Preface to Appendices:
The following list of Mission 66 visitor centers was compiled by examining
drawings on microfiche at the Technical Information Center (TIC) in
the NPS Denver Service Center, and by comparing records of visitor center
construction on file in the NPS History Collection at the Harpers Ferry
Center. Regional NPS staff also contributed information. Field checking
and further research will be required in order to confirm or amend the
information presented in this list. The dates given are typically those
found on design and construction drawings and indicate the period in
which the building was designed. In some cases another date is given
after a slash, indicating the date of the building's dedication. Current
park names are used to identify Mission 66 visitor centers rather than
the names of the parks at the time of construction.
This list includes visitor centers built as part of the Mission 66
program (1956-1966). The list includes some early examples for which
design began before 1956, as well as some buildings that were begun
before 1966 but not completed until slightly later. Estimates vary regarding
the total number of visitor centers built as part of the Mission 66
program. Annual reports of the secretary of the interior usually mention
the visitor centers constructed each year, but publication of the reports
ended after 1963. Conrad Wirth and other Mission 66 promoters claimed
that about a hundred visitor centers were constructed during the ten-year
program (Wirth gave the figure of 114 in his memoirs). A 1965 "museums
statement" issued by the NPS notes that new exhibits were prepared for
101 new visitor centers and 40 rehabilitated visitor centers.
But "new construction" of visitor centers sometimes included substantial
additions to or renovation of older structures. The visitor center at
Vanderbilt Mansion in Hyde Park, New York, for example, was listed in
the 1963 annual report as a new visitor center, although it was a rehabilitated
historic structure. Some of these buildings were park museums built
before World War II. Small buildings known as "secondary visitor centers"
were constructed in some parks that were already equipped with at least
one main visitor facility. The secondary visitor center at Little Mountain
Park on the Natchez Trace Parkway, for example, was no more than a rectangular
exhibit space with attached restrooms. Whether or not such secondary
visitor centers were included in different counts is unclear.
Visitor center services were provided by buildings called by other
names, or known by more than one name. Just prior to the Mission 66
program, museum buildings that incorporated visitor center features
(and were later referred to as visitor centers) often were still called
museums or museum/administration buildings. Even once the visitor center
model (and name) had caught on, its components were frequently incorporated
into a central administration building. The "administration building"
at Devil's Tower, for example, is essentially a visitor center. The
Beaver Meadows Visitor Center at Rocky Mountain is also known as the
Headquarters Building. Other names that have been used for visitor centers
include "public use building," "public service building," "utility building,"
"visitor contact station," "visitor center and equipment storage building,"
and "operations building." Administration or utility buildings with
little or no visitor contact services, however, are not included in
All of these factors make it difficult to specify the exact number
of Mission 66 visitor centers. The following list sorts out the available
documentation to come up with 110 visitor centers (including those that
have been demolished or destroyed) and 16 visitor center "additions."
Like the other information in this list, however, these numbers should
be subject to correction as more in-depth research is done on individual
Appendix II is a record of drawings by Cecil
Doty on microfiche at the Technical Information Center, Denver Service
Center. As of 1999, the Center's computer data base does not search
by building type or architect. It should be assumed that more Doty drawings
remain to be discovered.
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Site; Hodgenville,
Kentucky; 1958-1959; Eastern Office of Design & Construction (EODC).
Antietam National Battlefield; Sharpsburg, Maryland; 1961-1962;
EODC/William Cramp Scheetz, Jr., Philadelphia.
Arches National Park; Moab, Utah; 1959/1960; Western Office
of Design & Construction (WODC)/Doty.
Assateague Island National Seashore; Berlin, Maryland; 1966;
NPS Philadelphia Planning & Service Center.
Badlands National Park; Cedar Pass Visitor Center; Interior,
South Dakota; 1957-1958/1959; WODC/Doty/Lucas, Craig, Whitwam, Rapid
Big Bend National Park; Panther Junction Visitor Center; Texas;
Big Hole National Battlefield; Wisdom, Montana; 1964-1971; NPS
San Francisco Design and Construction.
Blue Ridge Parkway; Peaks of Otter Visitor Center; Virginia;
1956-1958; Robert L. Brown, architect, Roanoke.
Booker T. Washington National Monument; Hardy, Virginia; 1964-1965/1966;
EODC/Smithey & Boynton, Roanoke.
Bryce Canyon National Park; Utah; 1958/1959; WODC/Cannon and
Mullen, Salt Lake City.
Cabrillo National Monument; San Diego, California; 1963-1966/1966;
Frank L. Hope & Associates, San Diego/WODC/Doty.
Canyon de Chelly National Monument; Chinle, Arizona; 1963-1964;
Cape Cod National Seashore; Salt Pond Visitor Center; Wellfleet,
Massachusetts; 1964-1965; EODC/Biderman.
Capitol Reef National Park; Torrey, Utah; 1963-1965/1967; WODC/Doty/Arthur
K. Olsen & Associates, Salt Lake City.
Capulin Volcano National Monument (formerly Capulin Mountain);
New Mexico; 1962-1963; NPS Southwest Regional Office/Doty.
Chaco Culture National Historical Park; Bloomfield, New Mexico;
1957;1959; WODC/Truman J. Mathews, Santa Fe.
Chickasaw National Recreation Area (formerly Platt); Travertine
Nature Center; Oklahoma; 1966-67; NPS San Francisco Planning & Service
Center/MacKie & Kamrath, Houston.
Colonial National Historical Park; Yorktown Visitor Center,
Virginia; 1956/1957; EODC/Gilboy, Bellante and Clauss, Philadelphia.
Colorado National Monument; Fruita, Colorado; 1960-1963; WODC/Doty.
Coronado National Memorial; Hereford, Arizona; 1959; WODC.
Craters of the Moon National Monument; Arco, Idaho; 1956-1957/1958;
WODC/Hurt, Trudell, Capell, San Francisco.
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park; Middlesboro, Kentucky;
Curecanti National Recreation Area; Center Point Visitor Center;
Gunnison, Colorado; 1965-1968; NPS San Francisco Planning & Service
Center/Doty/Anderson, Barker, Rinker.
Death Valley National Park; Furnace Creek Visitor Center; California;
1957-1958/1959; WODC/Doty/Welton Becket & Associates, San Francisco.
Denali National Park and Preserve (formerly Mount McKinley);
Eielson Visitor Center; Alaska; 1956-1957/1961; WODC.
Dinosaur National Monument; Quarry Visitor Center; Jensen, Utah;
1956-1957/1958; Anshen and Allen, San Francisco.
Dinosaur National Monument; Headquarters; Artesia, Colorado;
1964-1965; Arthur K. Olsen & Associates, Salt Lake City.
Effigy Mounds National Monument; Harpers Ferry, Iowa; 1958-1959/1961;
El Morro National Monument; Ramah, New Mexico; 1964-1968; Delong
& Zahm Associates, Burlingame.
Everglades National Park; Flamingo Visitor Center; Florida;
1956/1957; EODC/Harry L. Keck, Jr., Coral Gables.
Everglades National Park; Royal Palms Visitor Center; Florida;
Everglades National Park; Parachute Key Visitor Center; Florida;
1959-1962; EODC; demolished after damage in Hurricane Andrew in 1992.
Fort Caroline National Memorial; Jacksonville, Florida; 1955-1956/1957;
Fort Clatsop National Memorial; Astoria, Oregon; 1962-1963;
WODC/Jacobberger, Franks & Norman, Portland.
Fort Donelson National Battlefield; Dover, Tennessee; 1960-1962;
Fort Frederica National Memorial; St. Simons Island, Georgia;
Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine; Baltimore,
Maryland; 1962-1963; EODC/Biond, Benson, Koury.
Fort Necessity National Battlefield; Farmington, Pennsylvania;
Fort Pulaski National Monument; Savannah, Georgia; 1962-1963;
Levy & Kiley, Savannah/McGinty & Stanley Associates.
Fort Raleigh National Historic Site; Manteo, North Carolina;
Fort Union National Monument; Watrous, New Mexico; 1956-1958/1959;
Fort Vancouver National Historical Site; Vancouver, Washington;
Fredricksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields National Military
Park; Chancellorsville Visitor Center; Virginia; 1961-1963; EODC.
George Washington Carver National Monument; Diamond, Missouri;
George Washington Memorial Parkway; Great Falls Visitor Center;
Virginia; 1966; Kent Cooper and Associates, Washington, D.C.
Gettysburg National Military Park; Pennsylvania; 1958-1961/1962;
Neutra and Alexander, Los Angeles.
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument; Silver City, New Mexico;
1965/1967; WODC/Delong & Zahm Associates, Burlingame.
Glacier National Park; Logan Pass Visitor Center; Montana; 1963;
WODC/Brinkman & Lenon, Kalispell.
Glacier National Park; St. Mary Visitor Center; Montana; 1964/1966;
WODC/Brinkman & Lenon, Kalispell.
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area; Page, Arizona; 1963-1966;
WODC/Doty/Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Storage Project.
Golden Spike National Historic Site; Brigham City, Utah; 1966-1968;
NPS San Francisco Design & Construction/Cannon and Mullen, Salt
Grand Canyon National Park; South Rim Public Use Building; Arizona;
Grand Teton National Park; Colter Bay Visitor Center; Moose,
Wyoming; 1956-1957/1959; WODC/Malone & Hooper, San Francisco.
Grand Teton National Park; Moose Visitor Center, Wyoming; 1957-1958/1959;
WODC/Spencer, Ambrose & Lee, San Francisco.
Great Basin National Park (formerly Lehman Caves); Baker, Nevada;
Great Sand Dunes National Monument; Mosca, Colorado; 1961; WODC.
Great Smoky Mountains National Park; Sugarlands Visitor Center;
Tennessee; 1957-1958/1961; EODC.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Kalapana Visitor Center; 1965-1966;
WODC; destroyed by volcanic activity 1989.
Homestead National Monument of America; Beatrice, Nebraska;
1961-1962; WODC/Leo A. Daly & Associates.
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park (formerly Mount City
Group); Chilicothe, Ohio; 1959/1960; William Cramp Scheetz, Jr., Philadelphia.
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (formerly Hopewell Village);
Elverson, Pennsylvania; 1957-1958/1959; EODC.
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park; Daviston, Alabama; 1962-1963;
EODC/Biggers & Neal, Opelika, Alabama.
Jamestown National Historic Site; Virginia; 1956/1957; EODC/Gilboy,
Bellante and Clauss, Philadelphia.
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial; St. Louis, Missouri;
1960-1965; Eero Saarinen & Associates, Birmingham, Michigan.
Jewell Cave National Monument; Custer, South Dakota; 1966-1969;
NPS San Francisco Planning & Service Center/Doty.
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park; Georgia; 1963-1964;
Francis P. Smith & Henry H. Smith, Atlanta.
Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Temple Bar Visitor Center;
Nevada; 1961-1962; WODC.
Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Boulder Beach Visitor Center;
Nevada; 1966-67; Delong & Zahm Associates, Burlingame.
Mammoth Cave National Park; Kentucky; 1958-1959; Bellante &
Mesa Verde National Park; Navajo Hill Visitor Center, Colorado;
1964-1968; WODC/Joseph & Louise Marlowe, Denver.
Montezuma Castle National Monument; Camp Verde, Arizona; 1957-1959/1960;
Moores Creek National Battlefield; Currie, North Carolina; 1957-1958/1959;
Mount Rainier National Park; Ohanapecosh Visitor Center; Washington;
1964; WODC/John M. Morse & Associates, Seattle.
Mount Rainier National Park; Henry M. Jackson Memorial Visitor
Center; Washington; 1964-1966/1967; Whimberley, Whisenand, Allison &
Tong, Honolulu/McGuire & Muri, Tacoma.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial; Keystone, South Dakota; 1957-1963;
WODC/Doty/Harold Spitznagel & Associates, Sioux Falls; demolished
Natchez Trace Parkway; Headquarters and Visitor Center; Tupelo,
Mississippi; 1960-1963; EODC.
Natural Bridges National Monument; Lake Powell, Utah; 1964-1965/1968;
WODC/Doty/Cannon and Mullen, Salt Lake City.
Navajo National Monument; Betatakin Visitor Center; Tonalea,
Arizona; 1963-1964; WODC.
Olympic National Park; Hoh River Visitor Center; Washington;
Olympic National Park; Hurricane Ridge Visitor Center; Washington;
Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument; Ajo, Arizona; 1956-1957/1958;
WODC/Lescher and Mahoney, Phoenix.
Pea Ridge National Military Park; Arkansas; 1962-1963; EODC.
Petersburg National Battlefield; Virginia; 1965-1966/1967; EODC/NPS
Philadelphia Planning & Service Center.
Petrified Forest National Park; Painted Desert Community; Arizona;
1959-1962/1963; Neutra and Alexander, Los Angeles.
Pipestone National Monument; Minnesota; 1957/1958; EODC.
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park (formerly City
of Refuge); Hawaii; 1966-1967; NPS San Francisco Planning & Service
Rocky Mountain National Park, Alpine Visitor Center; Colorado;
1962-1964/1965; WODC/William C. Muchow & Associates.
Rocky Mountain National Park; Beaver Meadows Headquarters; Estes
Park, Colorado; 1964-1967/1967; Taliesin Associated Architects.
Rocky Mountain National Park; Kawuneeche Visitor Center; Grand
Lake, Colorado; 1967-1968; WODC.
Russell Cave National Monument; Bridgeport, Alabama; 1962-1963;
EODC/Northington Smith & Kranert.
Saratoga National Historical Park; Fraser Hill Visitor Center;
Stillwater, New York; 1960/1962; EODC/Benson.
Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks; Lodgepole Visitor
Center; California; 1963-1964/1966; Anshen and Allen, San Francisco.
Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks, Grant Grove Visitor
Center; California; 1963-1965; WODC/Walter Wagner & Partners.
Shenandoah National Park; Harry F. Byrd Sr. Visitor Center,
Big Meadows; Virginia; 1963-1966/1967; EODC.
Sitka National Historical Park; Alaska; 1963-1964/1968; WODC/Doty/John
Morse & Associates, Seattle.
Stones River National Battlefield; Murfreesboro, Tennessee;
Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument; Flagstaff, Arizona;
Theodore Roosevelt National Park; Medora, North Dakota; 1958/1959;
WODC/Germano Milono, San Francisco.
Timpanogos Cave National Monument; American Fork, Utah; 1961-1963/1965;
WODC/Doty/Cannon and Mullen, Salt Lake City; destroyed by fire in 1991.
Tonto National Monument; Roosevelt, Arizona; 1962-1963/1965;
Vicksburg National Military Park; Mississippi; 1966-1968; NPS
Philadelphia Planning & Service Center.
Virgin Islands National Park; Red Hook Dock & Visitor Reception;
St. Thomas; 1961-1962; EODC.
Virgin Islands National Park; Cruz Bay Dock & Visitor Reception;
St. John; 1961-1962; EODC.
Whitman Mission National Historic Site; Walla Walla, Washington;
Wright Brothers National Memorial; Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina;
Wupatki National Monument; Flagstaff, Arizona; 1962-1964/1965;
WODC/Doty/Lescher and Mahoney, Phoenix.
Yellowstone National Park; New Canyon Village Visitor Center;
Wyoming; 1956-1957/1958; Hurt & Trudell, San Francisco.
Yellowstone National Park; Grant Village Visitor Center; Wyoming;
1965; WODC/Adrian Malone & Associates, Sheridan.
Yosemite National Park; California; 1965-1966/1967; WODC/Spencer,
Lee & Busse, San Francisco.
Zion National Park; Oak Creek Visitor Center; Springdale, Utah;
1957-1960/1961; WODC/Doty/Cannon and Mullen, Salt Lake City.
Visitor Center Additions
"Additions" could be very significant construction projects, doubling
or tripling the size of a building. Usually they included expansion
and remodeling of an older building and the installation of new interpretive
and other facilities.
Andrew Johnson National Historical Site, Greeneville, Tennessee;
Aztec Ruins National Monument; New Mexico; 1958/1959; WODC.
Carlsbad Caverns National Park; New Mexico; 1953-1958/1959;
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument; Coolidge, Arizona; 1962-1963;
Lescher and Mahoney, Phoenix.
Catoctin Mountain Park; Thurmont, Maryland; 1964; NPS National
Capital Parks Design & Construction.
Chiricahua National Monument; Willcox, Arizona; 1962-1963/1965;
Fort Davis National Historic Site; Texas; 1964; WODC.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Kilauea Visitor Center; 1965-1966
addition; NPS San Francisco Planning & Service Center.
Joshua Tree National Park; Twentynine Palms, California; 1962-1963/1964;
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (formerly Custer
Battlefield); Crow Agency, Montana; 1964-65; Max R. Garcia, San Francisco.
Manassas National Battlefield Park; Virginia; 1962, EODC.
Rock Creek Park; Nature Center; Washington, D.C.; 1958; NPS
National Capital Parks Design & Construction.
Saguaro National Park; Tucson, Arizona; 1958-1959; WODC/Bennett.
Tumacacori National Historical Park; Arizona; 1960.
Walnut Canyon National Monument; Flagstaff, Arizona; 1963-1964;
Yosemite National Park; Happy Isles Visitor Center, California;