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Field Division of Education
Chronology for Tumacacori National Monument
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1536 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and three companions crossed northern Mexico from east to west. He crossed the extreme southeast corner of present Arizona leaving Arizona territory in the vicinity of Douglas and going south along the road later traversed by Coronado. (Sauer, 1932, map.)
1539 Friar Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan, accompained by the negre, Stephen, one of the Cabeza de Vaca's companions, was sent by Vicery Mendoza to find the fabled Seven Cities to the north. He may have gone as far as the Zuni pueblos and in doing so he must have used either the San Pedro or the Santa Cruz River as his route of travel across Arizona. Sauer thinks that Friar Marcos, "penetrated at most a very short distance into the modern State of Arizona." (Sauer, 1932, 28)
1540 Francisco Vasquez led an expedition that made many discoveries in modern Arizona and New Mexico. One contingent under Melchior Diaz crossed southwestern Arizona en route to the Colorado River in order to make contact with Alarcón, leader of the sea expedition. The main company under Coronado followed down the present San Pedro Valley and northwest to Cibolo (the Zuni Villages) in New Mexico. Two reconnoitering parties were sent out to the northwest, one under Tobar, who found the Moqui Villages, and the other under Cardenas, who discovered the Grand Canyon of the Colorado.
1564-5 Francisco de Ibarra made an expedition along the west slope of Mexico, following north from Culiacan practically the same route as that followed by Coronado. According to Sauer he went up the Senora River past Ures and Arispe to Fronteras and east from there to the Casas Grandes in Chihuahua. (Sauer, 1932, 38-49 and map.)
1540-1685 Period of advancing occupation and settlement northward from Mexico City to Sonora.
1599 Zaldivar sent by Juan de Oñate, governor of New Mexico, across Arizona to the lower Colorado.

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