• View of the Golden Gate Bridge, taken from the Marin Headlands, looking towards San Francisco at sunrise.

    Golden Gate

    National Recreation Area California

Clothing and Functional Items as Artifacts

fragment of a historic blue glass bottle
NPS
 

This aqua glass "Lea & Perrins" bottle stopper has an interested story. In 1981, rangers stopped a bottle digger from looting near the Merrie Way parking lot at Land's End. This bottle stopper was one of several Victorian artifacts saved. Ironically, this illegal incident helped archeologists identify archeological sites in the area over the subsequent years, proving that the artifact was invaluable in a knowledge rather than a monetary way. Next time you eat Worchestershire sauce, check the lable to see if it is Lea & Perrins - they are still in business today although their bottle stoppers have changed.

 
a historic clay pipe
NPS
 

This white clay smoking pipe from Lands End was manufactured by William White of Glasgow, Scotland in the 19th century. This form was a popular one, with a plain bowl and long stem. It is interesting to think that such a simple form was imported from such a far distance, no matter how international San Francisco's population was at the time.

 
fragments of a hand grenade fire extinguisher
NPS
 

This unusual artifact is part of a Victorian hand grenade fire extinguisher. With the growing rise of urban populations and crowded, industrialized working conditions, the late 1800s brought significant advances in health and safety technology. The hand grenade fire extinguisher was one of them. It was designed to be attractive and easily used, perfect for home or office use: to extinguish a fire, one simply pulled the fire extinguisher off its basket on the wall, threw it into the fire, and the chemicals inside of it quickly extinguished the fire. Attractive as this idea was, consumers quickly discovered a downside: carbon tetrachloride, one of the main ingredients in this chemical cocktail, formed a hazardous gas when combined with fire. Be that as it may, it took years for the product to lose popularity. This example was found at the Sutro Heights Parapet.

 
fragment of a historic chamber pot
NPS
 

Archeology is not always about exciting, novel finds. This piece of a hand-painted chamber pot from Ocean Terrace can give us an important glimpse into everyday life for a working class Victorian shop owner.

 

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