Civilian Conservation Corps Materials in the National Park Service History Collection
National Park Service History Collection RG 4

A. Provenance

The CCC material came from many different accessions. Some came from individual parks that had CCC camps, especially Shenandoah and Saratoga. Other papers came from people like E. A. Pesonen who had been in the CCC. Reminiscences, histories and alumni materials have been contributed by several people and organizations.

With the exception of the alumni box, the material was generated by the government and its employees during the years (1933-1942) in which the CCC was active. It was used as resources by the enrollees in performing their conservation work. The reports were mainly for Washington but some were also to explain the organization to the public. Many of the booklets were also for publicity as well as for enrollees.

B. History

The Civilian Conservation Corps is one of the most famous of the New Deal programs. It was organized in April of 1933, under authorization of Congress in an act of March 31, 1933, under the title "Emergency Conservation Work" (ECW), to provide employment to young unmarried men between the ages of 17 and 28. The director of ECW was Robert Fechner, a former machinist union official. Four departments - Labor, Agriculture, Interior and the Army - worked together to establish and operate the camps. Labor helped select the enrollees and provided their work standards. The Army ran the camps. Agriculture, mainly the Forest Service and Interior, mainly the National Park Service were the technical advisors since most of the work was done on their land.

Enlistment period was for six months with the possibility of re-enlistment. Initial strength by June 29, 1933, was 270,000 young men working in 1330 camps. There were special provisions in the act for veterans and approximately 25,000 participated. Other older locally enlisted men were employed as foremen. Educational advisors were also employed and there were many educational opportunities available after work. Average strength was 300,000 in 1500 camps, or about 200 men per camp. The height was reached in 1936 with over 500,000 enrollees.

In June 1937, legislation was passed extending the Corps for three more years, as well as making the name Civilian Conservation Corps official. Limits were also placed on the number of enrollments. In 1939, it was placed under the Federal Security Agency. At the end of that year, Fechner died and his assistant, James J. McEntee assumed the directorship. From 1940 on more of the work was done on military reservations. With the entry of the United States in World War II, Congress, against Roosevelt's wishes, abolished the Corps on June 30, 1942.

The Corps included Native Americans and Afro-Americans among its enrollees. Most camps were segregated and had white officers and educational advisors. The Native Americans performed work on their own reservations and did not live in camps like the others. There were camps in the various territories as well as the 48 states. Almost three million men were eventually enrolled in the Corps. Most of their $30 a month salary was sent home to their families, the rest for individual spending.

The "boys" earned this spending money in many different kinds of jobs, all in some way related to conservation. These jobs were in forests, on military and Indian reservations, and in parks. The National Park Service was in charge of the work in the parks that included municipal, county and state, as well as national parks.
With the governmentwide Land Planning Committee, the Park Service helped initiate and thereafter was responsible for the Recreation Demonstration Areas, most of which later became state or national park areas. As an agency of the Department of the Interior, the National Park Service also became responsible for all work done in the territories by the CCC. The CCC enrollees cleared underbrush, helped in historic excavations and stabilization of buildings and ruins, built roads, and trails, park buildings, campgrounds, picnic areas, picnic tables, fireplaces, signs and exhibits, and other park structures and erected telephone poles and electric lights. They did some reforestation in the parks, although less than in the Forest Service, and organized eradication campaigns against harmful insects and tree diseases. The enrollees also fought fires and helped in natural disasters.

From the beginning, an employee of the National Park Service served as Interior's representative on the CCC Advisory Board. National Park Service Director Horace Albright helped set up the initial organization and then was replaced by Director Arno Cammerer. Conrad Wirth was in charge of the state and local parks program and replaced Cammerer on the Board. The CCC also affected National Park Service administration by leading to the first regionalization based upon the CCC regionalization. The new historical program of the National Park Service, established by the Historic Sites Act of 1935 received much help from the CCC that hired historical technicians to work in NPS areas. Many of these technical advisors later became Park Service historians.

The CCC experience was good for enrollees, for the National Park Service and for the Nation.

C.    Summary

In 1988, there are 2 half boxes, 10 archival boxes, and 3 record boxes of CCC material. These have been arranged into 10 series. Three archive boxes compose Series I, General. It has been further subdivided into Booklets, Government History, Areas, and Maps in Box One; Forestry, Wildlife, Firefighting, WML, Historical Work, and RDA's in Box Two; Unemployment, Vocation, and Miscellaneous in Box Three. Series II, States and Territories has 2 archival boxes,1 for Pennsylvania and 1 for Hawaii. Conferences make up the third series and occupy a half box. Series IV, Annual Reports occupies one archive box. The Physical Training Handbooks, Series V, also take an archive box while Series VI on      Safety only takes a half box. Material taken from the Portfolio of Park Structures and Facilities and its later form Park and Recreation Structures occupy an archive box and make up the seventh series. Series VIII concerns Inspector Pesonen and is considered the Pesonen Papers. They fill an archive box and have been arranged into Reports, Correspondence, Regulations, and Operations Digest. The series that will continue to grow is Series IX, Alumni and History that in 1988 only takes 1 archive box. It has been organized into 8 areas - NACCA, Brotherhood of X-CCCer's, Reminiscences, a large category of Periodical Articles, Papers, Government Records, Miscellaneous History, and Photo Lists. The last Series X, Individual Camps comprises the 3 record boxes containing the non-official office files of the camp established at Saratoga National Historical Park in 1940-41. The files have been kept in their original order and not subdivided.

D.    Other CCC Material in the Collection.

Three archival boxes of photographs including one box of photographs taken at the San Diego Model Camp were shelved with the paper material. Overall, there is much photographic material on the CCC throughout the National Park Service and Harpers Ferry Center collections. The collections also have library books, oral histories, and museum artifacts relating to the CCC. An addendum to this inventory gives a report on this material.

E.    Folder Contents List

      Series I - General

      CCC 1

      Booklets

The story of the Teton Toiler, 1936 - booklet
Booklet - The CCC and Its Contribution to a Nationwide State
Park Recreation Program
Booklet - The National Parks and Emergency Conservation, 1933 and 1936 revision
Booklet - Civilian Conservation Corps, 1938

      Government History

Memo to all superintendents, August 9, 1933, resume of National Park Service history since beginning of new administration
Administrative Report - National Park Service War Work, December 7, 1941, October 1, 1945

      Areas

Memo on development of Clear Creek, Grand Canyon National Park, October 22, 1933
Paper - Development of National Park Areas in the Black Hills by the CCC, Superintendent E. D. Freeland, 1937
Map - CCC camp location Poinsett Park, Sumter County, South Carolina
Press release - March 27, 1936, the CCC at Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Photocopied snapshots and letter to National Park Service from Harold D. Ratase in response to notice in March-April 1979 NACCCA Bulletin; photos deal with CCC Co. 350, Luray, Virginia
Green Guideon magazine, September 1934

      Maps

National Park Service file - Emergency Conservation Work, May 12, 1933-June 7, 1933
Map of Eastern United States with unidentified names of people
List of camps in First Region
State maps with CCC state park camp locations, 6th Period, 1935-36
List of Emergency Conservation Work camps in national parks and monuments, proposed national park and territories, 7th enrollment period
Directory of all CCC camps supervised by Department of Interior since inception of Emergency Conservation Work Program, 1936

      Forestry

Booklet - Woodmanship for Emergency Conservation Workers, U. S. Forest Service
Booklet - Woodmanship for the CCC, 1938 edition and 1941 edition
Tree Preservation Bulletin #6, May 1936, revised April 1938, General Spraying Practices
Tree Preservation Bulletin #8, October 1937, Safety for Tree Workers
Tree Preservation Bulletin #9, January 1940, Transplanting Trees and Other Woody Plants
Booklet - Forests Protected by the CCC, 1941, one copy bound in gray binder
Booklet - Landscape Conservation, Frank A. Waugh, 1935

      Wildlife

Booklet - The CCC and Wildlife, 1938
Memo - General Procedure of Wildlife Division, August 1936
Emergency Conservation Work Technical Circular #2, March 1936, On the Nature of Ponds
Reports of project engineer and senior wildlife foreman, Farmington Bay Refuge Projects, Utah, 1939

      Firefighting

Region One Emergency Conservation Work Fire Control Memo, October 23, 1936
Chapter V, Development and Forest Fire Protection work, National Park Service CCC Handbook, April 1940
Regional Equipment Engineer's Report of Fire at North Dakota State Park #7, December 1935

      Western Museum Laboratory (Berkeley, California)

Typescript copy of radio broadcast, Mutual Network, November 8, 1939, on Western Museum Lab and CCC
Emergency Conservation Work Technical Circular #1, January 1936, Construction of Relief Models

      Historical Work

Correspondence folder - CCC Historical Technician Edward A. Hummel
Monthly reports - 1940-1941, Technician Edward A. Hummel

      Recreation Demonstration Areas

Folder - The Story of the Recreation Demonstration Projects...in Tennessee, 1936
Booklet - An Invitation to New Play Areas
Booklet - Recreation Demonstration Projects as Illustrated by Chopawansic, Virginia
Administration Manual for Recreation Demonstration Areas, 1938 and 1939
Magazine reprint - Demonstration Parks in the Tennessee Valley Park and Recreation (mag), April-May 1937
Proposed program - Recreational Demonstration Project, May 2, 1933 to June 30, 1936, National Park Service, USDI
Small Water Developments Handbook, U. S. Forest Service CCC, 1933

      Unemployment

Public Resolution #11, 47th Congress, 1935 on Federal Emergency Relief
War Department Regulations Relief of Unemployment, CCC, September 1, 1934

      Vocational Series (U.S. Office of Education)

# 1 Agriculture (not in NPSHC)
# 2 Automobile Repairing
# 3 Automotive Electricity (not in NPSHC)
# 4 Carpentry
# 5 Concrete Construction
# 6 Cooking (not in NPSHC)
# 7 Conservation of Natural Resources (not in NPSHC)
# 8 Forestry (not in NPSHC)
# 9 House Wiring
#10 Elementary Masonry and Bricklaying not in NPSHC)
#11 Mechanical drawing (not in NPSHC)
#12 Photography (not in NPSHC)
#13 Radio Servicing (not in NPSHC)
#14 Soil Conservation (not in NPSHC)
#15 Plane Surveying

Miscellaneous

Specifications for Supervisory Positions (1935?)
Memo on Piping and Pipe Sizes, April 6, 1937
Circular letter on Form 10-350, the Monthly Progress Report
CCC Regulations - Second Corps Area, Vol. III, Finance Regulations, October 1940
Correspondence - Legal Division Federal Emergency Relief
Administration, November 1934 to May 1935
Letter from Professor Charles W. Barr, landscape architecture, Michigan State with reading list (1936?)
Pamphlet - Camp Stove Details
Engineering Design Manual, 1938
Correspondence file - CCC Beetle Project, GRSM, 1938
Reports of Instruction Projects with Related Instruction, Parts I and II, CCC, 3rd Corps Area, 1938

Series II - States and Territories
CCC in Pennsylvania

National Park Service typed report - Laurel Hill Park Projects, 1935
National Park Service typed report - Hickory Run, 1936
National Park Service typed report - Blue Knob, 1935
Official Annual 1936, CCC Dist. #23rd Corps Area

CCC in Hawaii

Correspondence file - January 1, 1940-December 31, 1940 With examples of CCC forms used nationwide

Series III - Conferences
National Park Service Branch of Planning State Park Emergency Conservation Work - Minutes of Conference of State Park Authorities and Procurement Officers, February 25-28, 1935, Washington, D. C. 124 page typescript
National Park Service, 6th (CCC) Regional Office, Omaha, Nebraska - Minutes of the Conference of Inspectors and Technicians, December 12-14, 1935. 56 page typescript
Conference at Yankton, South Dakota - Minutes of 3rd Meeting of Advisory Board of National Emergency Council for South Dakota held December 4, 1935. 96 page typescript
First Semi-annual Coordinating Meeting for Nebraska - Lincoln, Nebraska, December 6, 1936. 81 page typescript

Series IV - Annual Reports
1st Report of the Director of Emergency Conservation Work, April 5, 1933-September 30, 1933
2nd Report of the Director of Emergency Conservation Work, April 5, 1933-September 30, 1933 and October 1, 1933-March 31, 1934
Two Years of Emergency Conservation Work, April 5, 1933-March 31, 1935
3rd Report of the Director of Emergency Conservation Work - April 1, 1934-September 30, 1934, with certain data for April 5, 1933-September 30, 1934
Annual Report of the Director of Emergency Conservation, FY ending June 30, 1936
Emergency Conservation Work 4th Anniversary Report to the President, April 5, 1937
Annual Report of the Director of the CCC, FY ending June 30, 1939
Federal Security Agency Annual Report of the Director of the CCC, FY ending June 30, 1940
Federal Security Agency Annual Report of the Director of the CCC, FY ending June 30, 1941
1937 Yearbook - Park and Recreation Progress
1938 Yearbook - Park and Recreation Progress
1940 Yearbook - Park and Recreation Progress
1941 Yearbook - Park and Recreation Progress
Park and Recreation Progress, 1942
1943 Yearbook - Park and Recreation Progress
Copy of CCC Program of the United States Department of the Interior, March 1933-June 30, 1943 - A Report to Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior; Conrad L. Wirth, Department Representative on Advisory Council CCC

Series V - Physical Training Series
# 1 The 'Why' of block and tackle (1936?)
# 2 Outline of elementary course in forestry (6/36)
# 2 (another edition) 2/41)
# 3 Carpentry: Joints and splices (1936?)
# 4 Concrete (1937?)
# 5 Brick and Stone Work (5/37)
# 5 Brickwork and Stonework (6/41)
# 6 Landscape Conservation 2/37)
# 7 Construction of Trails 2/37)
# 8 Lumber (9/37)
# 8 (another - slightly different)
# 9 Signs and Markers (1/38)
# 9 (another - slightly different)
# 10 Construction of Relief Models (12/37)
# (10) " - General instructions"  (1/36)
#11 Carpentry: small frame buildings (1/39)
#12 Carpentry: Four Room Frame House… (9/39)
#13 Common Range Plants (10/39)
#14 Lawns (2/40)
#15 Job Training is a Business Proposition 5/40)
#16 Job Training is in work (5/40)
#17 Responsibility for Job Training  (5/40)
#17A Appendix to no.17  (4/40)
#18 Job Training Methods (5/40)
#19 A Statement of Principles for CCC Training… (1940?)
#20 Proceedings of the CCC Foreman Training Conference, May 13-25, 1940.
#21 Concrete contracting (no date)

Series VI - Safety Literature
Tree Preservation Bulletin #8, October 1937, Safety for Tree Workers. 29 pages
U.S.D.I., CCC Safety Bulletin, July 1939
U.S.D.I., CCC Safety Bulletin, October 1940
U.S.D.I., CCC Safety Bulletin, January 1940
U.S.D.I., Safety Bulletin No. 5, July 1940, Federal Security Agency CCC
U.S.D.I., Safety Bulletin No. 6, October 1940, Federal Security Agency CCC
U.S.D.I., Safety Bulletin No. 10, October 1941, Federal Security Agency CCC
U.S.D.I., Safety Bulletin No. 12, April 1942, Federal Security Agency CCC
U.S.D.I., Safety Bulletin, March 1942, Federal Security Agency CCC
Emergency Conservation Work Safety Regulations Supplement #2, November 14, 1935
Emergency Conservation Work Safety Regulations Supplement #4, March 4, 1936
CCC Safety Regulations, 1938
CCC Safety Regulations Correction Sheets

Series VII - Portfolio of Park Structures
Portfolio of Park Structures and Facilities
Envelope with 1934 Portfolio pages
Oversized booklet - Organized Camp Facilities reproduced from Park Recreation Structures
Oversized booklet - Signs reproduced from Park and Recreation structures

Series VIII - Pesonen Papers
These papers detail the CCC career of Everett Alexander Pesonen who was in charge of the Hawaii CCC Office and later Assistant Regional Director for Region III (Southwest) until 1940. Mr. Pesonen was born August 19, 1902, near Crystal Falls, Michigan, to Finnish immigrants. After graduating from high school he briefly managed a fox farm and then taught school for three years. Mr. Pesonen subsequently became a reporter but decided to attend Michigan State to become a county agriculture agent. At Michigan State he developed a liking for landscape architecture and graduated in that field in 1930, in the midst of the Depression. Mr. Pesonen held several jobs in Michigan and New York until the lack of work forced him home. When the CCC was formed, he received an appointment as landscape foreman. Mr. Pesonen soon transferred to the National Park Service administration of the CCC. Meanwhile he married Eleanor Boston. They had two children, Burton who died early and David. After service during World War II he joined the Bureau of Reclamation. He was cited for distinguished service prior to his retirement in the late 60s. Mr. Pesonen worked for the State of California after his retirement from Federal service.

      Reports

Daily reports - E. Alex Pesonen of Missouri, inspector, January-April 1934
Daily report - E. Alex Pesonen of Missouri, inspector, October and December 1933
Inspection Reports - Southwest states, 1938
Monthly reports to E. A. Pesonen of inspectors - Southwest states, 1936 and 1937

      Correspondence

Official file of E. A. Pesonen
Correspondence file - E. A Pesonen, April-July 1938

      Digests and Regulations

Digest of NPS CCC Operations, Revised July 1, 1937
Booklet - CCC Regulations, 1937

Series IX - Alumni and History
NACCCA
Pamphlet on National Association of CCC Alumni, NACCCA, May 1978
NACCCA Journal, September 1978, May 1979, June 1979, August 1979, January to February 1980, March 1980, November 1980, December 1980/January 1981, February 1981
Newsletter - NACCCA, Courier, March 1981

      Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers
Notice - CCC Airmail Cachet
News pamphlet - Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers, April 1984
News pamphlet - Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers, February 1984
News pamphlet - Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers, XIX, January 1984
News pamphlet - Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers, August 1983
News pamphlet - Brotherhood of X-CCC'ers, July 1983

      Reminiscences
"Some Great Men Just Might Be Forgotten" by S. Herbert Evison, May 4, 1976. Typewritten biographical reminiscences of Albert H. Good, Edmund Preece and Otis B. Taylor
Folder labeled "Clarence Case, CCC" containing copies of The Sky Pilot newsletter

Series X - Individual Camps - Saratoga National Historical Park files
      Saratoga 1
      File Headings:
Appropriations
Establishment of CCC Camps
Surveys
Camp Buildings
Projects Construction
Encumbrance Records
Claims, Settlement of
Pay Roll
Time Sheet Procedure
Time Sheet
Surplus Tools
Applications for Employment
Compensation for Injuries
Harold A. Webster
Skilled Labor
Request for Adjustment
Accident Reports
Telephone, Telegraph and Radio Service (record of calls)
Purchase Order Material - bills, etc.
Master Plans
License 80561 - Dodge dump
Forest Protection Cooperation
Condemnation Reports
Publicity
Abandonment of CCC Camps
Application for CCC Camps
Project Training Reports
Educational Activities and Methods
Safety Program
Tires and Tubes
Drivers' Permits
Correspondence, Miscellaneous
Distribution of Enrolled Personnel
Board of Survey
Photographic Supplies and Equipment
Surplus Tools
Allotment Ledger
Mr. Wilshin's Monthly Report
Tabulation of Disciplinary and Desertion Charges
      Saratoga 2

      File Headings

Compensation for Injuries
James E. Gannon
Robert W. Ehrich
Personnel
Company Command
Eugene F. Sauck
Frank J. Gura
Al W. Kresse
Frank M. O'Hearn
Supervisory and Facilitating Personnel
Safety Assistant's Report
Robert W. Ehrich
James E. Gannon
Inventory
Tabulation of Disciplinary and Desertion Charges
Andrew G. Tweedie
Enrollees
Application for Employment
Recreation Trip Requests, Coal Detail Requests, etc.
Electric Light Plants and Systems
Arthur C. Yarter
Frank J. Gura
Luther A. Nelson, Landscape Architect, Senior Foreman, Grade 9
James F. Gannon
Preventive Maintenance Inspection Report
Key Issues Sheets
Mechanical Inspection Check Report - Initial Copy
Mechanical Inspection Check Report - Pending
Weekly Truck Maintenance Report - Complete
Albert L. Perry
Bids
Supplies and Equipment
History and Legislation
Fire Schools
Army
Captain Martin
Appointments (General) includes Quarters
Project Assistants
Accident Reports
Forest Fighting Training and Regulations
Folder with illegible heading in red pencil, Enrolled
Personnel Numerical Reports
Correspondence

      Saratoga 3

      File Headings

Gasoline and Oil
Burners, Oil
Furniture
Forms and Stationery
Project Training Reports
Training for Truck Drivers
Drivers' Permits
O. H. Peterson (Traveling Mechanic)
Procurement Office Procedures
Bids
Weekly Report of Condition of Trucks and Heavy Equipment
Dr. Francis S. Ronalds
Storehouse Accounting - Property Records
Records and Files
Historical Program
Administration
Bouquets
Complaints
Inspection and Investigation
Itineraries
Instructions and Orders, including handbook
Travel Orders
Mail Facilities
Monthly Reports (General)
Form 10-350, Monthly Progress Report
Form CCC 104, Accident Report
Form 4a
Form CCC 7
Total Work Accomplishments
Forms 10-354 and 10-355
Record of Inspection (Inspectors)
10-354 - July 1941
Period Reports
Miscellaneous Reports
Time Sheets (Form 10-42)
Time Sheet Procedure
Rules and Regulations
Uniforms and Equipment
Appropriations, Finance and Accounts
Appropriations (General)
Claims, Settlement of
Pay Rolls
Encumbrance Records (10-351)
Conferences
Storehouse Accounting - Property Records
Project Status Records
Bills of Lading
Form 10-350, Monthly Progress Report
Quarterly Tool and Inventories
Surplus Government Supplies
Total Work Accomplishments
Forms 10-354 and 10-355
Lands, Buildings, Roads and Trails
Educational Activities and Methods
Truck Drivers Tests
Work Order - Tally in and Tally Out
Request to CCC Corp Area Motor Repair Shop for Repairs
Work Order
Letters of Transmittal on Monthly Reports
Monthly Report Form No. 10-326
Monthly Summary of Truck Operations
Photographic Supplies and Equipment
Condemnation Reports
Board of Survey
Vouchers
Bouquets
Inspection and Investigation
Itineraries
Instruction and Orders, includes handbook
Travel Orders
Mail Facilities
Machines (labor saving) General
First Aid Kits
Correspondence, Miscellaneous
Record of Inspection (Inspectors)
Rules and Regulations
10-354, July 1940
Miscellaneous Reports
Traveling Mechanics Report
Form CCC 7
Form 4a
Form CCC 104 - Accident Reports
Monthly Reports (General)
Accidents
Telephone, Telegraph and Radio Service

APPENDIX

JOURNAL ARTICLES
Ahlgren, Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin state park development" Wisconsin Magazine of History 71:3 (Spring 1988) 184-204
Austin, Judith. "The CCC in Idaho: An Anniversary View" Idaho Yesterdays 27:3 (Fall 1983)
Clancy, Patrick. "Conserving the youth : the Civilian Conservation Corps experience in the Shenandoah  National Park" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (Autumn 1997) 439-472
Clepper, Henry, "The Birth of the CCC," American Forests 79:3 (March 1973)
"Cuyahoga Valley area - a gift from the CCC" NACCCA Journal 23:10 (October 2000) 1,5,3
Booth, Peter MacMillan. "Cactizonians : the Civilian Conservation Corps in Pima county, 1933-1942." Journal of Arizona History 32:3 (Autumn 1991) 291-332
Bowen, Doris Omundson. "America's greatest conservation army." Stronghold (Lava Beds NM) 3d ed. (July 1990) p.1, 3
Burns, Anna C. "Esprit de corps: remembering the CCC." Forest and People, First quarter, 1983.
"CCC Camp Chronicle," Morning Herald, Hagerstown (June 8, 1979)17 (clipping)
"The CCC in the Great Smokies" NACCCA Journal 25:12 (2002) 6-8
Clepper, Henry, "The Birth of the CCC," American Forests 78:3 (March 1973) 8-11
Cowan, C. S. "C.C.C. movement and its relation to the Clarke - McNary Act” Journal of Forestry 34:4 (April 1936) 383-387
Davidson, Lisa Pfueller//Jacobs, James A.","Civilian Conservation Corps activities in the National Capital Region of the National Park Service.","90-95","Summer 2005","2","2",,"CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship","PER",,
Egan, Robert T. "Remembering the CCC: city boys in the woods" American Forests 89:2 (February 1983)35-38,52
Farley, Yvonne S. "'A Good Part of Life' Remembering the Civilian Corps" Goldenseal (January-March 1981)
Farley, Yvonne S. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Babcock State Park" Goldenseal (January-March 1981)
"FDR's Forest Project Gave Work to Millions", U. S. A. Today, September 27, 1983 (clipping)
Goodwin, Theodore R. "How the CCC's built Death Valley National Monument" Oasis (DEVA) (1935) [2] p.
Hendickson, Kenneth "Relief for Youth: The CCC and the National Youth Administration in North Dakota" North Dakota History 48:4 (Fall, 1981)
Jackson, James P. "CCC handiwork: enduring monuments" American Forests 94:9+10 (September-October 1988)45-47
Jackson, James P. "Living legacy of the CCC" American Forests 94:9+10 (September-October 1988) 37-44
Jackson, Donald Dale. "They were poor, hungry, and they built to last" Smithsonian 25:9 (December, 1994) 66-78
Keegan, Andrew R. "CCC: a successful Job Corps, 1930s style." American Visions 1:5 (September-October 1986) 20-25
Kimmett, Leo. "Life in a Yellowstone CCC camp" Annals of Wyoming 56:1 (Spring 1984) 12-21
Mitchell John G. "FDR's Tree Army" Audubon 85:6 (November 1983) 82-93
Morrell, Fred "Emergency Conservation Work policies." Journal of Forestry 34:3 (March 1936) 284-307
Moynihan, Daniel P. "A conservation corps for today" American Forests 94:9+10 (September-October 1988) 14-15
Ober, Michael J. "CCC experience in Glacier National Park” Montana, The Magazine of Western History 26:3 (July 1976) 30-39
Peterson, Pete. "Finding hope and building a legacy at Crater Lake" NACCCA Journal 28:8 (August 2005) 1,11-12,14
Pinkett, Harold T. "Records of a historic thrust for preservation." Prologue 8:2 (Summer 1976)
"Report of the Civilian Conservation Corps." Journal of Forestry 34:3 (March 1936) 307-319
Rosentreter, Roger L. "Roosevelt’s tree army: the Civilian Conservation Corps in Michigan” Michigan History 70 (May-June 1986) 14-23
Schmitzer, Jeanne Cannella. "CCC Camp 510: Black participation in the creation of Mammoth Cave National Park." Register of the Kentucky History Society 93:4 (Autumn 1995) 446-64
Shofner, Jerrell H. "Roosevelt's `Tree Army' the Civilian Conservation Corps in Florida" Florida Historical Quarterly 65 (April 1987) 433-456
Smith, Herbert A. "The question of a permanent C. C. C." Journal of Forestry 34:8 (August 1936) 739-741
Steely, James Wright. "The Civilian Conservation Corps invades East Texas, 1933-1942" East Texas Historical Journal 40:2 2002) 34-39
Stephenson, Donna. "Serving in the tree army" Westsylvania (September/November 2001)
Sullivan, John J. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and the creation of the Myakka State Park" Tampa Bay History 9 (Fall/Winter 1987) 4-16
Sumner, Jim L. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and the development of North Carolina's state park system." Carolina Comments 40:4 (July 1992) 98-106
Swain, Donald "National Park System and the New Deal, 1933-1940" Pacific Historical Review 41 (August 1972) 312-332
Taylor, Charles H. "CCC in the wildlife program." Transactions, 5th North American Wildlife Conference (1940)41-46
Waller, Robert A. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and the emergence of South Carolina's state park system, 1933-1942" South Carolina Historical Magazine 104:2 (April 2003) 101-125
Waller, Robert A. "Happy Days and the Civilian Conservation Corps in South Carolina, 1933-1942" The Historian 64(Fall 2001) 39-61
Wirth, Conrad L. and James F. Kieley. "It’s 50 years since CCC went into action." NPS Courier (April 1983)

THESES AND PAPERS
(SD143.B26 1971)Baldridge, Kenneth W. Nine Years of Achievement: The Civilian Conservation Corps in Utah. Thesis - Brigham Young University, 1971
Thomas, Sandra L. The CCC In North Carolina: A Preliminary Investigation.  University of North Carolina at Greensboro, December 1976 (college paper)
The CCC and Resource Management on the North Rim, 1933-42
(SD143.H25 1973) Hanson, James Austin. The Civilian Conservation Corps in the northern Rocky Mountains. Thesis-University of Wyoming, 1973.
(SD143.H34 1939) Harper, Charles Price. The administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Thesis (PH. D.)-Johns Hopkins University, 1937.
(SD143.J63 1968) Johnson, Charles William. The Civilian Conservation Corps : the role of the Army. Thesis (Ph.D.) -University of Michigan, 1968.
(SD143.P27 1967) Parman, Donald L. The Indian Civilian Conservation. Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Oklahoma, 1967.
(SD143.P57 1973) Potter, Barrett George. The Civilian Conservation Corps in New York State : its social and political impact, 1933-1942. Thesis - State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973.
(SD143.R28 1957) Rawick, George Philip. The New Deal and youth: the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth Administration, and the American Youth Congress. Thesis - University of Wisconsin, 1957.

GOVERNMENT RECORDS
Congressional Record, April 20, 1971, incorporating Conrad Wirth's 1943 Final Report on NPS and CCC as well as CCC Authorization Act
Photocopy of NARS Record, Record Group 35, the CCC, 10 pages along with memo regarding disposition of CCC records, February 27, 1943, 2 copies
Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps: Record Group 35, compiled by Douglas Helms, Washington: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1980

MISCELLANEOUS HISTORY
Letters from James Kieley, June 28, 1975, outlining NPS CCC Regional Offices in photocopied photos
Folder labeled "Reference Information" containing typewritten supplemental information on the CCC by S. Herbert Evison, clippings, photos, CCC memos, other CCC papers
Pamphlet - CCC Reunion, Cunningham Falls State Park, July 12, 1980
Pamphlet - The CCC in Florida 1933-1976 with Remarks by David G. Wright, NPS, at exhibition, Florida Activities of CCC, 6/16/76
Memo - February 19, 1965, YCC and Office of Education re CCC
Folder - MWRO, CCC 50th Anniversary
"Thanksgiving, 1935 (U.S.F.S) pamphlet/menu

PHOTO LISTS
List - CCC photos at The NPS Historic Photo Collection (HFC)

LIBRARY BOOKS AND OTHER CATALOGUED MATERIALS (EXCEPT THESES)
(SD143.B26 1989) Baklanoff, Joy D., Arthur F. Howington. The mounds awaken : Mound State Monument and the Civilian Conservation Corps. (Tuscaloosa, Ala. : University of Alabama State Museum of Natural History, 1989)
(F702.P7B5 1987) Boeger, Palmer H. Oklahoma Oasis: from Platt National Park to Chickasaw National Recreation Area. (Muskogee, Okla.: Western Heritage Books, 1987)
(SD143.A2) Civilian Conservation Corps. Annual report of the Director of the Civilian Conservation Corps. (Washington, D.C., 1938-1940)  (Note LIBRARY HAS Volumes from HORACE M. ALBRIGHT'S personal library: 1933 (stamped in gold on cover "Horace M. Albright", signed by Robert Fechner); 1934 (stamped in gold on cover "Horace Albright", signed by Robert Fechner); 1935, 1939,1940 (stamped "H.M.A." in ink); 1936,1937,1938 (stamped "H.M.A." in ink, signed by Robert Fechner))
(SD143.C58 1990) Civilian Conservation Corps : the way we remember it,1933- 1942 : personal stories of life in the CCC. (Paducah, KY : Turner Publ. Co., 1990)
(SD143.C63) Cohen, Stan B. The tree army : a pictorial history of the Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942. (Missoula, Mont.: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., 1980)
(S932.C3C65 1999) Cole, Olen. The African-American experience in the Civilian Conservation Corps. (Gainesville : University Press of Florida, c1999)
(SD143.D37 1936) Dearborn, Ned Harland. Once in a lifetime; a guide to the CCC camp. (New York : Charles E. Merrill c1936)
(S932.N48D73 1992) Draves, David D. Builder of men : life in C.C.C. camps of New Hampshire. (Portsmouth, N.H. : P.E. Randall, c1992)
(SD144.V5E54 1999) Engle, Reed L. Everything was wonderful : a pictorial history of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Shenandoah National Park. (Luray, Va. : Shenandoah Natural History Association, c1999)
(SD143.E7) Ermentrout, Robert Allen. Forgotten men : the Civilian Conservation Corps. (Smithtown, N.Y. : Exposition Press, c1982)
(SD143.E8) Evison, S. Herbert, Newton Bishop Drury. The National Park Service and Civilian Conservation Corps (an interview conducted by Amelia Roberts Fry). (Berkeley, CA : Regional Cultural History Project, 1963)
(F868.M3F2 1987) Fairley, Lincoln. Mount Tamalpais : a history. (San Francisco : Scottwall Associates, 1987)
(SD426.A5 1986) The Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-42 (Washington, D.C. : U.S. Forest Service, 1986).
(VOYA 28) Fritz, David L. Special history study on logging and lumbering : as associated with the area now incorporated within the present bounds of Voyageurs National Park. (National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1986)

(F819.P57G37 1996) Gart, Jason H. Papago Park : a history of Hole-in-the-Rock from 1848 to 1995. (Phoenix, Ariz.: Pueblo Grande Musuem & Cultural Park, 1996)

(CD3026.A32 no. 11 1980) Helms, Douglas (compiler). Preliminary inventory of the records of the Civilian Conservation Corps : record group 35. (Washington, D.C. : National Archives & Records Service,1980.
SD143.H5 1990) Hill, Edwin G. In the shadow of the mountain : the spirit of the CCC. (Pullman, Wash : Washington State University Press, 1990)
(SD143.H6 1974) Holland, Kenneth and Frank Ernest Hill. Youth in the CCC. (New York : Arno Press, 1974 [c1942])
(SD143.H75) Hoyt, Ray. "We can take it"; a short story of the C. C. C. (New York : American book company, c1935)
(SD143.J65 2001) Jolley, Harley E. The CCC in the Smokies. (Gatlinburg, TN : Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association, c2001)

(SD143.K45 1938) Kieley, James F. CCC : the organization and its work. (Washington, D.C. : National Park Service, 1938)
(SD373.K95) Kylie, Harry Raymond, G. H. Hieronymus, A. G. Hall. CCC forestry. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service, 1937)
(SB482.A4L36 2004) Landrum, Ney C. The state park movement in America : a critical review. (Columbia : University of Missouri Press, c2004)
(SD143.L3 1976) Lacy, Leslie Alexander. The soil soldiers : the Civilian Conservation Corps in the Great Depression. (Radnor, Pa.: Chilton, c1976)
(SD143.L38 1983) Lawrence, Paul A. Remembering the CCC. (San Anselmo, CA : PAL Press, c1983)
(S930.N23 1983) Leake, Fred E. and Ray S. Carter. Roosevelt's tree army : a brief history of the Civilian Conservation Corps. (Arlington, Va. : National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni, 1983)
(SD143.M33) McEntee, James J. Now they are men; the story of the CCC. (Washington, D.C. : National Home library Foundation, c1940)
(F443.G7M28) Mastran, Shelley Smith [et al.] Mountaineers and rangers : a history of the federal forest management in the Southern Appalachians, 1900-81. (Washington, D.C. : U.S. Forest Service, 1983)
(SD143.M42 2000) Melzer, Richard. Coming of age in the great depression : the Civilian Conservation Corps experience in New Mexico, 1933-1942. (Las Cruces, NM : Yucca Tree Press, c2000)
(SD143.M44) Merrill, Perry Henry. Roosevelt's forest army : a history of the Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942. (Montpelier, Vt. : P.H. Merrill, 1981)
(S932.M45I8 1987) Nelson, Edward P. and Barbara Sommer (editors) It was a good deal : the Civilian Conservation Corps in northeastern Minnesota : a guide to the Arrowhead Civilian Conservation Corps Document Project. (Duluth, Minn. : St. Louis Historical Society, c1987)
(SD143.P23 1985) Paige, John C. The Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Park Service, 1933-1942 : an administrative history. (Washington, D.C. : National Park Service, 1985)
(PRWI 5) Parker, Patricia L. The hinterland : an overview of the prehistory and history of Prince William Forest Park, Virginia. (National Park Service, National Capital Region, 1986) 35)
(SD143.P6 1979) Potts, James Eugene. Civilian Conservation Corps, Bear Valley [Pa.], 1933-1936. (Chambersburg? Pa.: Potts, c1979)
(SD143.P97 1989) Purvis, Louis L. The ace in the hole : a history of Company 818 of the Civilian Conservation Corps – featuring the construction of the Colorado River Trail. (Columbus, Ga.: Brentwood Christian Press, 1989.
(S930.S27) Salmond, John A. The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942; a New Deal case study. (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1967)
(F869.M65S28 1991) Savage, Christine E. New Deal adobe : the Civilian Conservation Corps and the reconstruction of Mission La Purisima, 1934-1942. (Santa Barbara : Fithian Press, 1991)
(F832.B9S25) Scrattish, Nicholas. Historic resource study, Bryce Canyon National Park. (Denver, Colo. : National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, Branch of Historic Preservation, 1985)
(SD143.T4 1986) Steely, James Wright. The Civilian Conservation Corps in Texas state parks. (Austin : Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept., 1986)
(SB482.T4S74 1999) Steely, James Wright. Parks for Texas : enduring landscapes of the New Deal. (Austin, Tex. : University of Texas Press, 1999)
(FONE 13) Sypolt, Larry N. Ft. Necessity Civilian Conservation Corps camp SP-12. (Morgantown, WV, 1988) (Note Prepared as a work-study project as part of the Master's in public history program at West Virginia University, November 15, 1988)
(SD143.S9 2005) Sypolt, Larry N. Civilian Conservation Corps : a selectively annotated bibliography. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2005)
(KF27.I528 99-12) United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Subcommittee on Public Lands. American Conservation Corps Act of 1985 : hearing before the Subcommittee on Public Lands of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, first session ... hearing held in Washington, DC, February 7, 1985. (Washington, D.C., 1986)
(SB481.P4W26 1935) Waugh, Frank A. Landscape conservation : planning for the restoration, conservation and utilization of wild lands for park and forest recreation. (National Park Service, Emergency Conservation Work, 19
(S930.W361 1992) We can take it : cartoons & poems from the CCC. (The National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni, 1992)
(SD143.W4 1985) Wilson, Heather M. A brief history of the National Park Service Civilian Conservation Corps camps in Nebraska. (1985)
(SD143.W53 1944) Wirth, Conrad Louis. Civilian Conservation Corps Program of the United States Department of the Interior, March 1933 to June 30, 1943 : A report to Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. (Washington, D.C. : National Park Service, 1944)
(SD143.Y68 2002) Your CCC : a handbook for enrollees. (2002 Reprint) (Washington, D.C. : Happy Days, 1938)

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ORAL HISTORIES
The National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, a transcript of an interview with Herbert Evison and Newton Bishop Drury, conducted by Amelia Roberts Fry, Berkeley, California, 1963
Arnold, Fred. Tape #43-44, March 19, 1971, Evison
Evison, S. Herbert. 1960s interview
Hummel, Ed. Tape #13, January 15, 1971, Evison
Kieley, James F. Tape #132, July 19, 1972, Evison
Lee, Ronald. Tape #28-29, February 1, 1971, Evison
Weber, Walter. Tape #78, February 25, 1971, Evison
Wirth, Conrad, Matt Huppuch, Sid Kennedy, and Rene Reixach, Tape #32-33, February 12, 1971, Evison and Others

PHOTOGRAPHS (at the NPS Historic Photo Collection - may not be a complete list)
Glass slides of CCC at Morristown
5 Scrapbooks of Southwest Region CCC Work
Photographic Folder
Photographic Handbook
3 archive boxes of photos
Oversize photo of ECW Staff
ECW Activities at the Western Museum Laboratory

TOOLS AND MUSEUM OBJECTS (at the HFC Curatorial Storage Building)
Cross cut saw - Acc. 74
Shovel - Acc. 74
Tools and Museum Objects (continued)
Sledge hammer - Acc. 74
Pick - Mattock - Acc. 74
Log peavy - Acc. 74
Light meter (in storage)
CCC Uniform Camp
CCC Lapel Pins

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May 1981     Revised 1988     Revised 2003      Revised 2006