Historic Structure Report: CCC Buildings
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Bunting, Bainbridge. John Gaw Meem: Southwestern Architect. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983.

Solid background on the "Santa Fe style" (pueblo revival) and local architectural concerns contemporary with the design of the Bandelier CCC buildings.

Harris, Cyril. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill, 1975.

Standard reference work for technical architectural definitions.

Harrison, Laura Soullière. Architecture in the Parks: National Landmark Theme Study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

Documentation on 33 properties of national significance in architecture, including Bandelier's CCC historic district.

Hawkins, David. Manhattan District History. Project Y. Los Alamos Project. Volume I: Inception Until August 1945. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, written 1946-47, distributed 1961 by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Technical history of Project Y and the development of the atomic bomb.

Hoard, Dorothy. A Hiker's Guide to Bandelier National Monument. Albuquerque: Adobe Press, 1977.

A modern guide to the monument, primarily concentrating on the backcountry, but including general sections on geology, history, and prehistory.

Hodgson, Fred T. Concretes, Cements, Mortars, Plasters and Stucco. Chicago: Frederick J. Drake & Co., Publishers, 1916.

Descriptive uses of cements, mortars, plasters, and stucco.

Ise, John. Our National Park Policy: A Critical History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961.

Good information on Bandelier's early administrative history in a national context and on organization of ECW programs.

Kunetka, James W. City of Fire: Los Alamos and the Atomic Age, 1943-45. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1979.

Self-explanatory, with some information on Bandelier's relation to "the Hill."

Lamont, Lansing. Day of Trinity. New York: Atheneum, 1965.

No specific information on Bandelier, but some on the development of Los Alamos and the temporary housing shortage.

Truslow, Edith (Kasha Thayer, ed.). Manhattan District History. Nonscientific Aspects of Los Alamos Project Y. 1942 through 1946. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, 1973, distributed by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

History of how Los Alamos was built, from site selection through construction and community organization.

Truslow, Edith, and Ralph Carlisle Smith. Manhattan District History. Project Y. Los Alamos Project. Volume II: August 1945 through December 1946. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of California, written 1946-47, distributed 1961 by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Technical history of Project Y from the end of World War II until takeover by the ABC. This volume and the Hawkins volume provide some professional background information on people who stayed at Frijoles Canyon Lodge.

Winkler, E.M. Stone: Properties, Durability in Man's Environment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.


"Reach to the Unknown: The Trinity Story, July 16, 1945," special anniversary edition of The Atom, Volume 2, Number 8 (July 16. 1965).

Santa Fe New Mexican, Volume 96, Number 213 (August 6, 1945).


"Early Days in Frijoles: A Talk with Mrs. Frey, Albert Gallegos, and Manuel de Vargas," June 23, 1980.

Mrs. Frey discusses early days in the canyon, park visitors, and her orchards and neighbors. Albert Gallegos discusses how his CCC camp started in Santa Fe, how the rock was quarried, how long it took to build the buildings, how the buildings were kept by the CCC from 18 months to two years, and how the CCC men were paid $1 per day. Much of park staff present, addressing questions to interviewees. Tape on file at Bandelier.

Interview with Lyle E. Bennett, March 10. 1985, conducted by Laura Soullière Harrison.

Mr. Bennett discusses his education and architectural work and focuses his discussion on his NPS buildings. Letters clarifying certain aspects of his interview are included in the transcript. On file at Bandelier.

Interview with Mrs. Evelyn Frey, April 10, 1984, conducted by Laura Soullière Harrison.

Mrs. Frey discusses the construction of the new lodge and the army's use of the lodge during the war for its "atomic people." On file at Bandelier.

Interview with James Fulton, August 12, 1987, conducted by Laura Soullière Harrison and Roger Buck.

Fulton recounts his days as forestry foreman for the CCC at Bandelier. On file at Bandelier.

Interview with Jared Morse, August 11, 1987, conducted by Laura Soullière Harrison and Roger Buck.

Morse discusses his short time as architect at Bandelier in the earliest days of the CCC. On file at Bandelier.

Interview with Dr. and Mrs. Richard Taschek, April 13. 1984, conducted by Laura Soullière Harrison.

Dr. and Mrs. Taschek discuss living in Frijoles Canyon Lodge during the summer of 1943. On file at Bandelier.

Walk with Mrs. Frey to Old Lodge (Ten Elders) and Ruins, June 30, 1979.

Interview by Chris Judson and others. Mrs. Frey discusses the Freys's arrival in the canyon; their facilities; the tramway; life during the 1930s; and when those atomic people came in. On file at Bandelier.


Bandelier National Monument. "Daily Activity Report. May 22, 1946 to February 4, 1947." No pagination.

Fairly specific notations on day-to-day park activities. Seems to have served as basis for monthly narratives. On file at Bandelier.

Chase, H.B. Bandelier National Monument Emergency Conservation Work — Quarterly Report for Months of July, August, and September, 1934." Submitted October 26, 1934.

Work summary by project superintendent for CCC accomplishments during that quarter. On file at Bandelier.

Chase, H.B. Bandelier National Monument Emergency Conservation Work — Quarterly Report for Months of October, November, and December 1934." Submitted January 9, 1935.

Work summary by project superintendent for CCC accomplishments during that quarter. On file at Bandelier.

Chase, H.B. Bandelier National Monument Emergency Conservation Work — Report Covering Activities of the Camp for the Six Months Period Beginning October 1, 1934 and Ending March 31, 1935." Submitted April 17, 1935.

Six-month work summary by project superintendent. On file at Bandelier.

Chase, H.B. "Reporting ECW Activities for the Six Months Period from April 1 to September 30, 1935 at Bandelier National Monument." Submitted October 1, 1935.

Work summary by project superintendent. On file at Bandelier.

Nusbaum, Jesse, M.R. Tillotson, and Roger W. Toll. "The Bandelier National Monument and the Proposed Cliff Cities National Park. Report to Horace M. Albright, Director, National Park Service." November 26. 1930.

Fine background, administrative history, on recommendations for including Bandelier in the national park system. In the Southwest Regional office library, Santa Fe.

Rothman, Hal. The Bandelier National Monument: An Administrative History. Draft, March 1987. On file at Bandelier. The volume traces the history of Bandelier's acquisition, administration, and resource management to 1988.

"Superintendent (sic) Monthly Narrative 1941 — 1950," and "Superintendent (sic) Monthly Narrative 1951-60."

Carbon copies of monthly reports submitted to the Southwestern Monuments office, covering most items of importance affecting Bandelier for those years. Good background on Bandelier during the war. Many references to maintenance problems and repairs, but usually done in a general way (e.g., "We repaired the roofs.") Information in each report varies considerably with the writer. Some concentrate more on naturalists' concerns, others on local current events. Written first by monument custodians and then by superintendents after the title changed. On file at Bandelier.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Forest Service. In the Land of the Ancient Cliff Dweller. USDA Miscellaneous Circular No. 5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1925.

Tour guide describing resources and tourist accommodations while the area was under Forest Service management. In Southwest Regional office library, Santa Fe.

U.S. Department of the Interior. NPS. Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.

Tour guide and minifolder describing the monument after the war. In Southwest Regional office library, Santa Fe.


The majority of data for this report came from federal files, which are in the Denver Federal Records Center unless otherwise noted. Numbered files are listed first; those without numbers are listed alphabetically. File names are listed exactly as they appear on the files; thus inconsistencies appear.

000 — General Bandelier 1934.

Includes general correspondence among Boss Pinkley, the Bandelier staff, and the San Francisco staff (Vint, Kittredge, and others) on personnel, architectural, and engineering matters; transmittal of drawings; and project approvals and stipulations. Also includes the following reports:

Miller, Hugh M. "Bandelier ECW: Report by Hugh M. Miller, Chief Clerk, to Frank Pinkley. March 16, 1934." Confidential report summarizes findings on disharmony with the army. Evenstad's hiring of Pruitt, the waterline, the entrance road, and landscape matters — all the controversies. Recommends that Boss straighten out the chain of command and give the Army and NPS the word to cooperate with one another. Also makes other specific recommendations.

Richey, Charles A., and Lyle Bennett. "Report to the Chief Architect through Superintendent of Southwestern Monuments Final Construction Report. Conservation Work — CCC Camp NM-1M November 16, 1933 to April 31, 1934 (Second Period) Bandelier National Monument." June 19, 1934. Office of the Chief, Western Division, Branch of Plans and Design, summarizes the early ECW accomplishments. Also covered are the construction of the CCC camp, lists of personnel, description of entrance road construction, and constant digs at the engineers' work ("done against the recommendations of the landscape architects"). This copy has copious photographs and lots of margin notes (penciled in by McGill or Attwell?) pointing out discrepancies in the text. Also has good notes on historic roads through the area constructed by Abbott and Pacifico Baca before 1900.

Richey, Charles A., and Jared Morse. "Report to Thos. C. Vint, Chief Architect on Emergency Conservation Work in Bandelier National Monument, 1934 Season — Third Enrollment Period." Summarizes work on roads, trails, existing buildings (old lodge buildings and others) up the canyon, and work priorities.

"Emergency Conservation Work Camp NM-1-N. Bandelier National Monument. Proposed Sixth Period Program." August 29, 1935, Office of the Superintendent of Southwestern Monuments. Report summarizes and provides cost estimates for series of sixth period projects. from fencing and grading to construction of some buildings.

000 — General Bandelier National Monument, July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1935.

Includes correspondence: transmittal of architectural drawings and cost estimates; receipt of trucks and other equipment; transmittal of specifications; comments on drawings by fire protection engineer of the Department of the Interior and responses from park architects and landscape architects with changes in building designs.

000 — General Bandelier 1936.

Has information on fencing the monument, acquisition of fencing and building materials, building sites, transmittal of drawings, $1,500 statutory limitation, and a "Report to the Chief Architect on 5th Period ECW Work, April 1, 1935 to September 30, 1935."

000 — General Bandelier National Monument 1937.

Communications on telephone line and waterline construction.

200 — Bandelier National Monument Miscellaneous Correspondence. March 23, 1932 to December 31, 1934.

Starts with transmittal of legislation to Pinkley. Correspondence on the road; on the acquisition of fire suppression supplies; on the possibility of setting up suppression agreement with USFS and other agencies; on stock use and grazing permits; on woodcutting and hunting violations; on the beginnings of ECW and public works programs; on the acquisition of trucks, fire tools, and the like; and on the death of the first custodian. Also contains Charles A. Richey's "Report to the Chief Architect through the Superintendent of Southwestern Monuments Bandelier National Monument and Canyon de Chelly National Monument, July 25 to July 30, 1933." submitted August 12, 1933.

200 — General Correspondence Calendar Year 1935.

Correspondence on mountain lions and why they cannot be hunted in the park; getting the Ford truck fixed; complaints about living quarters; fencing the monument to keep livestock out; CCC guide situation; utilities; purchase of car with welded section on back (for use as a pickup); wildlife concerns; interpretive matters (outside exhibits, books, etc.); topographic mapping of the canyon and other areas; and geology.

200 — Bandelier National Monument, 200 — Administration, General, February 9, 1938 to (1943).

Includes information on attempted murder of custodian Cy Harkins by a transient working for Mrs. Frey; complaints of Hub Chase (project superintendent) about Lyle Bennett (landscape architect); entrance road problems; interpretation and wildlife; interior design; justifications for retention of CCC camp; closing down the camp; poaching by Santo Domingo Indians; salvage of scrap metal for the war effort; and concern with what the army was up to in Los Alamos.

201 — Bandelier ECW, Administration General, 1933-34.

Information on ECW personnel matters; board and morale problems; fencing Tsankawi; CCC men lectured on pothunting; two truck accidents; and acquisition of 20 pack animals to service fly camps.

201 — ECW, Bandelier National Monument, Administration General, February 4, 1935 to December 4, 1937.

Information on cattle grazing; fear of lawsuit on CCC; administration of ECW; mileage and other administrative data; housing for NPS employees, pets in the canyon; payroll; and wood utilization.

204 — Reports of Inspections by Headquarters Officers.

Fire protection inspection reports; inspections and memos by Hugh Miller for Southwestern Monuments; forms 10-374, records of inspection for CCC projects; field reports for the Branch of Plans and Design (Region III, Santa Fe); memoranda for the superintendent; and travel reports by park naturalists. Covers January 11, 1939 to April 1, 1943.

204-30 — Bandelier National Monument Inspections, March 17, 1936 to December 28, 1938.

Covers development plans and utilities installations and contains "Report to the Chief of Operations on Fire Protection for Buildings, and Safety at Bandelier National Monument," August 1938, by Franch Ahern, Chief, Safety Division, Branch of Operations, NPS.

207-02 — Custodian's Monthly Reports, November 1933 to December 1938.

Weather and wildlife information, ruins stabilization, and construction.

207-22 — Project Completion Reports 1940 and July 1952. Campground. Standard Prefabricated Picnic Table and Reconstruction of Bridges.

Includes information on entrance road paving and campground rehabilitation.

601 - (CCC) Lands (General).

Has information on proposed campfire circle to be located near "threashing floor" [sic] and transmittal of drawings for patio drainage, operator's residence, and others.

601-03 — (CCC) Abandoned Camps. Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico.

Closing the CCC camp by phasing into USFS camp; transferring skilled workers to Chaco camp; also loose sheets on drainage structures.

601-03.1 — (CCC) Applications for Camps — Bandelier.

Contains forms 10-355 work program outlines and fill-in-the-blank justifications and 12930 general description forms. 10-355s have cost breakdowns for work units, man-days, labor, equipment, materials, and totals.

611 — (CCC) Repairs and Improvements (Fences) Bandelier National Monument.

Fencing the detached area; constructing concrete aprons around B-5; constructing flagstone walkways.

620— (CCC) Buildings (General) Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico.

Forms on alterations, additions; 10-352s and 1-As containing project justifications and applications. 620-01 — (CCC) Administration Building, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico.

Transmittal of drawings; 10-352; information on lobby and patio addition.

620-08 — (CCC) Checking Stations Bandelier.

Entrance roads; land problems (USFS and Bond Brothers); choice of site; and form 10-352. 620-08 — (CCC) Comfort Stations Bandelier.

Information on B-1, B-9, B-21, and the privy constructed near the entrance station; painting schedules; 10-352s.

620-35 — (CCC) Garage, Bandelier.

Information on addition of heater room to garage (B-6) circa 1939; and fire in the shop (B-4). 620-46 — (CCC) Museums.

Concentrates on museum addition rather than initial construction.

620-53 — (CCC) Power Houses, Bandelier.

Approvals, drawing transmittals, and equipment.

620-58 — (CCC) Quarters for Employees (Residences). Bandelier.

Information on the construction of employee residences including floor treatments.

620-75 — (CCC) Sheds.

Construction of wood-storage sheds in residential area; storage of Mrs. Frey's wood.

620-90 — (CCC) Stables and Bams, Bandelier.

Transmittal of drawings and other information on addition of cooking facilities and sink to apartment in stables.

620-100 — (CCC) Warehouse, Bandelier.

Drawing approvals; changes to warehouse in 1939.

621 — (CCC) Construction Projects.

Mixed bag of 10-352s; furniture and rock quarry information; sofa cushion specifications.

Bandelier 1932-1933.

Request for museum and justifications; water supply problems; early projects; early concessions permit restrictions; ECW administrative data; Vint's accident at Bandelier (five minor fractures); right-of-way data; justifications for camp.

Bandelier CCC Job Files.

Available in the monument's library, these files contain specific information on the progress of individual CCC projects.

Bandelier Fixed Property Records

Bandelier Maintenance Files

Bandelier National Monument ECW Reports and Correspondence 1936.

Organizational charts, forms, and other administrative data for March, April, and May 1936, compiled by W.H. Wirt, ECW inspector.

Bandelier National Monument Real Property Records

These government forms, available at monument headquarters, contain information about all of the buildings under jurisdiction of the monument.

Bandelier National Monument, Frank A. Kittredge, Chief Engineer, to Director Arno Cammerer, October 30, 1934.

Kittredge's reply to Richey's final construction report on the entrance road, which criticized the engineers so badly.

Bandelier NM-1 — Personnel V-1C1-b-NM.

Data on CCC and NPS personnel for 1936 and 1937.

8th Period ECW Program - Bandelier NM-1-N.

Work program outlines and cost estimates for eighth period program; arguments over project submittal between Boss Pinkley and the regional office (Oklahoma City) in 1936.

"Nusbaum's File Bandelier National Monument, cover, period of est. under NPS. studies for it (sic) enlargement to National Park Status, etc."

Extremely valuable background for administrative history. Letters among Nusbaum, NPS directors, and others very open about the politics involved. File in Southwest Regional office library, Santa Fe.


The following citations are from the Los Alamos Laboratory Records Center and Archives. They contain information on the use of Frijoles Canyon Lodge by Project Y personnel during the Los Alamos housing shortage in 1943 and 1944. Costs of meals and lodging and other administrative data are included. Because documents were pulled by the archivist for security reasons, no further reference information, such as file numbers, is available. The documents contain only the portions declassified by the Los Alamos Laboratory reviewers.

Interoffice memorandum: J.A.D. Muncy, business manager, to J.R. Oppenheimer, October 25, 1944.

Letter: Muncy to P.M. Douglas, August 4, 1943.

Letter: Muncy to Stanley L. Stewart, June 14, 1943.

Letter: Muncy to Stewart, September 25, 1943.

Letter: Muncy to Stewart, November 10. 1943.

Letter: Muncy to Stewart, October 25, 1944.

Letter: Stanley L. Stewart, Major, Corps of Engineers. contracting officer's representative, to J.R. Oppenheimer. June 22, 1943.

Los Alamos Laboratory, "Minutes of the Meeting of the Administrative Board," July 6 and 20, 1943.

Los Alamos Laboratory, "Minutes of the Meeting of the Governing Board," May 17, 24, and 27 and June 10, 1943.

United States Engineers — Project Y, "Recapitulation of Expenditures — Frijoles Canyon Lodge for the Period June 19, 1943 — Oct. 22, 1943."

United States Engineers — Project Y, "Cost Analysis for the Period, June 19, 1943 — Oct. 22, 1943."

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Last Updated: 08-May-2005