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Report to DOJ & DOI
Potential for DNA Testing of the Human Remains from Columbia Park,Kennewick, Washington
Noreen Tuross, Ph.D.
Connie J. Kolman, Ph.D.

Table 1

Table 1 details the two general means of assigning genetic samples to one of four New World mitochondrial DNA founding haplogroups (A, B, C, and D). The table consists of 5 columns and 15 rows. The column headers from left to right are: Site "a", Haplogroup A, Haplogroup B, Haplogroup C, and Haplogroup D. The rows consist of 4 sites under a sub-heading "Restriction/Deletion Sites" and 9 items under sub-heading "Control region polymorphisms". The values in each cell for this group are a DNA base of adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine.

As Tuross and Kolman state, "These haplogroups were proposed to represent the entire mitochondrial diversity of New World indigenous populations and also to correspond to the founding haplotypes present at the initial colonization of the New World." Restriction/deletion defining sites were defined by Torroni et al. (1992) and resulted in assignment to haplogroups A, B, C, or D. A HaeIII site at bp (base pair) 663 defined haplogroup A; a deletion of bp 9 defined haplogroup B; an AluI site at bp 13262 defined haplogroup C; and the loss of an AluI site at bp 5176 defined haplogroup D.

Subsequent research by Horai et al. (1993) has defined specific polymorphisms at base pair sites in the mitochondrial control region, with the four DNA bases of adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Haplogroups B and C are defined by bases cytosine and thymine respectively at 16189. Cytosine is present in haplogroup B at 16217 and 16223. Thymine is present at 16290 in haplogroup A. Cytosine at 16298 reflects haplogroup C. Adenine is present at 16319 in haplogroup A. Cytosine is present at 16325 in haplogroups C and D, with a low frequency of thymine also manifested in haplogroup C. Thymine is present at 16327 in haplogroup C. Cytosine is present at 16362 in haplogroups A and D, while thymine is found at the same locus in haplogroups B and C.

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