Beyond the Moon Crater Myth
A New History of the Aniakchak Landscape
A Historic Resource Study for Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
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Archival Collections

Alaska Commercial Company-records. The late 1800s from Wrangell, Wide Bay, Sutkhum. Alaska and Polar Regions Dept. Rasmussen Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Translated records by Katherine Arndt located in ANIA file 2089/009.01-01, Box 2, Folder 6. Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center, Anchorage, AK.

Alaskan Russian Church Archives. Originals located at the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. Translated copies in MF139 accession # in collections of Alaska and Polar Regions Dept. Rasmussen Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Records pertaining to Aniakchak and translated by Katherine Arndt and Irina Dubinina are located in ANIA files 2089/008.01-01, Box 2, Folder 04, Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center, Anchorage, AK.

Alaska Packers Association (APA) Collection. Whatcom County Division of Parks and Recreation. This collection has since moved to the Center of Pacific Northwest Studies, Bellingham, WA.

Bernard Hubbard Collection, University of Santa Clara Archives. Michel Orradre Library, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara.

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 1904-1960 (RG 22). National Archives, Anchorage, Federal Records Center (NARA ANC).

Columbia River Packers Association (CRPA) Collection. Curatorial Division, Accession # 85.55.439. Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria, OR.

Fort Morrow Army Air Field, Port Heiden, Alaska Records. Originals located at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Anchorage, AK. Copies located at the Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center, Anchorage, AK.

Jack Roderick Collection. Archives and Manuscript Collections, University of Alaska Anchorage.

National Park Service/Alaska Task Force Collection (RG 79). National Archives, Anchorage, Federal Records Center (NARA ANC).

National Park Service/"Aniakchak, Alaska" folder, in Box 658, File 0-35, Entry 7, RG79, NARA DC.

National Park Service/Aniakchak Archeological Overview and Assessment Collection. Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center Anchorage AK.

National Park Service/Aniakchak Ethnographic Overview and Assessment Collection. ANIA 2089, Box 1 and 2, Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center, Anchorage, AK.

National Park Service/Katmai and Aniakchak Administrative History Collection. National Archives, Anchorage, Federal Records Center (NARA ANC).

Pravoslanvnyi Amerikanskii Vestnik' [American Orthodox Messenger]. Translation by Patricia Partnow, reviewed and corrected by Lydia T. Black. Alaska and Polar Regions Dept. Rasmussen Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Records pertaining to study area are located in ANIA files "Russian Orthodox Messenger" misc. documents and ANIA files 2089, Lake Clark Katmai Studies Center, Anchorage, AK.

USGS Alaska Archives. U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK.

Government Documents

Albright, Horace. Memorandum for Mr. Crammerer, Mr. Demaray and Fr. Brooks, December 23, 1930.

Allin, Roger W. "Alaska Plan for Action, November 1966, in Roger Allin 1966 Report" file, Box #6, Swam Collection, Department of Public Lands.

Alaskasearch, Ltd., National Natural Landmark Study, Report I," 28 July, 1967, at AHL and AKSO-RNR, Chief interagency Resource Division.

Ball, E.M. "Investigations of the effect of the eruption of Katmai Volcano upon the fisheries, fur animals and plant life in the Afognak Island reservation" Alaska Fishery and Fur Seal Investigations in 1913 ed. B.W. Evermann. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1914.

Capps, Stephen R. "The Cold Bay District" Mineral Resources of Alaska, USGS Bulletin 739, Washington: GPO, 1921.

Dall, William. Alaska and its Resources. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1870.

Davidson, "Coast Pilot of Alaska" 1869.

Department of the Interior, Memorandum for the Press, October 6, 1928.

"Exciting Finds on Alaska Peninsula," Tracks: Seasonal Newsletter of the National Park Service: Katmai, Alagnak, Aniakchak, winter: 2002, volume 2, No. 1.

Fiorillo, Anthony R. et al. "New Frontiers, Old Fossils: Recent Dinosaur Discoveries in Alaska National Parks" Alaska Park Science, Alaska Regional Office, Anchorage AK: Volume 3, Issue 2, 6.

Griggs, Robert. The Valley of The Thousand Smokes. Washington D.C.: The National Geographic Society, 1922.

Hoffman, Brian and Ross Smith. "The South Aniakchak Bay Village (SUT-027) Erosion Mitigation and Stabilization Project: Data Recovery at Sut-027: A 1500 Year Old Site on the Alaska Peninsula." National Park Service, 2004.

Inside NPS, "Dino-Might" Discovery at Aniakchak National Monument: Junior Ranger Program Highlights Find" October 21, 2003.

"From Neqa to Tepa: A Database with Traditional Knowledge about the Fish of Bristol Bay and the Northern Alaska Peninsula", U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bristol Bay Native Association, 2003.

Johnson, Katherine. Buried Dreams: the Rise and Fall of a Clam Cannery on the Katmai Coast. The National Park Service, 2002.

Knappen, Russell. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Aniakchak District, Alaska. USGS Bulletin 797-F. Washington: GPO, 1929.

Kurchin, Howard. Report on the Inspection of the Salmon Fisheries. Department of Commerce and Labor. Document #618. Washington: GPO, 1906.

MacDonald, Lewis. Chronological History of Salmon Canneries in Western Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Annual Reports, 1951.

_____. History of Central Alaska Canneries. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Annual Report, 1951.

Martin, George C. "The Outlook for Petroleum Near Chignik" Mineral Resources of Alaska; Report on Progress of Investigations in 1923, USGS Bulletin 773. Washington: GPO, 1925.

McGimsey, R.G., C.F. Waytomas, and C.A. Neal. "High Stand and Catastrophic Draining of Interacaldera Surprise Lake, Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska." Geological Studies in Alaska. USGS Bulletin 2107, 1993.

Mendenhall, W.C. "Shorter Contributions to General Geology, 1923-1924," Professional Paper 132. USGS, 1925.

Morseth, Michele. Puyulek Pu'irtuq! The People of the Volcano: Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve Ethnographic Overview and Assessment. Anchorage, AK: Department of Interior. Reprinted 2003.

Moser, Jefferson. "The Salmon and Salmon Fisheries of Alaska; Report of the Alaskan Salmon Investigations of the United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross in the 1900 and 1901," Bulletin of the US Fish Commission 21. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1902.

Neal, Christina A. and Game McGimsey. "Aniakchak Caldera: Working in one of Alaska's most spectacular active volcanoes." Alaska Geological Society Newsletter, Volume 23, Number 9. May, 1994.

Neal, Christina A., Robert G. McGimsey, Thomas P. Miller, James R. Riehle, and Christopher F. Waythomas, Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, 2001.

Nickerson, Richard. A Critical Analysis of Some Razor Clam Populations in Alaska. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1975.

Norris, Frank. Isolated Paradise: The Administrative History of Katmai National Park and Preserve and Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve. Anchorage: Alaska Support Office, 1996.

______. "Aniakchak Bay Historic Landscape District," National Register Nomination, National Park Service, 1995, amended, 1997.

NPS, "Draft Statement for Management, Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve," May 1983.

_____. Final Environmental Statement for the Proposed Aniakchak Caldera National Monument. Department of Interior, 1974.

_____. Ralph Root, "Activities of Ben Guild at Aniakchak," August 2, 1976, NARA-ANC.

_____. "Superintendent's Annual Report," KATM/ANIA, 1982.

Petroff, Ivan. Preliminary Report on the Population, Industry, and Resources of Alaska U.S. Congress House Executive Document No. 40, 10th Census, 1880. US Department of Interior, 1881.

Press Release, Headquarters United States Army, 401-07 23rd Infantry, file FRA PAO, APO 949, July 2, 1962.

Reihle, James R, C.E. Meyer, T.A. Ager, D.S. Kaufman, and R.E. Ackerman, "The Aniakchak Tephra Deposit: A Late Holocene marker Horizon in Western Alaska" Alaska Geologic Studies Circular 998 eds. T.D. Hamilton and J.P. Galloway. Washington D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 1987.

Ringsmuth, Katherine Johnson. Beacon on the Forgotten Shore: Snug Harbor Cannery, 1919-1980. National Park Service, 2005.

Schaaf, Jeanne. Witness. Anchorage, AK: National Park Service, 2004.

Smith, H.M. Commissioner of Fisheries, Memorandum Regarding Fox Farming, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, August 1, 1913.

Smith, Walter R. and Arthur A. Baker. "Cold Bay-Chignik District," Mineral Resources of Alaska; Report on Progress of Investigations in 1922, USGS Bulletin 755. Washington: GPO, 1924.

"The Eruption of Aniakchak" The Volcano Letter, No. 375. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, National Park, Hawaii, March 3, 1932.

Tuten, Merry Allen. "A Preliminary Study of Subsistence Activities on the Pacific Coast of the Proposed Aniakchak Caldera National Monument." Cooperative Park Studies Unit, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1977.

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Annual Report. Washington: GPO, 1924, 1925 and 1926.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, Alaska Fisheries and Fur Seal Industries, 1913. Washington: GPO, 1914.

U.S. Geological Survey: Its History, Activities and Organization, Service Monograph for the U.S. Government No. 1. New York: Institute for Government Research, 1918.

USF&WS. Proposed Aniakchak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Area Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, December, 1971. HFE, Williss, Box B, in Aniakchak FWS 1971.

VanderHoek, Richard and Rachel Myron. Cultural Remains from a Catastrophic Landscape: An Archeological Overview and Assessment of Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve. Anchorage: National Park Service, 2004.

Waythomas, Christopher F. and Christina A. Neal, "Tsunami Generation during the 3500 Year BP. Caldera-Forming Eruption of Aniakchak Volcano," Alaska Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 60. Washington D.C.: USGS, 1998.


Alaska Geographic, "Frontier Flight." Volume 25, Number 4, 1998.

Allen, Edward Weber. North Pacific: Japan, Siberia, Alaska, Canada. New York: Professional & Technical Press, 1936.

Andrews, Ralph W. and A.K. Larssen. Fish and Ships: This was Fishing from the Columbia to Bristol Bay. New York: Bonanza Book, 1959.

Beaglehole III, J.C, ed. The Journals of Captain James Cook, Part I. Hakiuyt Society, 1968.

Benson, Bobrick. East of the Sun: The Epic Conquest and Tragic History of Siberia. New York: Poleidon Press, 1992.

Berton Pierre. The Klondike Fever: The Life and Death of the Last Great Gold Rush. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1958.

Black, Lydia. Russians in Alaska, 1732-1867. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2004.

_____. Glory Remembered: Wooden Headgear of Alaskan Sea Hunters. Alaska State Museums, 1991.

Bockstoce, John R. Whales, Ice & Men: The History of Whaling in the Western Arctic. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Boklhovitnow, Nikolai N. Russian-American Relations and the Sale of Alaska, 1834-1867. Kingston, Ontario: The Limestone Press, 1996.

Boskoffsky, Paul. Alaska: Man from Kanatak. Duluth, MI: Arrow Printing, 2002.

Brown, Bruce. Mountain in the Clouds: A Search for Wild Salmon. New York: Collier Books, 1990.

Calef, George. Caribou and the Barren-lands. Ottawa: Firefly Books, Ltd., 1981.

Calloway, Colin G. New Worlds For All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Catton, Theodore. Inhabited Wilderness: Indians, Eskimos and National Parks in Alaska. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

Cloe, John Hail. Top Cover for America: The Air Force In Alaska 1920-1983. Anchorage: Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1984.

Coates, Peter A. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier, Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1993.

Collier, Michael. The Geology of Denali National Park and Preserve. Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 1997.

Cooley, Richard. Politics and Conversation: The Decline of the Alaska Salmon. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1963.

Cone, Joseph. A Common Fate: Endangered Salmon and the People of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1995.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

Crosby, Alfred. America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Crowell, Aron L. Amy Steffian, and Gordon L. Pullar (ed.). Looking Both Ways: Heritage and Identify of the Alutiiq People. Fairbanks, University of Alaska Press, 2001.

Cutting, Charles. A History of Fish Processing from Ancient to Modern Times. New York: Philosophical Library, 1956.

Day, Beth. The Story of Bob Reeve Glacier Pilot. Sausalito, CA: Comstock Editions, Inc., 1957.

Davydov, Gavrill. Two Voyages to Russian America, 1802-1807. Translated by Richard A. Pierce. Kingston, Ontario: The Limestone Press, 1977.

De Saint-Exsuprey, Antonine. The Little Prince. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1943.

Dmytryshny, Basil, E.A.P Crownhart-Vaughan, Thomas Vaughn, Russia's Conquest of Siberia: A Documentary Record 1558-1700. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1985.

Douglas, Robert "Dick". In the Land of the Thunder Mountains: Adventuring with Father Hubbard Among the Volcanoes of Alaska. New York: Brewer, Warren and Putnam, 1932.

Dumond, Don. Eskimos and Aleuts. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

Fagan, Brian. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History 1300-1850. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Finup-Rordan Ann. Eskimo Essays. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Fitzhugh, William W. and Aron Crowell, eds. Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.

Ford, Cory. Where the Sea Breaks its Back: The Epic Story of Early Naturalist Georg Steller and the Russian Exploration of Alaska. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 1966.

Freeburn, Laurence ed. The Silver Years of the Alaska Canned Salmon Industry. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co. 1976.

Friday, Chris. Organizing Asian American Labor. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Fortuine, Robert. Chills and Fever: Health and Disease in the Early History of Alaska. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1992.

Gibson, James. Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1992.

Goforth, Pennelope J. Sailing the Mail in Alaska: The Maritime Years of Alaska Photographer John E. Thwaites, 1905-1912. Anchorage: Cybrrcat Produciton!, 2003.

Golovin, Pavel Civil and Savage Encounters: The Worldly Travel Letters of an Imperial Russian Navy Officer 1860-1861 trans Basil Dmytryshyn and E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughn. Portland: Western Imprints, 1983.

Hubbard S.J., Bernard. Mush, You Malamutes! New York: The American Press, 1942.

_____. Alaskan Odyssey. London: Robert Hale Limited, 1952.

_____. Cradle of the Storms. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1935.

Hume, R.D. Salmon of the Pacific Coast. San Francisco, 1893.

Haycox, Stephen. Alaska: An American Colony. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.

_____. Frigid Embrace: Politics, Economics and Environment in Alaska. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2002.

Hinckley, Ted. The Americanization of Alaska, 1867-1897 Palo Alto: Pacific Books, Publishers, 1972.

Hieromonk Gideon, The Round the World Voyage of Hiermonk Gideon, 1803-1809. Kingston, Ontario: The Limestone Press, 1989.

Ivanov, Vyacheslav. The Russian Orthodox Church of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands and Its Relation to Native American Traditions—An Attempt at a Multicultural Society, 1794-1912. Washington: Library of Congress, 1997.

Jay, Tom, Brad Matsen, and Natalie Fobes. Reaching Home: Pacific Salmon Pacific People. Seattle: Alaska Northwest Books, 1994.

Kan. Sergei. Memory Eternal, Tlingit Culture and Russian Orthodox Christianity Through Two Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Kerttula, Ann M. Antler on the Sea: The Yup'ik and Chukchi of the Russian Far East. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Kienle, J., and C.J. Nye. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Kleinfeld, Judith, Go For It! Finding Your Own Frontier (Kenmore, WA.: Epicenter Press, Inc., 2003.

Kollin, Susan. Nature's State: Imagining Alaska as the Last Frontier. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Krech, Shapard. Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: Norton, W.W. & Company, 2000.

Kious, W. Jacquelyne and Robert I. Tilling, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. United States Geological Survey, 2002.

Kushner, Howard I. Conflict on the Northwest Coast: American-Russian Rivalry in the Pacific Northwest, 1790-1867 Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975.

LaFeber, Walter. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860-1898. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963.

LaRocca, Joe. Alaska Agonists: the Age of Petroleum: How Big Oil Bought Alaska. North East, PA: Rare Books, Ink, 2003.

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987.

Mangusso, Mary Childers and Stephen Haycox. Interpreting Alaska's History: An Anthology. Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1989.

Marshall, Robert. Arctic Village. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1991.

McEvoy, Arthur. The Fisherman's Problem: Ecology and Law in the California Fisheries 1850-1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Meggs, Geoff. Salmon: The Decline of the British Columbia Fishery. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1991.

Miller, Orlando W. The Frontier in Alaska and the Matanuska Colony. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.

Muir, John. Travels in Alaska. Sierra Club Books, 1998.

Murie, Margaret E. Two in the Far North, 5th edition. Seattle: Alaska Northwest Books, 1997.

Mousalimas, S.A. The Transition from Shamanism to Russian Orthodoxy in Alaska. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1994.

Muszynski, Alicja. Cheap Wage Labour: Race and Gender in Fisheries of British Columbia. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.

Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

National Research Council. Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

Nelson, Daniel. Northern Landscapes, the Struggle for Wilderness in Alaska. Washington D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2004.

Newell, Dianne. The Development of the Pacific Salmon-Canning Industry: A Grown Man's Game. Montreal: McGill Queen's University Press, 1989.

Partnow, Patricia. Making History: Alutiiq/Sugpiaq Life on the Alaska Peninsula. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2001.

Pierce, Richard ed. Documents on the History of the Russian-American Company. Kinston, Ontario: The Limestone Press, 1976.

______. Russians in North America: The Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Russian America, Sitka Alaska, August 19-22, 1987 Kingston, Ontario: The Limestone Press, 1990.

Perras, Galen Roger. Stepping Stones to Nowhere: The Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and American Military Strategy, 1867-1945. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Rice, Larry, Gathering Paradise: Alaska Wilderness Journeys. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1990.

Riffenburgh, Beau. The Myth of the Explorer Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Robbins, William C. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994.

Roche, Judith and Meg McHutchinson. First Fish, First People: Salmon Tales of the North Pacific Rim. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998.

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_____. Big Game in Alaska: A History of Wildlife and People, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

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Slotkin, Richard. Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization, 1800-1890. University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

Smith, Barbara S. Russian Orthodoxy in Alaska: A History, Inventory, and Analysis of the Church Achieves in Alaska with an Annotated Bibliography. Alaska Historical Commission, 1980.

______ and Redmond J. Barnett (ed). Russian America: The Forgotten Frontier. Washington State Historical Society, 1990.

Solovjova, Katerina G. and Aleksandra A Vovnyanko. The Fur Rush. Anchorage: Phenix Press, 2002.

Steller, Georg Wilhelm, Journal of a Voyage with Bering, 1741-1742. Trans. by O.W. Frost. Stanford University Press, 1998.

Stephan, John. Russia's Far East: A History. Stanford University Press, 1994.

Taliaferrro, John. In a Far Country: The True Story of a Mission, a Marriage, a Murder, and the Remarkable Reindeer Rescue of 1898. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Taylor III, Joseph E. Making Salmon: An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Tetlow, Roger T. and Graham J. Barbey. Barbey: The Story of a Pioneer Columbia River Salmon Packer Portland: Binford & Mort Publishing, 1990.

Turner, Frederick Jackson, ed. Harold Simonson. The Significance of the Frontier in American History, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1963.

Tikhmenev, Petr A. A History of the Russian American Company trans. Richard Pierce and A. Donnelly. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1978.

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Vanstone, James. Eskimos of the Nushagak River: An Ethnographic History. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.

Veniaminov, Ivan. Notes on the Island of the Unalakshka District, translated by Lydia T. Black and R. H. Geoghegan. Ontario, Canada: The Limestone Press, 1984.

Walker, Brett L. The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590-1800. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

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"Inside Facts About Saving Raw material and Reducing Labor Costs," Pacific Fisherman, November, 1924.

Lautaret, Ronald L. "Alaska's Greatest Disaster: The 1918 Spanish Influenza Epidemic," The Alaska Journal. Volume 16. 1986.

Lee, Molly. "Context and Contact: The History and Activities of the Alaska Commercial Company, 1867-1900" in Catalogue Raisonne of the Alaska Commercial Company Collection, Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Leopold, A. Starker, et al. "Wildlife Management in the National Parks," The Living Wilderness, Spring-Summer, 1963.

"Libby Cannery Uses All-Native Crew" Pacific Fisherman. January, 1948.

Lidfors, Kathleen and Steven M. Peterson. "The Architectural Legacy of Russian America" in Russian America: The Forgotten Frontier. Washington State Historical Society.

Lilian, Stan. "Fish-Trap Patrol," Alaska Sportsman. March 1940.

Literary Digest, "The Stand Out From the Crowd" August 19, 1933.

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "What on Earth is New Western History," in Trails: Toward a New Western History, eds. Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin. University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Marchak, M. Patricia. "What Happens When Common Property Becomes Uncommon," BC Studies, winter 1988-89.

Mishler, Craig and Rachel Mason. "Alutiiq Vikings: Kinship and Fishing in Old Harbor, Alaska" Human Organizations, 55 vol. 3, 1996.

Norton, Roy. "The Four Week City of Alaska: A Graphic Narrative of the Annual Migration of the Alaskan Fishing Fleet to the Northland" Alaska Yukon Magazine, 1911.

O'Bannon, Patrick W. "Technological Change in the Pacific Coast Canned Salmon Industry, 1900-1925: A Case Study" Agricultural History 56, no. 1 (1982).

Ogan, Ekaretina, trans. "Vital Statistics and Confessional Records 1896-1965," Vital Statistics for Kanatak Settlement 1923-1952, Afognak Village Corporation.

"Pacific Clam Canning," Pacific Fisherman Yearbook, 1937.

"Pacific Coast Canned Clam Pack—1935," Pacific Fisherman Yearbook, 1936.

Partnow, Patricia. "Pacific Coast Alutiit of the Alaska Peninsula," in Alaska Geographic: From Kodiak to Unalaska, Volume 29. Number 4, 2002.

Pedersen, Susie. "Helen Nielsen: Life on a Blue Fox Island," in The Cama-I Book. New York: Doubleday, 1983.

Pierce, Richard. "Russian America: 1741-1867: A Biographical Dictionary," in Russian in North America Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Russian America, Sitka, Alaska, Aug 19-22 1987 Fairbanks: Limestone Press, 1990.

Rickman, David W. "Costume and Cultural Interactions in Russian America," in Russians in North America: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Russian America. Fairbanks: Limestone Press, 1990.

Robbins, William. "The World of Columbia Rivet Salmon: Nature, Culture, and the Great Rivet of the West" in The Northwest Salmon Crisis: A Documentary History, ed. Joseph Cone and Sandy Ridlington, Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1996.

Rossiter, Harrier. "Alaska's Fur Industry: Its Decline and Rise," Fur Trade Review, circa 1920.

Scudder. H.C. "The Alaska Salmon Trap: Its Evolution, Conflicts, and Consequences," Alaska State Library: Number 1, 1970.

"Service: The True Measurement of Any Institution Lies in the Service it Renders," Published by the Alaska Packers Association, circa 1919.

Shanigan, Marlane. "Kanatak Tribal Council," in Crowell, et al, Looking Both Ways: Heritage and Identity of the Alutiiq People. Fairbanks: University of Alaska, 2001.

Smith, Barbara Sweetland. "Russia's Cultural Legacy in America: The Orthodox Mission in Russian American" in Russian America: the Forgotten Frontier. Washington State Historical Society.

Smith, Courtland L. "Evolution of the Pacific Canned Salmon Fishery" In The Fishing Culture of the World: Studies in Ethnology, Cultural Ecology and Folklore, ed. Bela Gunda. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1984.

Sullivan, Michael and Phyllis DeMuth. "A Guide to the Alaska Packers Association Records 1891-1970" Alaska Department of Education, Division of State Libraries and Museums. Juneau, AK, July, 1983.

Strickland, Dan. "Egegik!" Alaska Magazine. Vol. 62, May/June, 1996.

"The Official Story of Canned Salmon in the Army," Pacific Fisherman Yearbook, 1919.

T. Trowbridge, "Aniakchak Crater" Alaska Geographic Vol. 4, Jan. 1976.

Weilepp, Bruce. "Sailing Gillnet Boats of the Columbia River," National Fisherman. April 1991.

M. Woodbridge Williams, "Aniakchak: Kingdom of Genesis" National Parks & Conservation Magazine. Vol. 49, No 6, June 1975.

_____. The Explorers Journal, vol. 65, No 1, March 1897.

Willis, Roxanne. "A New Game in the North: Alaska Native Reindeer Herding, 1890-1940" Western Historical Quarterly 37, Autumn, 2006.

Willoughby, Barrett. "Moon Craters of Alaska" Saturday Evening Post, 13 December 1930.

_____, "Summer in the Moon Craters of Alaska," Alaskans All, 1939.

Winn, Bess. "Alaska Natives in the War" Alaska Life, July, 1943.

Wolfe, Robert J. "Alaska's Great Sickness, 1900: An Epidemic of Measles an Influence in a Virgin Soil Population," The American Philosophical Society, Vol. 126, No. 2. 1982.

Woodhouse-Beyer, Katherine. "Artels and Identities, Gender, Power, and Russian America," in Manifesting Power: Gender and the Interpretation of Power in Archaeology. London: Routledge, 1999.

Workman, William B. "Some Implications of Mobility and Sedentarism in the Prehistoric and Traditional Cultures of Northern North America," in The Proceedings of the 6th International Abashiri Symposium. 1992.

______. "The Significance of Volcanism in the Prehistory of Subarctic Northwest North America," in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology eds. Payson D. Sheets and Donald K. Grayson. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Worster, Donald. "Alaska: The Underworld Erupts," in Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Yesner, David. Cultural Boundaries and Ecological Frontiers in Coastal Regions; An Example from the Alaska Peninsula," in Stanton W. Green and Stephen M. Perlman, ed., The Archaeology of Frontiers and Boundaries. New York: Academic Press, 1985.


Dumond, Don. "Prehistoric Human Occupation in Southwestern Alaska: A Study of Resource Distribution and Site Location," University of Oregon Anthropological Papers, No. 36. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1987.

Fall, James A., Molly B. Chythlook, Janet C. Schichnes, and Judith M. Morris. "An Overview of the Harvest and Use of Freshwater Fish by Communities of the Bristol Bay Region, Southwest Alaska." Technical Paper No. 166. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence. 1996.

Faulkner, Sandra M. "Father Hubbard, the Glacier Priest." Paper delivered at an Alaska Historical Society symposium, held in Fairbanks in October, 1987.

Henn, Winfield. "Archaeology on the Alaska Peninsula: The Ugashik Drainage 1973-1975," University of Oregon Anthropological Papers, No. 14. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1978.

Price, Kathy. Jesuit Father Bernard R. Hubbard's Alaskan Persona. Master's Thesis University of Alaska Fairbanks, December 1999.

Stacey, Duncan A. Sockeye & Tinplate: Technological Change in the Fraser River Canning Industry, 1871-1912, Heritage Record No. 15, British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1982.

VanderHoek, Richard. "Ecological Roadblocks on a Constrained Landscape: The Cultural Effects of Catastrophic Holocene Volcanism on the Alaska Peninsula, Southwest Alaska." Paper presented at the Fifth World Archaeological Congress. Washington D.C: June 23, 2003.

Wright, John M, Judith Morris, and Robert Schroeder. "Bristol Bay Regional Subsistence Profile:' Technical Papers No. 114, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, July, 1985.


Anchorage Times, June 23, 1936.

Anchorage Daily News, May 14, 2005.

Daily Tribune, April 11, 1867.

World Flight Chronicle, "Seattle Ready for Next Flight to Dutch Harbor" Vol. 2 No. 24. 29 April, 1924.

New York Times "Priest Said mass in Alaskan Crater," (November 16, 1930) 27.

Seattle Times "Alaskan Volcano Eruption Almost Blankets Radio Kanatak station 100 miles north of Chignik," May 2, 1931.

Seattle Daily Times "Alaska Volcano still Erupting: Sky Obscured unidentified volcano, believed Aniakchak." May 4, 1931.

Seattle Post Intelligencer "Alaska Volcanic Eruption Seen," January 30, 1931.

New York Times, "To Live Two Months in Active Volcano" December 19, 1930.

New York Times "Football Star in Party" November 16, 1931.

Saturday Evening Post "Aniakchak, the Moon Crater Explodes" (Jan, 1932): 6-7.

New York Times Magazine "Exploring the Alaskan 'Moon Craters'" October 12, 1930, 8-10, 23.

Anchorage Daily News "A New Adventure: Aniakchak National Monument's Overlooked Pack-and-Float Option Beckons" January 30, 2005, F-1 and F-2.

Anchorage Daily News "Searching Space: Life beyond Earth likely to be microscopic, astrobiolgists say" Sunday, April 25, 2004, E-6.

Interviews/Personal Communication

Richard VanderHoek, 4/14/2004.
Ross Smith, 8/11/2004
James Kari, 7/2005
Barbara Sweetland Smith, 12/10/2004
Frank Norris, 6/2004
Julius Anderson, 7/20/2004
Robert Blodgett, 7/27/2000
Joe L. Miller, 3/15/2002
Troy Hamon, 1/6/2006
Christina Neal, 1/5/2006
Kathy Price, 1/7/2006
Steve Ebbert, 10/21/2005
Clarence (Bobby) Erickson, 7/19/2004
Alec (Teedum) Pederson, 7/19/2004
Michael Grunert, 7/20/2004
Michelle Anderson and Suzanne Deater, 7/21/2004
Scott Anderson, Summer/2004
George Tibbits Jr., Summer/2004
Robert "Game" McGimsey, Summer/2004
Orin Seybert, 6/21/2004

Other Media Sources

"Aniakchak." Truman Talley, Producer, Fox Films Corp, 1933.

"Alaska's Silver Millions." Beverly Jones, Director, American Can Company, circa 1935.

Leonard David, Moon Seen as Haven for "Beginnings of Life,", May 30, 2001. 2002. 3/15/2004.

In the 1930s Father Hubbard was one of the highest paid and most sought out speaker on the national lecture circuit. Lecture poster for Marywood College, Scranton, Pennsylvania, ca. 1930s. Bernard Hubbard, S.J., Alaskan Photograph Collection. Photograph courtesy of Santa Clara University Archives.

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Last Updated: 03-Aug-2009