Environmental factors shape the landscape and habitats of Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site and the Deer Lodge Valley. Long before humans arrived geological processes, weather, and fire shaped this environment. More recently, natural processes have been affected by human activity. The valley has experienced many impacts including mining, ranching, and the development of towns and cities.
Several environmental factors are being monitored by National Park Service staff and researchers from other agencies or universities. The goal of montoring is to gather information for its use in science-based decision making and to ultimately preserve the park's resources.