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Field Division of Education
Chronology for Tumacacori National Monument
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1604 Juan de Oñate made a trip from Santa Fe, New Mexico, across northern Arizona and down Bill William's Fork to the Colorado, which he descended to the Gulf of California. (Bolton, Marshall, 1920, 73.)
1636 Jesuits extended mission work, (begun on west slope of mountains by entering Sinaloa in 1691) as far as Ures in the Sonora River Valley.
1650 Mission stations reached Cucurpe and Arispe in the upper Sonora Valley. The rectorate of San Francisco Xavier established (Bolton and Marshall, 1920, 239.)
1630-1680 Settlement of Chihuahua. "By 1680 missionaries, miners and settlers had reached...Janos and Casas Grandes" (Bolton and Marshall, 1920, 242.)
1679-80 "Thirty missionaries in the Mayo, Yaqui, and Sonora Valleys were serving about 40,000 neophytes in seventy-two pueblos." (Ibid., 240.)
1687 March Father Eusebio Francisco Kino entered northern Sonora. Mission Nuestra Señora de los Dolores founded on the San Miguel River near Cosari, north of the frontier outpost of Cucurpe. This was to be Kino's headquarters for his twenty-four years of work of exploration, conversion, and mission building in Pimenia Alta, present Northern Sonora and Southern Arizona. (Ibid., 301 ff.) The father visitor Manuel Gonzalez, Father Rector Juan Munos de Borgos, Father Jose de Aguilar of Cucurpe accompanied Kino to Dolores where they arrived March 13, 1687.
March Kino and Aguilar made a journey to San Ignacio Imuris and Remedies northwest and north of Dolores.
April This trip was repeated by Kino. Buildings, agricultural work, and Christian teaching began.
May Kino made a trip north-east from Dolores to the mining town Bacaniche to show the royal cedula to Captain Francisco P. Zevallos.
1689 Winter and early spring, Kino and the Father visitor Manuel Gonzalez went to San Ignacio de Caborica, San Jose de Imuris, Santiage de Cocospera, and Nuestra Senora de Los Remedios.

Dolores was reported as having a church, a house, rich lands planted to crops, a goodly number of instructed neophytes.

1689 Four new fathers arrived and were stationed as follows: Luys Maria Peneli at San Ignacio de Caborica, south Maria Magdalena, and San Miguel del Tupo; Antonio Arras at San Pedro del Tubutama and San Antonio de Uquetoa; Pedro San Doval at San Lorenzo de Laric, and San Ambrosio del Tucubabia; and Juan del Catillejo at Santiago de Cocospera, Sand Lazaro, and Santa Maria de Bugota, later known as Suamca, and at the present time Santa Cruz.
1690 December Father visitor Juan Maria Salvatera arrived at Dolores and on Christmas conducted mass in the "new and capacious church".
1690-91 Last of
December, January
The visitor and Kino made a journey northward and northwestward passing through Remedios, Imuris, San Ignacio, Magdelena, Tupo, Tubutama, Saric, Tucubabia.
1691 January At Tucubabia Sobaipuri messengers from the present Santa Cruz Valley came to beg the fathers to visit them. Accordingly, they went northeast 15 leagues to San Cayetano de Tumacacori. They returned via Guebavi, South Maria (present Santa Cruz) and Cocospera. This was the first trip that Kino made to the Santa Cruz Valley.
1692 August-Sept. Kino went to the Santa Cruz Valley, (called Santa Maria by Kino) a second time, accompanied by Indian servants and fifty pack animals. He preached to the 800 Sobaipuris of San Xavier del Bac for the first time. He then went east to the Sobaipuris of the San Pedro Valley (called by Kino, Rio de San Jose de Terrenate or de Quiburi.)
1693 April 26th The new church at Dolores was dedicated.
1693 December Father Kino and Augustin de Campos and Captain Sabastian Romero made a journey to Caborca and El Nazareno. Caborca was named La Concepcion de Nuestra Senora del Caborca.
1694 February Fathers Kino, Marcos Antonio and Lieutenant Juan Matheo Mange traveled to the coast via Caborca.
March-April Kino and Mange went to the coast again vai Caborca. The construction of a boat was begun. An adobe building was finished at Caborca Wheat and maize were planted.
June Kino was at Caborca once more.
October Kino accompanied Francisco Xavier Saeta to Caborca where he was placed as missionary.
November Kino travelled north as far as Casa Grande pasing Tumacacori and San Xavier enroute. Kino made a description of Casa Grande in his Favores Celestiales. He said mass in the structure.
1694 At the end of 1694 there were five missionaries in Pimeria Alta, (1) Kino at Dolores, (2) Saeta at Caborca, (3) Camos at Magdalena and San Ignacio, (4) Daniel Janusque at Tubutama, and (5) Pedro de Sandoval at Cocospera.

As early as 1694, 100,000 head of cattle ranged at Terrenate, Bate-pito, San Bernardino and Janos.

1695 March Uprising of Pima Indians at Tubutema where the house and church were burned.
April 2 Father Saeta suffered martyrdom at Caborca. Four Opata Indians were killed, the father's house was plundered, and cattle, sheep and goats were stampeded. Later, San Ignacio, Imuris, Magdalena, and Caborca were burned.
Nov. to May 1696 Kino made a journey to Mexico City to obtain greater support for his mission and to obtain new missionaries in order to found new missions.
1696 Kino went to San Pablo de Quiburi via Santa Maria (present Santa Cruz) and Santa Cruz on the San Pedro River. The little adobe house was begun for the father and a few cattle and a drove of mares were placed for the beginning of a ranch.
1696 January Left Quiburi for San Xavier del Bac, taking cattle, goats, and a small drove of mares, thereby establishing a ranch there. The ranch of San Luis del Bacoancos on Santa Cruz River on present international border line was begun with cattle. At San Cayetano de Tumacacori there were already flocks of sheep and goats which had been gathered at Caborca in 1695 during the disturbances there.
March Kino was again at San Pablo de Quiburi and returned via San Cayetano and San Luis.
April The same journey repeated.
Spring Father Pedro Ruiz de Contreras was set over Cocospera and Santa Maria.
September-October Kino went with Pima chiefs to Santa Maria de Bazeraca on the upper Yaqui River in order to ask the Father Visitor Oracio Police for more missionaries and to obtain protection of soldiers against inroads of the Apaches.
November ?Kino, Captains Bernal and Mange, with 22 soldiers made an expedition down the Rio de Terrenate (San Pedro). The valley was well cultivated by the Indians who raised extensive crops of beans, squash, maize, and coton by means of irrigation. Reaching the Gila River, the company followed it to Casa Grande and beyond to San Adreas, home of chief Palacios. The party returned via San Xavier del Bac in the vicinity of which there were more than 6000 people who lived by raising cattle and growing crops. Leaving Bac, they passed Tumacacori, Guebavi, Becuancos, San Lazaero, Cocospera, Los Remedios and thence to Dolores, arriving there December 2nd.
1698 February Kino, Mange, and Ramos Sarmiento made a journey to Tubutama, Tucubabia and Caborca.
March 30th The Sobaipuri Pimas of San Pedro Village, led by their Chief Coro, won a signal victory over the Apaches, etc.
April Kino and Mange went to Quiburi. Cocospera had been attacked by Apaches, Jocomes, etc. in February, destroying the Missionary establishment. These enemies did the same the next month at Santa Cruz de Quiburi. Captain Coro of Quiburi came to the rescue with Pima allies and drove the enemy away. Kino made the journey to Quibui in order to make an exact report on what had occured in order that the valiant Pimas should be given the promised reward for repulsing the enemy.
September-October Kino and Captain Diego Carrasco made a journey to the Gila River going by way of Tumacacori and Bac as far as San Andreas beyond Casa Grande. The party then turned south and southwest to the Gulf of California, at present Adair Bay, passing through San Marcelo de Sonoita. Returning to Dolores they passed Caborca and Tubutama, "in each of which places there are cattle, sheep, goats, wheat, maize, and a house of adobe for the fathers whom they hope to obtain".
1699 February-March Starting February 7, Fathers Mino and Adamo Gilg accompanied by Lieutenant Mange made an expedition to the Gila River via Sonoita with Indian servants, "and more than ninety pack animals". Thirty-six head of cattle were ordered sent to Sonoita to establish a new ranch there. The Gila was reached at San Pedro, fifty miles from its mouth, where, among the presents received, "were some curious and beautiful blue shells". Santa Cruz Valley via Bac and Tumacacori, up the Gila, was the route of their return journey. They arrived at Dolores March 14.
October 24th- November 18th The Father Visitor Antonio Leal with Fathers Kino and Gilg and Lieutenant Mange, with two soldiers and fifty pack animals made a journey through Pimeria Alta north and northwest via San Xavier del Bac. They reached San Cayetano de Tumacacori on October 27th and on the 28th mass was said in an adobe house that the Indians had built with the hope that a missionary would come to live in it.

There were adobes also at San Luis Bocoancos, Guebavi and San Xavier del Bac, and at all of the places there were cattle, goats, sheep, horses, and cultivated fields watered with irrigation ditches. At San Cosme del Tucson there were as "splendid fields" as at Bac.

The journey was continued west from San Xavier on November 4th and after visiting several rancherias in the present Papagueria they returned to Dolores; Kino and Mange went southwest to Sonoita to get information on a land passage to California, making inquiry as to the origin of the blue shells. Father Leal went by carriage to Tubutama where Kino and Mange arrived on November 14th. Here there was a smalle earth-roofed adobe church, a house, 100 head of live stock and supplies of wheat, maize, and beans. Caborca had practically the same outfit. Father Agustin de Campos welcomed the travelers when they passed through San Ignacio on the 16th.

November Captain Christoval Martin Bernal of the Presido of Coro de Guachi (Fronteras) made a punitive expedition against the Apaches on the northeast frontier aided by Chief Coro's Indians from Quiburi.

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