrived at the Quiquimas country. On the 21st, Kino crossed the Colorado River on a raft. Going down the river some distance the land passage to California was discovered and the next day the return journey was begun. He was back at Sonoita by the 28th and at Dolores on December 8th.
1702 February 5th-March Kino and Father Rector Manuel Gonzalez made the final trip to the lower Columbia River. Fifty or more pack animals, eighty horse and mules, and more than twelve servants went with them. The same route as the previous expedition was followed. On March 10th Kino reached the head of the Guld of California. Father Gonzalez became ill on the return journey and died at Tubutama early in April 1702.
1702 After returning from the discovery of the land passage to California, Kino went to tend to work pertaining to the building of churches at San Ambrosio del Busanic and Santa Gertrudis del Saric, and the "large church of La Concepcion del Coborca". He also looked after "the cattle, crops, and harvests of wheat and maize which the Indians were tending for the fathers whom they hoped to receive". A journey was also made to San Marcelo de Sonoita from whence he sent wheat to sow at the Colorado River of the Yuma and Quiquima nations. Later in the year, Kino made his last trip to the San Xavier del Bac, where "he began the very large church of San Xavier del Bac."
1703 January Serious inroads of the Apaches reached as far as San Ignacio where a drove of horses was driven off on the 4th. Chief Coro led Pimas in pursuit of Apaches, doing much to restrain them. Work on the churches at Remedios and Cocospera was completed by the end of the year.
1704 January 15th-16th The large church of Nuestra Senora de los Remedios was dedicated. January 18-20, the dedication of Nuestra Senora del Pilar y Santiago de Cocospera took place. Father Rector Adamo Gilg performed the ceremonies.

Father Geronimo Minutili was put in charge of San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama where the house was repaired and where gardens and orchards were planted.

Kino made a trip to Guaymas to give his encouragement to the new mission, thereby helping to strengthen the work in both California and Pimeria Alta. Gifts were later made by Kino to California in the form of cattle and supplies sent from Pimeria Alta via the new road to Guaymas.

1705 February More Apache raids were reported at Cocospera, San Ignacio, and Magdalena.
Spring The Father Visitor Francisco Maria Picolo made a tour of Pimeria Alta. During this year Kino undertook to build the church at Tubutama at his own expense.
1706 Accompanied by Father Minutili, Kino traveled to La Concepcion del Caborca to install Father Domingo Crescoli, passing enroute San Ignacio and Tubutama. A large church had been started at Caborca and it had many other buildings. There were also gardens and much live stock.

From Caborca, Kino and Minutili went to the coast through the country of the Seris to that of Tepocas to win new converts. The island of Santa Inez (present Tiburon) was discovered. Kino later suggested that this island be used in developing communication with California.

Kino and Minutili made another journey to Caborca, stopping en route at Remedios and Cocospera where Kino looked after the planting of gardens and orchards, then at Magdalena, where a new church was being built, San Simon y San Judas, where there was a little new church, Busanic where work on a church was in progress, Santa Gertrudis del Saric, Tubutama, and San Antonio del Uquitos.

Churches were being constructed at Santa Maria Magdalena under Father Agustin de Campos, at San Ambrosio del Busanic, Santa Gertrudis del Saric, San Pedro y San Pablo del Tubutama, San Diego del Pitquin, Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion del Caborca, etc.

April 7th Kino set out for Santa Maria Bugota (present Santa Cruz), going via Los Remedios, Cocospera, and San Lazaro. At Santa Maria the foundations of a capacious hall and of two good lodges were laid. The foundations of a large church with a transept were already laid and the walls were ordered to be put up.
June This journey was repeated.
May A mission was made to Caborca and more encouragement in building operations was given at missions en route.
Autumn Plans were made to build a launch for communication with Lower California.

Made journey to Corodguachi (Fronteras) for supplies.

November Father Kino, Father Manuel de la Oyuela, a Franciscan, Juan Mattheo Ramirez, and Juan Duran went to the Sierra de Santa Clara to get a distant view of the land route to California. They went via Remedios, Busanic, Saric, Tubutama, San Antonio de Uquitoa, Pitquin, Caborca, Sonoita, and Carrizal.
1709 Kino continued work on his Favores Celestials in addition to his manifold other duties.
1710 Kino made a special report of his work to Phillip V.
1711 March 15th Father Eusebio Francisco Kino Died at Magdalena. He was buried at San Ignacio.

This chronology to 1711 is based on Herbert E. Bolton's Kino's Historical Memoir of Pimera Alta and the map which accompanies it. The index is so complete and so well worked up that a chronology (1687-1711) for every mission and missionary could be made from it alone. Bolton supplements Kino's work by reference to Mange's La Luz de Tierra Incognita and to varioius diaries and letters written by contemporaries.

1711-1732 Period of neglect of the Pimeria Alta missions. There were no missionaries stationed in present Arizona and there had been none resident there since 1702. Father Martin left Guebavi in 1702 and Father Gonzalvo was at San Xavier del Bac less that a year. The Indians went back to their old ways, neglecting the cultivation of their fields.
1711-1720 There were only two missionaries in present northern Sonora. Father Agustin de Campos had been stationed at San Ignacio de Caborca as early as 1693 and remained there until 1735. Father Velarde had been at Dolores since 1702 and remained there until 1730.
1715 Salvatierra of Lower California proposed a journey to make final proof that California was not an island. Campos and Velarde made signal fires at night and smoke by day at Caborca to guide the ships into the port of Ascencion, discovered by Campos in January 1715. This was done again in September. Salvatierra had to finally give up the expedition. (Velarde, 350-354.)
1720 Father Luis Maria Gallardi came to the assistance of Campos and Velarde. He went to Caborca 1720-1727 and at Tubutama 1727 to about 1732. Caborca and Tubutama were the most populous and prosperous of all the missions during this time. (Mills, 1932, 24-26)

"In the year 1720 new missionaries came to Conception de Caborca and Tubutama; and afterwards going to the rancherias of San Eduardo de Baipia, San Louis de Bacapa, and San Marcelo lying far north; they found a great defection among the Indians; the little churches built by Kino in ruins, and the cultivation of the fertile plaints...utterly neglected." (Venegas, 1759, II, P. 176)

Venegas goes on to make a list of missions and visitas as follows:

  1. Dolores with two villages of visitation (Remedios and Cocospera)
  2. San Ignacio with two villages of visitation (Imuris and Magdalena)
  3. Tubutama with nine villages of visitation (Santa Teresa de Adid, San Antonio de Uquitoa, San Simon y Judas del Siboda, San Ambrosio Busanic, Tucubavia, San Estanislao del Octam, Santa Gertrudis del Saric, San Bernardo Aquimuri, Santa Barbara de Sonoita.)
  4. Coborca with four villages (Pitquin, San Valentin, Bacpia, Bacapa.)
  5. Suamca with several rancherias (San Lazaro and many places along the San Pedro River.)
  6. Guebavi with Spanish farms and considerable number of Indians.
  7. San Xavier del Bac had also a considerable number of Indians.
1721 There was an Indian rebellion in northern Sonora when the missions were attacked and sacked. (Elliot, 1884, 48.)

Ugarte arrived at mouth of Altar River where Gallardi met him. He proved California was a peninsula.

1723 The king requested the Viceroy, the Marquis de Casa Fuerte to reduce the Moqui Indians. Bishop Crespo of Durango advised that they give this work to the Jesuits, but there was so great a distance in order to reach the region from Sonora and there were so many hostile Apaches that it was necessary to suspend the carrying out of the orders until the arrival of recruits in Pimeria Alta. (Venegas, 1759, II, 178-180.)
1722-3 Father Luis Maria Marjiano substituted at San Ignacio while Campos was absent in Mexico, asking the government for reinforcements and that there be a villa established at the mouth of the San Pedro River to act as a buffer against the northern Apaches and Moquis. (Alegre, III, 213.)
1725-6 Bishop Benito Crespo of Durango made a visit to Pimeria Alta in order to make a special report to the King, who was interested iin learning whether or not the Moquis could be reached through Pimeria Alta. While at San Ignacio the bishop had an audience with a delegation of seventy messengers from the Sobaipuri Indians of the Santa Cruzy Valley, begging for a resident missionary. (Ortega, 340-2) Crespo, in his report, made a request that three additional missionaries be sent to Pimeria Alta. (Venegas, 1759, II, 176.)
1724-8 Pedro de Rivera, accompanied part of the time by Father Rector Ignacio Arzeo, made an inspection of the northern frontier. Arzeo baptized many children of the Pimas at their urgent request. Rivera in his report to the crown (1727) recommended that more missionaries be sent to Sonora.
1728 October 10th The petitions of Bishop Crespo and of Rivera were answered with a royal codula ordering the Viceroy "to take immediate measures" for sending Jesuits to the upper Pimas.
1730 There were still only three fathers in Pimeria Alta, Velarde of Dolores was nearing the end of his career, dying before the end of the year. Campos was at San Ignacio. Callardi was at Tubutama. Decline of all the missions was fast setting in with the exception of San Ignacio and Tubutama. Even Dolores was almost depopulated. The northeast part of Sonora was especially subject to Apache attacks, which caused the pueblos and missions to become more and more depopulated. The beautiful churches and other buildings were falling into ruins and the gardens were not being cared for. The natives would not work without the supervision of a missionary. Another factor that made for decline was inadequate military protection. Between 1690 and 1740 there was only one Presidio at the northern frontier, located at Fronteras, and it was seldom adequately manned. (Ortega, 1754, 337-339: Mills, 1932, 15-20.) Even the diligence displayed by Camos did not prevent a loss of population at San Ignacio. The natives at other places would no longer raise cattle, cultivate their lands, build houses and live in their villages as Kino had taught them to do. (Alegre, 1842, III, 173.) When Gallardi arrived at Caborca in 1720, he found that mission and Tubutama in a state of decay and the Christian faith nearly forgotten. To the north at San Eduardo and at Sonoita the small churches erected under Kino's supervision had fallen down and agriculture was neglected. (Mills, 1932, 22; see also last chapter of Venegas, 1759.) Even worse was the destruction north of Cocospera, for the valleys of the San Pedro and the Santa Cruz were in the direct path of the despoiling Apaches. No missionaries had been there since 1702.

The Spanish Government was interested in the colonization and the Christianization of the northern frontiers but European wars had taken up all its attention. The decade beginning with 1730 was to see a change. New missionaries came in, the missions were re-established, and better military protection was provided for. With the discovery of silver and gold mines, Spanish colonies were established until quite a large Spanish population occupied northern Sonora for a time, settling at the mines, the new presidios, and establishing ranchos.

1732 Early Spring Three new Jesuit missionaries entered Pimeria Alta, escorted by Juan Bautista de Anza, Sr., Captain of the presidio of Fronteras. Revival and renewed activity ensued. The new fathers were from Germany: Ignacio Javier Keller, Juan Bautista Grasshoffer, and Felipe Segesser. Segesser went to San Ignacio, where Father Campos was, and Grasshoffer to Tubutama, where Father Gallardi was located, in order to learn the Indian tongue and become accustomed to their field of work under the tutelage of veterans in the service. It is not known to what place Keller was first assigned. (Hammond, 1929, 229) Anaz went to his presidio.
May In May the three fathers went to their separate charges, accompanied by Anza. On May 4th they arrived at Los Santos Angeles de San Gabriel y San Rafael de Guebavi where Grasshoffer was to be left in charge. He also had oversight of the visitas, Los Reyes de Sonoita to the east, Arivaca to the west and San Cayetano de Tumacacoriand Jamac to the north, 1400 souls in all. Father Seggesser was left at San Xavier del Bac. The visitas of Bac at the time were San Agustin, Santa Catharina, and Casa Grande. There were 1300 neophytes at these places. From Bac, Keller and Anza went east to Tres Alamos on the San Pedro River and then went south to Santa Maria de Bugota, known at the time as Santa Maria de los Pimas, and a little later as Suamca. In time the place came to be known as Santa Cruz, where a presidio was located. Santa Maria served the whole San Pedro Valley (1800 souls.) By the end of the year 800 baptisms took place at Bac. Guebavi and Santa Maria. (Hammond, 1929, 229-30; Alegre, 1841-2, III, 245-6.)
1733 Father Gasper Steiger succeeded Segesser at Bac. Guebavi was left vacant because of the death of Grasshoffer.
1733-1751 Other fathers on the mission records: At San Ignacio, Miguel Capetillo (1734), Jose Toval (1736), Alejandro RApuani (1740), Lorenzo Gutierrez (1740-1); at Suamca, Jose Tores Perea (1741-3), Joaquin Felix Diaz (1774), Jose Garrucho (1744 and 1748), Miguel de la Vega (1749-1751). (Bancroft, North Mex. States, I, 525.)
1735 Father Agustin Campos died at San Ignacio.
1736 Steiger left Bac to succeed Campos at San Ignacio. He remained there until his death in 1762. Keller was at Suamaca and possibly Seggesser at some other mission. Keller probably had oversight also of San Xavier del Bac, San Cosme de Tucson, as well as Guebavi and its visitas. He made a trip up the Santa Cruz Valley as far as Casa Grande in 1736.

Father Jacob Sedelmair, the greatest of the Jesuits missionaries to work in Pimeria Alto after Kino, came to Tubutama which became the head mission until the explosion of the Jesuits in 1767.

September As part of the work of building up the mission at Tubutama, Sedelmair made a round trip of 100 leagues to the Papago Indians in the vicinity. He was received joyfully and many children were baptised (Mills, 1932, 42: Ortega, 351-2).
October The famous silver mine, Bolas or Planchas de Plata was discovered near the rancheria of Arizona a short distance southwest of the present town of Nogales. The exact location is not known today. A great number of miners rushed to the spot. By 1740 this mine was worked out and the place was abandoned. This was the beginning of an intense interest in mining ventures in present southern Arizona and northern Sonora. It seems that Spanish settlers locating at the mines, at the missions, a few new pueblos, and the Presidios at Fronteras, Torrenate, and Altar. Ranchos also were established. Apache inroads and the Pima uprising of 1751 caused most of the mines, pueblos, and ranchos to be abandoned by 1752. (Mills, 1932, 4-5; Sedelmair, "Relacion," 856-8, translated in Mills, 1932, 104-139.)
1737 March 2 Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, Sr., sent a proposal to the government that he be permitted to conduct an expedition to discover an overland route to California. Nothing came of it at the time.
July-August Keller made another journey to the Gila River, this time by way of the San Pedro River without escort. He noted the sorry plight of the Sobaipuris, the result of Apache raids. At many places there were only the remains of once prosperous rancherias. Keller went down the Gila as far as the villages of the Coccomaricopas. He returned via the Santa Cruz Valley. (Ortega, 1754, 348-9.)
September Sedelmair made his first northern journey, probably by way of the Santa Cruz River, since he preached and performed baptisms at San Xavier de Bac. (Ortega, 351.)

The Seris Indian uprising to the west was put down by Juan Bautista de Anza, Sr. He then went in pursuit of Apaches to the northeast and lost his life.

1739 February The Marquis de Villa Puente willed money for the foundations of two more missions in Pimeria Alta; "yet in the year 1749, they had not been erected for want of Jesuits." (Venegas, 1759, II, 177.) This, with the discovery of the silver mine of Plancha de Plata (1736) and the royal cedula made in 1742 and in 1744, asking that Primeria Alta should be on the highway to the Moqui Country, all caused much attention to be centered on Pimeria Alta during the next decade. (Mills, 1932, 44-46.)
1741-2 The Presidio at Terrenate was established. Another one was placed at Pitic (Hermosillo) where the new Governor, Don Agustin Vildosola, resided. (Bancroft, N. Mex. States, I, 528)
1742 The cedula of Philip V to the Vice-roy again recommended that the Jesuits be asked to undertake "the reduction of the province of the Moqui."

The camp of San Felipe de Jesus, which had been moving about the protect the missions from Apache attacks, became fixed at Terrenate on the chief high road from the Apachena. (Shea, 1886, I, 531.)

1743 July In an attempt to fulfill the royal wish as expressed more than oce, that Pimeria Alta be connected with the Moqui province to the norht, Keller made another journey to the north. With an escort of soldiers he did reach the Moqui region but the natives proved to be so hostile that he had to return without accomplishing anything. (Ortega, 1754, 349-350.)

Father Jose Torres was missionary at La Concepcion de Caborca. He and Sedelmair went to San Marcelo Sonoita to make a beginning of reviving the mission and ranch. (Ortega, 353.)

November-December Sedelmair went northwest from Tubutama to the Cocomaricopas on the Gila. The route of the return trip is not known.
1744 October-November In another attempt to carry out the orders of the Viceroy to open a way to the Moquis, Sedelmair went to the Gila River via the Santa Cruz Valley, Casa Grande, etc. Going down the Gila from Casa Grande, he crossed to the northern bank at Santa Teresa before its junction with the Rio Asuncion (Rio Salado.) At Santa Maria del Agua Caliente he went northwest to the Colorado up which he followed to the mouth of Bill William's Fork. His supplies giving out, he returned down the Colorado to the Gila, crossed to the southern bank, and went upstream beyond the Cocomaricopas. Then he crossed the Pagagueria southeast to his mission at Tubutama. (See Mills, 1932, map also page 55; Venegas, 1759, II, 181; Ortega, 1754, 355-8.)
November 13 Another royal cedula showed interest on the part of the king regarding the road to the Moquis via Pimeria Alta. It also asked regarding opening up a road to the far northwest. In order to facilitate the opening up of a way to the northwest it was ordered that each mission should have two fathers, one of which should occupy himself in exploration. Spanish soldiers were to be put at the command of the fathers. This was a start in developing the road to Alta California which Kino had opened years before. (Ortega, 1754, 372.)

Father Keller of Suamca reported that he had baptised more than 2000 Indians and had a flock of 1000 brave and industrious Pimas who were tilling the soil and tending flocks and herds. (Shea, 1886, I, 530.)

1745 Autumn Cristobal Escobar, provincial father, answered the royal cedula with a detailed report upon the conditions and possibilities of Pimeria and California. He insisted that the presidios must be kept close at hand for protection from Apaches.
1745-6 Father Sedelmair, anxious to see the contents of the royal cedula and in order to further the works of his missions, made a trip to Mexico City where he presented an account of what had been done, a description of the country, and his own ideas of the region and peoples not yet seen. New missions, he said, would help push the frontier to Monterey in Alta California. (Ortega, 1754, 371-382; Sedelmair, "Relacion.") On his return, Sedelmair went west to the gulf, but found no place suitable for port.
1746 February 16 The Apaches attacked Cocospera, burning the church. (Guiteras, 1894, 254.)

After 1746, interest shifted from the problem of the reduction of the Moquis to the old dispute of whether or not California was a peninsula. Kino and Salvatierra had explored extensively and labored hard to prove that California was not an island but a peninsula. Many were not convinced, including Mange and Father Campos. In 1721 Father Juan de Ugarte had satisfied himself that California was a peninsula. Yet in 1736, Sedelmair found many geographers still calling California an island. The question was not settled in 1746, and Sedelmair was ordered to make an oerland trip to make the final proof, but Apache attacks called for the use of all the soldiers at home. In 1748, Father Fernando Consag explored the Gulf of California, and this, together with the overland journeys made by Sedelmair, 1747-1750, did much to convince geographers that Baja California was a peninsula. Consag reached the head of the gulf shortly before Sedelmair reached the same point, having come by the overland route. Father Link's land journey up the peninsula, in 1766, to the head of the gulf was the final step in Jesuit explorations. (Bolton and Marshall, 1920, 307.)

The interests of California and Pimeria Alta were closely intertwined during the whole mission period. "Sterile California needed overland communication with a mainland base," and it was to accomplish this, as well as to prove the peninsular theory, that the Jesuits conducted the greater part of their exploration activities. (Ibid, 307.)

1747 Father Sedelmair made a search of the gulf coast for a harbor suitable to receive boats from California. He did not meet with success. On his way back, he brought 210 Indians from a rancheria on the coast, and settled them at Ati, where a church was built for them. (Bancroft, N. Mex. States, I, 539)
March 20th Sedelmair report to Father Rector Jose de Echeverria that he could make no journey to the Gila and Moqui country without military escort. (Bancroft, opus. cit., 539.)
1748 October 13th- November 15th Sedelmair, with a small escort of soldiers, made the greatest of all his entradas. He went to the Gila via the Papagueria, and continued down that stream to the junction with the Colorado. He reached as far as the Quiquima tribes on the lower Colorado. (Sedelmair in Doc. Hist. Mex. Ser. 4, vol., I, 18-25.)
1749 Sedelmair's request for escort of soldiers to make another entrada was not granted.
1750 November 17th- December 15th Father Sedelmair made a trip to the Gila River. He followed Kino's old trail via Busanic and Sonoita. He reached the Quiquima tribes on the lower Colorado. On the return trip, he went directly southeast from the Colorado, thus being the first white man to cross this stretch of country. (Ortega, 1754, 362-4.)

Father Keller was still at Santa Maria Suamca, Father Jose Garrucho was at Guebavi. (Shea, 1886, I, 531.)

Sedelmair of Tubutama was Visitador Provincial of seven missions. Steiger was still at San Ignacio. Father Juan Nentvig was at the newly established mission at Saric. Francisco Paver was at San Xavier del Bac. Father Thomas Tello was installed at Caborca, where he was soon eagerly at work in conversions and explorations along the gulf. Father Michael Sola was at Basaraca. (Bancroft, opus. cit., I, 543.)

The Seris, being hard pressed, retired to the island of Tiburon. The Spanish soldiers pursued them but accomplished little.

1751 May Sedelmair reestablished San Marcelo de Sonoita, calling it San Miguel de Sonoita, with the thought that it would be a great aid in future journeys to the Colorado and to the Gulf of California. Father Henry Ruen was put in charge. He was the first and the last missionary to occupy this outpost mission. (Bancroft, Idem.)

Conditions seemed bright in Pimeria Alta. The missions were flourishing and there was hope of further discoveries to the north and west. (Mills, 1932, 72.)

November 21st The Pima Indians arose in revolt. As early as September, Father Nentvig at Saric had noticed many strange Indians in his vicinity. A Pima Indian Chief, Luis by name, appointed by Governor Parilla, Captain of his nation as a reward for service against the Seris, was the leader of the insurrection, which broke suddenly on November 21, 1751. The first victims were Spaniards trapped in Luis' own house, the evening of the 20th. After killing all the Spaniards they could find, they went to the house of the missionary, but Nentvig had been warned and he had fled to Tubutama. After destroying the church at Saric, the Indians went to Tubutama where Nentvig, Sedelmair, two soldiers and a few other Spaniards defended themselves in the cemetery while the followers of Luis burned the father's house and the new, finely decorated church. The fathers escaped to San Ignacio under cover of the night, after a night and two days of fighting. At San Ignacio, Sedelmair and Nentvig recovered from the severe wounds they had received in the fight at Tubutama. Many Spaniards had gathered to protect the mission, but San Ignacio was passed by.

The outlying missions to the west at Caborca and at Sonoita "experienced the main fury of the uprising." Both Father Tello at Caborca and Father Ruen at Sonoita suffered martyrdom and the churches were destroyed. (Ortega, 1754, 449-450.)

The revolt did not bring so much ruin and damage to the missions of the Santa Cruz Valley. Paver of San Xavier del Bac and Garrucho of Guebavi fled to Santa Maria del Suamca where Keller was located. The latter place was not attacked.

After much parleying, peace was brought about by Governor Parilla, but an acrimonious quarrel ensued between Parilla and the Jesuits, as to who was to blame for the uprising. Finally, after five or six years, the missionaries were entirely exonerated of charges of cruel treatment of the Indians and of not giving them enough to eat. "However, the province never recovered from the shock of the Pima uprising, and the last years of the Jesuits in Pimeria Alta were not prosperous ones." (Mills, 1932, 9-81.)

1752 One important result of the Pima uprising was the establishment of a Presidio at Tubac in order to protect the Santa Cruz Valley missions, the fathers, and the neophytes. This seems to have been the first settlement of Spanish soldiers and civilians in what is now Arizona.
Autumn Governor Parilla made peace with the revolting Indians.
1753-4 The Presidio of Altar was established.

Some time after the Pima revolt Sedelmair made his last entrada to the Gila River and the Colorado River, going by way of the Santa Cruz River. (Mills, 1932, 82)

1754 Father Paver was back at San Xavier del Bac. Sedelmair may have gone to Guebavi.
1755 Sedelmair was transferred from Pimeria Alta to Sonora. (Mills, 1932, 82-3.)
1756 An influx of German Jesuits took place, some of them coming Pimeria Alta. Bernado Middendorf began a new mission among the Papagos at Tucson. He could not stay, for the Indians treated him disrespectfully and stole his food. (See Doc. Hist. Mex., Ser. 4, Tom. I, 125.) The Indians to whome Howe and Gerstner were sent would not receive them. Father miguel Gerstner finally settled at Saric, having charge, also, of the visitas of Busanic, Arizona and Aquimuri. Ignatios Pfefferkorn was at Los Santos Angeles San Gabriel y San Rafael de Guebavi. Guebavi had at this time the visitas at Calabasus, Tumacacori and Sonoita (to the east.)
1759 Father Ignacio Xavier Keller died and Father Diego Jose Barrera succeeded him at Santa Maria de Suamca. Cocospera was its visita. (Guiteras, 1894, 222.)
1762 The Rudo Ensayo, written by an anonymous Jesuit about 1763, gives the information that makes it possible to name and locate the Jesuit missionaries in Pimeria Alta 1756-1762.

Francisco Paver was at San Xavier del Bac until 1762, when he went to San Ignacio to succeed Father Steiger, who died in April. Magdalena and Imuris were two visitas of San Ignacio.

Miguel Gerstner was still at Saric, having oversight also of the visitas of Busanic, Aquimuri, and Arizona, and Barrera was at Suamca.

Ildefonso Espinosa was now the missionary at San Xavier del Bac and its visita Tucson. Father Espinosa had a larger congregation than any other mission in Pimeria Alta. At Tubutama was the Father Rector Luis Vivas. Santa Teresa was one of its visitas. Vivas also had taken charge of the mission at Ati since the death of Joseph Hafenrichter. Uquitoa was the visita.

Caborcas and its visitas, Pitic and Bisani were administered by Father Antonio Maria Venz. Custodio Ximeno succeeded Venz at Coborca sometime after 1762. (Guiteras, 1894, 223-226.)

The Rudo Ensayo says that Pfefferkorn was still at Guebavi. (Guitteras, 1894, 223.) Although Shea, 1886, I, 532, cites Pfefferkorns own book as stating that he was transferred to Cucurpe in 1757. This may have been a missprint for 1767. I could not get hold of a copy of Pfefferkorn's book to check it.)

The Sobaipuris of the San Pedro Valley, although warlike, had tired of constantly opposing the Apache attacks and had abandoned their rancherias, some retiring to Suamca and other to Bac. (Guiteras, 1894, 192.)

In Sonora there were 29 missions, 73 towns, and several ranches of Christian Indians. There were eight missions in Pimeria Alta.

Dolores was abandoned before 1762 because of "the insalubrity of the climate, causing great mortality among the natives." Remedios was abandoned for the same reason, the natives moving to Cocospera. There was a small Spanish settlement at Dolores.

Soon after the Pima uprising, Sonoita was destroyed by its own inhabitants. At the same time the following places were also depopulated: Aribaca, Tucubaba, Ocuca and Sopori. (Guiteras, 1894, 231.)

Aside from naming numerous Indian rancherias as having been abandoned because of Seris or Apache inroad and other caused, the Rudo Ensayo mentions many abandoned mining towns, Spanish ranches, and other settlements which would lead one to believe that during the 4th decdade of the 18th century there was a considerable Spanish population in Pimeria Alta, bought there to mine and to raise cattle.

Juan Bautista de Anza was commander of the Presidio of Tubac with a population of 500. The church established here was called Santa Gertrudis del Tubac.

There were 1250 mission Indians in the Santa Cruz Valley.

Most of the mining towns, the ranchos and other Spanish settlements had been depopulated and destroyed by Apache raids. (Guiteras, 1894, 241-257)

Four Presidios in Pimeria Alta: (1) Fronteras or Santa Rosa Corodeguachi, the only garrison in upper Sonora from 1690 to 1740; (2) Terrenate erected in 1742 against the Apaches; (3) Tubac, established in 1752, (it was a visita of Guebavi but in 1762 the natives lived at Tumacacori. All the following ranches in the vicinity were deserted: Sopori, Tucubavi, Aribaca. Thirty leagues south was the abandoned mining settlement of Bolas de Plancha.); (4) Altar was established in 1753 and 1754 on account of the Pima uprising. (Guiteras, 1894, 251-257.)

In the province of Sonora:

Mining settlements and Spanish towns including five presidios.....22
Uninhabited mining settlements.....48
Inhabited ranches.....2
Uninhabited ranches.....126

Total uninhabited.....174
Total inhabited.....

(Guiteras, 1894, 257.)

1763 Because of Apache attacks, Father Espinosa of Bac reported that the Indians were deserting the Santa Cruz Valley. Pfefferkorn also stated that the Indians were leaving Tumacacori and Calabasas. (Lizazoin 1763, 686.)

Serious consideration was being given to devise means by which the Indians could be held on the land. (Aguirre, in Doc. Hist. Mex., ser. 4, Vol., I, 127-9; Pineda in same, 136-8)

1766 Saric's visitas, Arizona and Busanic, were deserted on account of Apache raids. (Englehardt, 1899, 34.)
Spring San Xavier del Bac was raided and all the live stock was driven off. (Anza to Pimeda, Doc. Hist. Mex., ser. 4, Tom. 2, 112.)
1767 The Jesuits were ordered by the Spanish monarch to leave their missions and to out of the country.

Father Barrera was the last Jesuit at Suamca; Custodio Ximeno, at Guebavi; Anthony Castro, at San Xavier del Bac. (Shea, 1886, I, 532.)

Pfefferkorn had been transferred from Guebavi to Cucurpe after 1763. According to Englehardt (p. 29), Ximeno was at Guebavi in 1764 and Pedro Rafael Diez was the last Jesuit there in 1767.

The Jesuit missions of Sonora and California were put in charge of overseers. Meanwhile the Apache raids increased so that no settlements could be made at the mines or at rancho locations.

The 200 or so Spaniards that had been located at Guebavi, Santa Barbara, and Buena Vista had to leave the country because of Apache incursions.

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