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Field Division of Education
Preliminary Report on the Ethnography of the Southwest
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The grouping of tribes by languages reveals an entirely different alignment of peoples from that presented by cultural similarities. It has long been recognized that no necesscary correlation exists between language and culture, and the Southwest is no exception to this rule. It is customary to group languages according to their degree of relationship with one another into stocks of more or less related languages and these in turn into families of more or less related stocks. Languages and stocks between which no relationship may be detected belong to different families. Unfortunately, few of the languages of the Southwest have been intensively studied and the linguistic affiliations are not entirely certain. The latest groupings, however, make all the languages of the Southwest probably members of one or another of three great stocks of widespread distribution in North America. Table II indicates these groups. The parentheses show the cultural affiliations of each people or group of people (see Edward Sapir, Encyclopedia Brittanica; Harrington, 1910, 1910b, 1910c).


I. Uto-Aztecan Family

A. Shoshonean Stock
1. Paiute (marginal agriculturists)
2. Hopi (Pueblo
a. Sichimovi
b. Walpi
c. Mishongnovi
d. Shumopovi
e. Shipaulovi
f. Oraibi
g. Hotavilla
3. Ute (nomads)
4. Comanche (nomads)
B. Sonoran Stock
1. Opata (rancheria)
2. Pima (rancheria)
3. Papago (rancheria)
C. Kiowa-Tanoan Stock
1. Tewa (Pueblo)
a. Nambe
b. Tesuque
c. San Ildefonso
d. San Juan
e. Santa Clara
f. Hano
2. Tigua (Pueblo)
a. Isleta
b. Sandia
c. Taos
d. Picuris
3. Jemez (Pueblo)
a. Jemez
b. Pecos (extinct)
4. Piro (Pueblo-extinct)
5. Tano (Pueblo-extinct)
6. Kiowa (nomad)
D. Zunian Stock (?)
1. Zuni (Pueblo)

II. Athabaskan Family

A. Apache-Navaho
1. Apache (nomads-marginal agriculturists)
2. Navaho (marginal agriculturists)
B. Kiowa-Apache (nomads)

III. Hokan-Souian Family

A. Yuman Stock
1. Maricopa (rancheria)
2. Cocopa (rancheria)
3. Yuma (rancheria)
4. Mohave (rancheria)
5. Walapai (rancheria)
6. Havasupai (rancheria)
7. Yavapai (marginal agriculturists)
B. Keresan Stock
1. Cochiti (Pueblo)
2. Santo Domingo (Pueblo)
3. San Felipe (Pueblo)
4. Sia (Pueblo)
5. Santa Ana (Pueblo)
6. Laguna (Pueblo)
7. Acoma (Pueblo)


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