John Lewis poses for pictures in front of new artwork depicting Freedom Rides.
Photograph courtesy of the Alabama State Historic Preservation Office
via GSA: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/284809#284873
On May 20, 1961, the Freedom Riders were attacked by a local mob at the Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station in Montgomery, Alabama. The historic importance of the Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station is limited to this one day, but the repercussions from the events brought the Civil Rights struggle into sharp relief and caught national and international attention. Arriving early in Montgomery with only a lone motorcycle patrolman escort, the Freedom Riders soon discovered that a crowd of approximately 200 angry protestors crowded the streets and the arrival bay area at the bus station. Among the crowd were several notorious Klansmen. 20 people were seriously injured, including John Seigenthaler, who was a personal representative of President Kennedy. John Lewis, a student activist who later would become a key figure in the civil rights movement and a U.S. Congressman, was one of the Freedom Riders on this portion of the journey.
Constructed in 1916-17, the Attucks School served the black community of Vinita, Oklahoma as a combined elementary, junior, and high school. Stylistically, the school is a combination of a simplified Art Deco and WPA construction. It was not the only black school in Craig County, as there were seven, but it was the only secondary school that was available to blacks until after desegregation in the mid-1950s. While the Vinita public school system readily desegregated as required by law following the landmark decision of Brown vs. Board of Education, it took upwards of three years for desegregation to occur in Vinita.
Mount Zion Baptist Church, Tulsa, Oklahoma
Rebuilding a church and a spirit! Rebuilt after the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, perhaps the most significant race riot in the history of the United States, the Mount Zion Baptist Church, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, stands as a historic symbol of the local African American community. The commitment of the Mount Zion Baptist Church parishioners in Greenwood to rebuild their church displayed both their tenacity in the face of adversity and their hopes for the future. The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 resulted in the near complete destruction of the Greenwood African American neighborhood and business district. With no police or fire department protection, whites had burned nearly 30-40 blocks of homes and businesses, and nearly 9000 individuals were left homeless. The Mount Zion Baptist Church remained a landmark and rallying point of the Greenwood neighborhood’s and church’s persistence to survive after the riot.
The Berkley Square subdivision, which is located in the area historically known as Las Vegas’ Westside, consists of 148 Contemporary Ranch-style homes designed by internationally-known African American architect Paul R. Williams. It was built between 1954 and 1955 and was the first minority (African American) built subdivision in Nevada. Prior to the 1930s, racism was not a problem in Las Vegas simply because there were so few African American residents, but as the African American presence grew, segregation set in. Housing conditions on the Westside, where the African American population was located, were horrible, but planning between the City of Las Vegas and the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) began in 1947 to build a community of affordable modern housing, which resulted in the creation of Berkley Square.
Newburgh Colored Burial Ground, Orange County, New York
It is known that village of Newburgh sustained a modest free black community in the mid-19th century and that the cemetery was actively used c. 1832 to c. 1867, a time when this area remained somewhat isolated from development. Further archeological study of the cemetery will help reveal more of the history of the free black community in that area. A weekly highlight. . .
Historic Resources Associated with African Americans in Los Angeles Multiple Property Submission (pdf 9mb)
Since the earliest days of the Los Angeles pueblo, African Americans have been a vital presence in the city. Over this period, the African American community in Los Angeles was shaped and reshaped by successive streams of migration. ...
Delmo Community Center
Photograph courtesy of Missouri State Historic Preservation Office
Delmo Community Center: Pemiscot County, Missouri (pdf 4mb)
The community center was the historic social and political center of
Homestown, originally known as South Wardell, one of ten communities constructed by the Farm Security Administration for displaced sharecroppers and tenant farmers following the
January 1939 roadside sharecropper demonstration in Southeast Missouri. Though deteriorated, Homestown's Delmo Community Center continues to be an important feature of Southeast Missouri's Delmo communities, and represents
an era of community building and social experimentation sponsored by the Federal government.
Birthright, Charles and Bettie, House: Dunklin County, Missouri (pdf 14 mb)
Dunklin County's greatness! For more than 40 years this house was home to the Birthrights, former slaves who achieved economic independence and prosperity while building close ties with the families that had held them in slavery and the predominantly white citizenry of Clarkerton and Dunklin Counties. This barber and seamstress amassed substantial wealth from highly successful commercial and farming operations.
John Coltrane House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
Tenor saxophonist and American jazz pioneer John Coltrane lived here
from 1952 until two years before his death in 1967. A musician and composer, Coltrane
played a central role in the development of jazz during the 1950s and
George Black House and Brickyard: Forsyth County, North Carolina
house of well-known African American brickmaker George H. Black. Black,
sometimes referred to as "The Last Brickmaker in America,"
lived and worked on this property from 1934 until his death in 1980
at age 101.
USS Alligator: Monroe County, Florida:
The remains of a schooner that once patrolled the west coast of Africa on
anti-slavery trade duty
One of the barns used as a hiding place for fugitive
National Historic Landmark photograph
Cemetery, McIntosh County, Georgia:
A post-Civil War African American burial ground
Home Vocational and Agricultural High School: Guadalupe County, Texas:
A Rosenwald school built
specifically for the education of African Americans
Smith Estate, Madison County, New York:
Underground Railroad Site.
with Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Site.
Daisy Bates House, Pulaski County, Arkansas:
Desegregation in Public Education Sites
Library at the University of Oklahoma, Cleveland County, Oklahoma:
Desegregation in Public Education Sites
University properties, Washington, DC: Desegregation in Public Education Sites
Camp Nelson, Jessamine County, Kentucky:
Kentucky's largest recruitment and training center for black troops during
the Civil War was also a refugee camp for their wives and children.
Lake, Steuben County, Indiana:
A resort community for African Americans developed during the
1930s in Indiana.
Different views of Sugar Hill Historic District
Photograph by Kathy Howe, courtesy
of New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic
Beach Historic District, Nassau County, Florida:
American Beach was developed as an ocean front resort for African
Americans on the south end of Amelia Island, Florida, in 1935.
of 1928 African American Mass
Grave, Palm Beach County, Florida:
The Hurricane of 1928 African American Mass Burial site is important
as the burial site of approximately 674 victims, primarily African
American agricultural workers, who were killed in the hurricane
of 1928 that devastated South Florida.
Saloon, Karnofsky Tailor Shop
and House, and Iroquois Theater, New Orleans, Louisiana:
one of New Orleans' most
important neighborhoods in the early development of Jazz.
Building, Coahoma County, Mississippi:
For 52 years Wright
hosted a weekly R&B show from the WROX building, interviewing
musical personalities such as B. B. King, Charlie Pride, Muddy
Waters, Tina Turner, Bobby Rush, Sonny Boy Williamson, Robert
Nighthawk, Rufus Thomas, Elvis Presley, Little Milton and Pinetop
Heights Cemeteries, Richmond, Virginia:
These cemeteries were established between c.1815 and c.1865
by black churches, fraternal orders and benevolent organizations
and represent early efforts by African Americans to establish
their own cemeteries through burial societies that offered death
Apartments, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
largest property owner among African Americans in Philadelphia,
the Peace Mission employed many black Philadelphians in restaurants,
hotels and small business, while also providing meals, clothing,
barbers' services, transportation and lodging at reduced prices.
High School, Davidson County, Tennessee:
new school was designed by McKissack and McKissack, the nation's
first architecture firm owned by an African American.
Lincoln Theater: (pdf 2 mb) in the Historic Resources Associated with African Americans in Los Angeles MPS.
Constructed in 1926 the Lincoln Theater is significant as the last remaining theater in Los Angeles that catered to the African American community. The Lincoln Theater opened in 1927 and immediately became a major gathering spot for the large and growing African American population along the Central Avenue Corridor.
Theatre, Carver County, South Carolina:
The Carver Theatre, at 1519 Harden Street in Columbia, South
Carolina, is important in the the early-to-mid twentieth century
history of Columbia's black community during the later period
of racial segregation in the South.
Bethel AME Church, Cascade County, Montana:
The Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in
Great Falls, Montana, is one of the first-built and longest-used
churches for African Americans in Montana and is important because
it represents trends in black community growth in the western
Schools of Washington, D.C. Multiple Property Submission: Former African American schools are regarded today both as a
source of pride and as a reminder of past injustices.
Hinchliffe Stadium, Passaic County, New Jersey:
Hinchliffe is possibly the sole surviving regular home field for a Negro League baseball team in the Mid-Atlantic region.
Xavier University Main Building, Convent and Library, New Orleans, Louisiana:
Xavier University provided a quality education to thousands of African Americans, principally from New Orleans and elsewhere in Louisiana, who upon graduation entered the New Orleans professional community.
Ivey Delph Apartments, New York, New York:
was the first large-scale project by and for African Americans in New York backed by a Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage commitment.
African American Historic Resources of Alexandria, Virginia, Multiple Property Submission: The historic places associated with Alexandria's community of African Americans nominated as components of this multiple property submission (MPS) reflect educational, residential and communal historical development in the city from pre-Civil War antebellum days to post-Civil War freedom.
Bethel Baptist Church, Parsonage, and Guard House, Jefferson County, Alabama:
On Christmas Day, 1956, a large bundle of dynamite exploded next to Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, destroying the parsonage in which Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth and his family lived.
Foster Auditorium, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama:
The University of Alabama's Foster Auditorium in Tuscaloosa was the site of Governor George Wallace's infamous “stand in the schoolhouse door” in 1963.
Howard High School, New Castle County, Delaware:
Howard High School, in Wilmington, Delaware, is one of the schools directly associated with the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education that found racial segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional.
African American Historic Resources of Prince George's County, Maryland MPS: A wealth of historic places in Prince George's County, Maryland, convey how integral African Americas are to the history of this area.
Dorsey--Jones House, Hampshire County, Massachusetts:
Located in Northampton, Massachusetts, the Dorsey--Jones House was the home of two escaped slaves, Basil Dorsey (1810-1872) and Thomas H. Jones (1806-1890).
Hotel Theresa, New York, New York: The Hotel Theresa, built from 1912 to 1913, has been one of the major social centers of Harlem.
The Campground, Mobile County, Alabama:
The Campground historic district has played an important role in the historical development of the predominately black community of Mobile, Alabama, since the third quarter of the 19th century.
Dorchester Academy Boys' Dormitory, Liberty County, Georgia:
Dorchester Academy was founded by the American Missionary Association (AMA) following the Civil War as a primary school for black children.
Abyssinian Meeting House, Cumberland County, Maine:
The Abyssinian Meeting House is a vernacular wood-frame building constructed between 1828 and 1831 to serve Portland, Maine’s African American community.
Fort Lyon, Bent County, Colorado:
Several companies of African American soldiers were quartered here in anticipation of General Philip Sheridan’s winter campaign against the southern Cheyenne in 1868.
Nash, Rev. J. Edward, Sr., House, Erie County, New York:
The Reverend J. Edward Nash, Sr. House is historically significant for its association with the life and career of Buffalo’s most prominent African American leader during the first half of the 20th century.
Paul Laurence Dunbar House, Montgomery County, Ohio:
Paul Laurence Dunbar (July 27, 1872-Feburary 9, 1906) holds the distinction of being the first African American poet to receive national acclaim since Phyllis Wheatly.
Langston Hughes House, New York, New York:
The Langston Hughes House is historically significant as the home of James Langston Hughes (1902-1967), author and poet and one of the foremost figures in the Harlem Renaissance.
Arna Wendell Bontemps House, Rapides County, Louisiana:
the birthplace of writer Arna Bontemps, a major figure in the African American literary movement known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Sherwood Equal Rights Historic District, Cayuga County, New York: Several of the properties within the district were owned by freed slaves; others by prominent abolitionists and women's rights advocates who sprang from the Quaker faith.
Liberty Hill School, Richmond County, North Carolina: this former one-story school, built in 1930, stands at a lonely hilltop location established as a school site in the 19th century for local African American children.