National Park Service History Collection RG 30
Description: Files and Notebooks dealing with Programs and Proposals during the Hartzog Directorate. Made up mostly of Hartzog's office files and Theodore Swem's files.
Inclusive dates: 1964-1970
Location (1988): Bay 5, Range B. Shelves 2 and 4
Keywords: Administrative Policies; Budget; Centennial; Design and Construction; Development; Environment; Gardens; Hartzog, George B., Jr.; Historical Areas; Land Acquisition; Mission 66; National Park System; Natural Beauty; Natural Resources; Parkscape; Programs; Project B; Project X; Project Z; Proposals; Recreational Areas; Swem, Ted; System Plan.
Accession Numbers: HFCA-167, HFCA-697
This material came in two parts. First in 1973, two boxes of notebooks were transferred probably by Hartzog himself as HFCA-167. Then in 1978, the HFC archivist picked up material from Ted Swem's office which was later included as part of HFCA-697. This material was gathered and prepared from 1964 to 1970 by higher members of the Directorate, especially J. Kaufmann, Ted Swem, Stanley Abbott and others with some input from Director Hartzog. It was for the Director, the Directorate, and higher Interior officials including the Secretary.
The Hartzog Directorate lasted from the 1964 era of Johnson's Great Society until the 1972 Nixon shakeup. At first, it seemed under the shadow of Director Wirth's successful Mission 66 program. The park system expanded greatly, especially in seashore, recreational and urban areas. Separate policies for recreational, historical and natural areas were established and carried out by the Hartzog Directorate. The program that most affected the field - FOST (Field Oriented Study Team) - is also represented by this material, as is the other large controversy - The Parkscape Symbol. The Hartzog era is perhaps best remembered for the unprecedented growth of the system. Hartzog completed and published his memoirs in 1988 under the title Battling for the National Parks (Mt. Kisco, NY: Moyer Bell, 1988).
C. Summary Scope and Contents Note
Most of the material consists of notebooks that contain fiscal material, many statistics, legislation, policies, program documents, statements and reports as well as clippings and drafts. The material dates from 1964 to 1970. No material is present from the last two years of the Hartzog Directorate. Overall, the material is more concerned with planning and budgets than with everyday workings of the System. It does not give a full view of the Hartzog mission and accomplishments.
D. Dispersal and Related Collections
There are direct relationships to briefing materials A 2623, Manuals A 66, Fiscal F. Budget F 30, Biographical material H 18, NPS History K 5410 and Ted Swem's personal papers. Since the policies and programs were explained to the park employees and interested friends by the Courier and the NPS Newsletter, the files of these periodicals give a good overview of the era. See also Appendix 3 below.
E. Folder list
Series 1. Theodore R. Swem Files
Theodore R. Swem was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa on December 6, 1917. He attended Coe College, Iowa and received his Bachelor of Science in Forestry from Iowa State University in Ames. He also completed one year of graduate work at Harvard. Swem spent three years with the Colorado Game and Fish Commission, and ten years with the Bureau of Reclamation at Denver in Recreation and Wildlife Planning before joining the National Park Service in 1957 as head of Planning Studies for Region II in Omaha.
In 1961, he transferred to WASO as a planner in the Branch of Proposed Area Studies and then Park and Recreation Area Planning. Swem became Assistant Director, Cooperative Activities in 1964, moving over to National Capital Region in 1969 as Regional Director. After a year at NCR he moved back to WASO as an Assistant Director and in 1973 received an additional appointment as Chairman of an Inter-Bureau Alaska Planning Group within the Department of the Interior. Swem retired in 1976. He and his wife, Helen, have four children.
These four voluminous files to some extent duplicate those listed in his personal files. They include drafts, reports, statements, policies, clippings, memos, and notes. They have been arranged in chronological order while the content is kept as received. They concern Administrative Policy, Budget, Centennial, Development, Environment, Mission 66, Natural Beauty, Parkscape, Project B. Project X, Project Z. Recreation, and System Plan. The files are in an archive box located in Bay 5, Range B. shelf 2.
Project "B" (1964)
Memo to Secretary of the Interior from NPS Director re Briefing Memo for Discussion proposed Program Beyond Mission 66 (carbon), handwritten notes Memo from Hartzog to Abbott and Kaufmann re Program to follow Mission 66, First Century Program, Memo to Regional Directors, handwritten notes
(Copy) Memo to Secretary of the Interior from NPS Director re Briefing Memo for discussion Program Beyond Mission 66
(File) Beyond Mission 66 contains map, Kaufmann Draft of Centennial Mission, Plan for the NCP parks, letter to Hartzog from Ronald Lee re post Mission 66 programs and NPS reorganization, articles and clippings re Consolidating Departments, handwritten notes re compliance and affirmative action, handwritten letter from Scoyen re post Mission 66 program
Draft Introduction to Centennial Mission Program, J.M. Kaufmann, January 15, 1965
Kaufmann Draft Part I, To Develop a Plan for a Completed Park System
Kaufmann Draft Part II, A. NPS parks and B. Potomac River
Kaufmann Draft Part III, Extension Service
Kaufmann Draft Part IV, Exchange Program
Kaufmann Draft Park V, and intro to Part V, Develop Capabilities of National Parks
Plan for the Parks of the National Capitol
Selected Demonstrations and Studies, handwritten notes
Recreation Demonstration Areas
Project X ( 1966)
Task Force on Resources and Recreation: Mining Area Restoration, NPS Expansion, Recreation Land Price Escalation, Centennial Proposal, Wild Rivers, Trails, Historic Highways, Extension Wildlands Loan Act, Recreation and Natural Beauty Demonstration Grants, "Do-it-yourself" Environmental Grants, Massanutton NRA (NWF) Land Use Planning and Development Act, Forest extension, Programs in other nations, FWS, Islands, BLM proposals, Improvement in Resource conservation and Development, Urban Forestry, Surface Mined Areas, Recommendations (104 p.), parks and recreation, summer youth camps, conservation proposals.
Speech drafts, memos, news releases
Interior Conservation Program Title I--Transfer of Revenues, Title II--Preservation of Historic Properties, Title III--National System of Trails, Title IV--National Park and Wildlife Programs in Other Nations, also Historical and Archeological, Title V--NPS Centennial
Many news releases and clippings re Parkscape
Series of Proposed Areas Descriptions under Parkscape Use
Series 2. Hartzog Notebooks
George B. Hartzog, Jr. was born in Colleton County, South Carolina on March 17, 1920. He attended local schools including Wofford College in Spartanburg, SC. Hartzog read law under Hon. J.M. Morer of Watterboro, South Carolina and was admitted to the bar in 1942. He served in the army during WWII and worked briefly for the Bureau of Land Management before joining the National Park Service as an attorney in 1946. He served at the Chicago headquarters and Lake Texoma Recreation Area, Denniston Texas before transferring to WASO in 1948. While in Washington, Hartzog attended American University at night and received his Bachelor of Science in 1953.
He went to the field in 1955 as assistant Superintendent of Rocky Mountain National Park and then transferred to Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the same capacity in 1957. People in St. Louis will long remember Hartzog's superintendency of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial NHS from 1959 to 1962 because it led to the building of Earo Saarinen's Gateway Arch. After serving in the private sector briefly as Executive Director of Downtown St. Louis, Inc., Hartzog was named NPS Associate Director in 1963, a position designed for grooming the next Director.
He succeeded Wirth as Director in 1964 and worked closely with Steward Udall in expansion of the system. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was also passed with much NPS help during the Hartzog Era, which ended with his political dismissal in December 1972. Hartzog now (1988) practices law with the Washington D.C. firm of Ragan and Mason, is a land planning consultant with his firm of Hartzog, Loder and Riches, and serves as visiting professor at various universities. He and his wife, Helen, have three children.
These 11 notebooks and 2 papers contain papers, statistics, fiscal material, legislation, policy, program documents, reports, and some letters and memos. They are arranged somewhat chronologically while the contents were arranged for Mr. Hartzog. They concern Administrative Policies, Budget, Design and Construction, Development, Environment, Gardens, Historic Areas, Land Acquisition, Mission 66, NPS System, Natural Beauty, Natural Resources, Recreational Areas, and System Plan. These two record boxes are in Bay 5, Range B. Shelf 4.
Black notebook H.O. - Our file on National Gardens M with materials relating to beauty, Recreation, natural beauty, beautification
Unlabelled black notebook dealing with land costs, new areas, etc.
Blue notebook labeled Director's Workbook Administrative Policies, Recreational Areas--contains marked up handbook with typed additions, total 112 p.
Black notebook - "Book One George B. Hartzog" - contains Index and six numbered tabs for Administrative Policies, Management Philosophy, Leopold Wildlife Report, Wilderness, Legislative Instructions, Question and Answers New Areas Proposals.
Black notebook - "Book Two George B. Hartzog, Jr. Director NPS, Washington, D.C." - contains compilation of the Administrative Policies for Historical Areas, index and eight numbered tabs: Growth since 12/63, Parkland Criteria, Personnel, Management, 1969 Budget and 1968 Programs, Interpretation, and Miscellaneous.
Unlabelled notebook contains carbon Administrative Policies for Historical Areas, revised August 16, 1968, August and July 1968 letters from various notables commenting on it, July 1968 copy of above, and carbon draft of above June 15, 1968 with some annotations.
Unlabelled black notebook - Operations Manual Design and Construction 1968.
Black notebook - "Distribution of 1970 FY PPB material May 17, 1968" - memo, tabs and index for PPM Multi-Year Program and Fiscal Year 1970 Data as submitted 1968.
Black notebook - "Development Programs George B. Hartzog, Jr., Director NPS, USDI, Washington 25, D.C." - contains tabs for years 1967, 1968, 1969 as well as roads and trails, buildings and utility, and parkways.
Large light blue notebook - "George B. Hartzog, Jr., USDI - Budget Justification FY 1969 Fish and Wildlife and Parks NPS"
Black notebook contains NPS Land Acquisition Program, Budget Data 1969 Edition (LWCF), Mr. Hartzog Questions and Answers, General Long Range Planning Program and other tabs
Department of the Interior 1972 Program Memorandum Part I--Natural Resources and Environmental Needs, Objectives and Goals, April 29, 1970 for Administrative Use Only
An Economic Impact Study of Mt. Rainier and Olympic National Parks, February 1970
Series 3 Field Oriented Study Team (FOST)
Ted Swem's files
Status of FOST Occupational Standards
"FOST" NPS Newsletter - Vol. 4, No. 24, November 27, 1969
Occupation and Organization Guides for Park Operations, FOST, 6/1/68
Ranger GS 025 Technician, GS 026 PD's etc.
Veitl Report - FOST Meeting, 9/14/72
Park Ranger and Park Technician Occupational Concepts, 2/29/72
Transfer of Park Aids and Technicians - 4/19/71
Park Ranger and Park Technician Positions - 9/15/71
Hand Notes on FOST, 1970
FOST Concept and Its Implementation, 4/28/71
Park Ranger and Park Technician Occupational Concepts, 9/12/72
Recruitment of Park Technicians - Over Qualifications, 5/22/72
Recruitment of Park Technicians - Over Qualifications, 5/4/72
Position Management - 4/14/72
Examining Vehicles for Park Aid and Technician Series - 8/14/70
Park Guide Announcement and PD - 4/7/69
Field Operations - 7/20/71
Field Operations - 6/25/71
"A Study of Two Proposed Organizational Changes in the NPS" Arthur C. Allen, Michigan, 8/67
Director's Staff Meeting, No. 12, July 7, 1966, p. 3 - mention of surviving "Ratchet" job threat
Newsletter - Vol. 1, No. 7, November 17, 1966, p. 1
FOST Facts Column - Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 22; No. 24, Vol. 5, No. 5; No. 12
Newsletter - Vol. 3, No. 14, July 11, 1968, p. 1-2
Newsletter - Vol. 3, No. 23, November 14, 1968, p. 1-2
Newsletter - Vol. 4, No. 8, April 17, 1969, p. 1
Newsletter - Vol. 4, No. 24, November 27, 1969, p. 1 and 4
Newsletter - Vol. 5, No. 13, June 25, 1970, p. 5
1. Task Force on Resources and Recreation Program Papers
I. Mining Area Restoration
1. A Program for Mining Area Restoration
II. Recreation and Natural Beauty,
1. Recreation Land Price Escalation Abatement and Control
2. Additions to the National Park System
3. Commemoration of the Centennial of the Creation of the First National Park
4. Wild Rivers System
5. Nationwide System of Trails
6. Historic and Scenic Roads and Parkways Programs (including such as the George Washington Country Parkway and Appalachian National Historic Parkway proposals)
7. Extension of Wetlands Loan Authorization Act
8. Demonstration Grants
9. Do-it-yourself Environmental Grants
10. Massanutten National Recreation Area (Virginia--Potomac River Study)
11. Land Use Planning and Development Act
12. Avalanche Warning
13. Federal Loan and Loan Insurance Program for Private Sector
14. Federal Technical Assistance and Research in Cooperation with Universities
15. Additions to the National Forest System
16. Export of the National Parks and Recreation Area Concept.
2. Management Philosophy Statement of 10/30/67
3. Leopold Report on Wildlife - Implementation
4. Wilderness - Summary Outline, Wilderness Act, Rules and Regulations. Secretary's Order 2/17/66, Program Schedules, Letters relating to lag in program
5. Legislative Instructions (Smith has copy in briefcase
6. Questions and Answers regarding new Area Proposals
7. Growth Since December 1963
8. Criteria for Parklands
9. State Coordinators and Keymen
10. Personnel - Employment Statistics (Seasonal), Equal Employment Opportunity Program, Intake Training Guidelines, Intake Training Park Proposals, Questions raised at Gettysburg and answers, Training Course for Field People Assigned to the WASO
11. Management - General Management Information System - Hummel's memo May 10, 1967 to Regional Directors, Financial Management Improvement Plans--Acting Director Bill's memo for the Under Secretary June 9, 1967, ADP
12. 1969 Budget and 1968 Programs, 1969 Budget, "Bonds" of Priorities--1968-1969, Modified Construction and Other Guidelines for Programs, Progress on 1968 Programs (Ditto), PCP's--Forms - instructions - Special Informational Memo No.5 of May 8, 1967
14. Miscellaneous: Geographic Names Guidelines, Job Corps, Driver training,
Field Offices, Travel Expenses, Maintenance Uniform Allowances, Information
on Zone Meetings, GSA Autos, Land and Water Conservation Fund
I. Other Inventories, etc.
Articles in NPS Newsletter, Courier, etc.
Oral History interview by Amelia Fry (1965)
New Yorker profile 9/11/71, (copy attached)
Draft of 1965 oral history interview
A. 1946-1955 (NPS) no photos
B. 1955-1957 ROMO-Asst. Supt. 2 in uniform
C. 1957-1959 GRSM-Asst. Supt. no photos
D. 1959-1962 JNEM-Supt. 3 in uniform
E. 1963-1964 NPS Assoc. Director 5 swearing in
F. 1963 YOSE Conf. of Challenges 7
G. 1964 Swearing in as Director 1/8 22
H. 1964-1973 Speeches, award ceremonies, dedications, etc. Seen with many VIP's including Nixon, Johnson, etc. 200+
2. Slides At various parks & functions many
3. Portrait File (photocopies available at HFC Library) 81
IV. Audio and Video Tape
A. Taped comments by G.B.H., 9/14/65 at NPS Management Conference GRSM.
B. On 50th anniversary of NPS, 8/25/66.
C. On safety, 9/23/64.
D. "Red," 3/16/68.
E. Press conference #4219, 3/1/67.
F. Interpretation remarks, 10/5/65.
G. Superintendents' Conference, 10/15-18/63.
H. Superintendents' Conference, 3/9/67, 2 tapes.
I. Superintendents' luncheon, 9/14/65.
J. WRO Superintendents' Conf., 1967.
K. SERO Superintendents' Conf. on parkscape and organization (76-119).
L. Speech at YELL (76-119), 7/22/65.
M. Hartzog interview at YOSE symposium on future park concepts.
N. Udall and Hartzog, 12/19/66, at Harpers Ferry (NPS 50th anniversary).
O. NERO talk of Lee and Hartzog (telephone), 3/5/65.
P. Directors staff meetings, 1967-1972.
Q. Hartzog interview by Charles Hosmer, 1981.
R. Video tapes from HOAL, 3/27/69, 2 tapes.
Videotapes #55, 72, 66, 51, 52, 82, 98, and 101.
#55, 72, 66 Office shots (silent) with Stratton, Everhart, Lee and others. "A Day in the Life." Meets these men then goes to Capitol Hill.
#51, 52 Introduction to Superintendents Conference, 1965 (filmed by Tom Gray).
#98 Second World Conference, 1972.