Centuries of Defense - Spanish (1776-1821) and Mexican Era(1822-1846)
Spain controlled the western coast of the North American continent in 1776 as the thirteen colonies declared independence from Great Britain. The mouth of the San Francisco Bay presented an entry to a new and rich world, ripe for the taking as various nations vied for control of the region.
Golden Gate NRA, Park Archives, PAM Negative Collection, GOGA 35256.0645
Image courtesy of the Bancroft library.
Original panel for "Spanish (1776-1821) and Mexican Era (1822-1846)" (PDF, 39.5 MB)
Did You Know?
Serpentine soils are home to many rare and endangered plants because they lack nutrients and contain metals toxic to plants--conditions that have led to special adaptations in the plants that can survive on them.