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Volume 5 Spring Number, 1939 Number 1


Flowers White or nearly white

  A. Herb-like plants, not woody.

    B. Petals similar, flowers regular in shape.

      a. Petals normally 3.

        b. Painted Trillium - Trillium undulatum, purple V at base of white petal, page 27.

      aa. Petals normally 4.

        b. Leaves opposite.

          Bluet - Houstonia caerulea, page 13.

        bb. Leaves alternate

          c. Plant 8-18 inches.

            Shepherd's Purse - Capsella Bursa-pastoris, page 6.

          cc. Plant 3-6 inches.

            d. Leaves 1/3 - 3/8 inches.

              Snowberry - Chiogenes hispidula, page 9.

            dd. Leaves 1/2 - 2 inches.

              Canada Mayflower - Maianthemum canadense, page 15.

        bbb. Leaves in a crowded circle or whorl.

          Dwarf Cornel or Bunch berry - Cornus canadensis, page 11.

      aaa. Petals normally 5.

        b. Leaves toothed, three-parted.

          c. Root golden yellow.

            Goldthread - Coptis trifolia, page 10.

          cc. Root not golden yellow.

            d. Leaf teeth coarse, rounded.

              Wild Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana, page 12.

            dd. Leaf teeth, fine, pointed

              Wood Raspberry - Rubus triflorus, page 20.

        bb. Leaves toothed, not three-parted

          c. Flowers in umbrella-shaped cluster.

            Wild Sarsaparilla - Aralia nudicaulis, page 3.

          cc. Flowers in loose clusters not umbrella-shaped.

            Early Saxifrage - Saxifraga virginiensis, page 22.

        bbb. Leaves not toothed.

          c. Petals shorter than the sepals.

            Chickweed - Stellaria media, page 25.

          cc. Petals longer than the sepals.

            d. Stems smooth - not hairy.

              Mountain Sandwort - Arenaria groenlandica, page 5.

            dd. Stems hairy.

              Field Chickweed - Cerastium arvense, page 7.

      aaaa. Petals normally 6.

        b. Flowers drooping.

          c. Flowers in pairs along a leafy stem.

            Solomon's Seal - Polygonatum biflorun, page 17.

          cc. Flowers single at top of leafy stem.

            False Oat - Oakesia sessilifolia, page 16.

        bb. Flowers not drooping.

          c. Flowers in plume-like cluster at end of leafy stem.

            False Spikenard - Smilacina racemosa, page 23.

          cc. Flowers fewer than (c), usually only 3 leaves on stem.

            Three-leaved False Solomon's Seal - Smilacina trifolia, page 24.

          ccc. Flowers single at top of leafless stalk.

            Goldthread - Coptis trifolia, page 10.

      aaaaa. Petals normally 7. (See note b)

        b. Leaves in a whorl just below blossom.

          Star Flower - Trientalis americana, page 26.

        bb. Leaves three-parted.

          Goldthread - Coptis trifolia, page 10.

    BB. Flowers in a composite head.

      Pussy toes - Antennaria plantaginifolia, page 2.

  AA. Shrubs or trees, woody stems

    B. Leaves opposite, plainly toothed, 1 - 2.

      a. Leaves cut into 5-11 leaflets.

        Red-berried Elder - Sambucus canadensis, page 21.

      aa. Leaves not cut into leaflets.

        Hobble Bush - Viburnum alnifolium, page 29.

    BB. Leaves alternate, toothed, 1 - 2.

      a. Petals not united into tube, normally 5.

        b. Flowers in thick cylindrical clusters.

          Choke Cherry - Prunus virginiana, page 18.

        bb. Flowers in loose clusters.

          c. Petals short, 1/4"- 1/3" long.

            Chokeberry - Pyrus arbutifolia, a shrub, page 19.

          cc. Petals longer, 1/2" - 1".

            Shadbush - Amelanchier canadensis, page 1.

      aa. Petals united into a tube, bell-shaped.

        Low Sweet Blueberry - Vaccinium pennsylvanicum, page 28.

    BB. Leaves alternate, toothless.

      a. Petals united into a tube, bell-shaped.

        b. Leaves smooth on under side.

          Bearberry - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, page 4.

        bb. Leaves having brown scales on under side.

          Leather-leaf - Chamaedaphne calyculata, page 8.

      aa. Petals not united into a tube.

        b. Under side of leaf covered with brown fuzz.

          Labrador Tea - Ledum groenlandicum, page 14.

        bb. Under side of leaf smooth.

          Mountain Holly - Nemopanthus mucronata, page 41.

Flowers Pink (including shades of pink, red and purple).

  A. Petals similar, flower regular in shape.

    B. Stems woody, shrubs.

      a. Low scraggly 6 - 22 inches high, in bogs.

        Bog laurel - Kalmia polifolia, page 31.

    BB. Stems softer, not shrubs

      a. 2 - 3 ft. high, in moist woods

        Twisted Stalk - Streptopus roseus, page 35.

  AA. Petals dissimilar, flower irregular in shape

    B. Stem, trailing vine-like seaside plant, flowers pink to purplish.

      Beach Pea - Lathyrus maritiums, page 32.

    BB. Stem erect, not trailing.

      a. Herb-like plants not shrubby.

        b. Leaves at the base, usually two.

          Lady's Slipper - Cypripedium acaule, page 30.

        bb. Leaves crowded at the top of stem, several.

          Gay Wings - Polygala paucifolia, page 33.

      aa. Woody stemmed shrubs.

        Rhodora - Rhododendron canadense, page 34.

Flowers Blue

  A. Petals similar, flower regular.

    B. Petals normally 4.

      Bluets - Houstonia caerulea, page 13.

    BB. Petals normally 6.

    Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium angustifolium, page 47.

  AA. Petals dissimilar, flower irregular and violet-shaped

    Common Blue Violet - Viola cucullata, page 48.

Flowers Yellow

  A. Shrub, small, erect 1 - 4 ft. high.

    Mt. Fly Honeysuckle - Lonicera caerulea, pale honey yellow blossoms, five-lobed, honeysuckle-like, in pairs, page 39.

  AA. Low herbs, flower not in a composite head, not shrubby.

    B. Flowers regular (petals similar)

      a. Petals normally 4.

        b. Simple, non-branching stem, pods not pressed close to stem.

          Yellow Rocket - Barbarea vulgaris, page 36.

        bb. Widely branched stem, pods pressed close to stem.

          Wild Mustard - Brassica nigra, page 37.

      aa. Petals normally 5.

        b. Root not bulbous, leaf divided into 5 leaflets.

          Cinquefoil - Potentilla canadensis, page 42.

        bb. Root net bulbous, leaf divided into 3 leaflets.

          Field Buttercup - Ranunculus acris, page 43.

        bbb. Root bulbous.

          Bulbous Buttercup - Ranunculus bulbosus, page 44.

      aaa. Petals normally 6.

        b. Leaves at the base, not whorled.

          Clintonia - Clintonia borealis, page 38.

        bb. Leaves on the stem, not whorled

          False Oat - Oakesia sessilifolia, page 16.

        bbb. Leaves on the stem, whorled.

          Indian Cucumber - Medeola virginiana, page 40.

    BB. Flowers irregular, (petals dissimilar).

      a. Blossom, a crowded spiral cluster.

        Lousewort or Wood Betony - Pedicularis canadensis, page 46.

  AAA. Low herbs with flowers in dense composite head.

    Common Dandelion - Taraxicum officinale, page 45.

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