• View of the Golden Gate Bridge, taken from the Marin Headlands, looking towards San Francisco at sunrise.

    Golden Gate

    National Recreation Area California

Battery Townsley

Considered Zenith of Military Technology
Battery Townsley was a casemated battery that mounted two 16-inch caliber guns, each capable of shooting a 2,100 pound, armor-piercing projectile 25 miles out to sea. The guns and their associated ammunition magazines, power rooms, and crew quarters were covered by dozens of feet of concrete and earth to protect them from air and naval attack.

This battery, named in honor of Major General Clarence P. Townsley, a general officer in World War I, was considered the zenith of military technology and was the result of careful, long-term planning. As early as 1915, the army was eager to construct the 16-inch gun batteries at San Francisco, and by 1928, the decision had been made to install two batteries near the city, one on either side of the Golden Gate straits. By 1940, Battery Townsley was completed and its two guns installed.

Top Secret
Battery Townsley was a high security operation; civilians living in San Francisco knew that there were batteries nearby but their exact locations were not revealed. A battery of this design had never been actually fired before, so the soldiers underwent several months of practice before firing the guns for the first time. The men were subjected to endless training, often under difficult situations: in the rain, in the pitch dark with all the electricity shut off, or with their commanding officer blocking the traditional route to the battery. The practice of dealing with any contingency ensured that the soldiers could operate their guns at a moment's notice (and almost in their sleep) if ever under enemy attack.

Successful Testing
By summer of 1940, Battery Townsley was ready for testing with live ammunition. The army estimated that the projectile's farthest range would be 30 miles out to sea, about 5 miles beyond than the Farallon Islands. Waiting for a non-foggy day in July took some patience, but finally, the fog cleared and the test shot was fired. As the whole mountain shook with the power of this incredible machine, the projectile went even farther than anticipated. Battery Townsley, together with Battery Davis at Fort Funston on the Pacific shore south of the Golden Gate, became the prototypes for the army's future coastal defenses; the army planned to construct at least 25 additional 16-inch gun batteries along both the nation's eastern and western seaboards.

How to visit Battery Townsley?

Battery Townsley is now open to the public the 1st Sunday of the month, from 12 noon to 4 PM.

Battery Townsley is located one ½ mile up from the Fort Cronkhite parking lot, following the Coastal Trail; the walk up to the battery is strenuous so please allow at least 45 minutes. If you would like to request assistance to the site on open-to-the public days, please call the Marin Headlands Visitor Center at (415) 331-1540.

You can also visit the Marin Headlands page for more information about volunteering in the battery's preservation efforts, as well as directions and other programs and activities.

Big Battery Townsley News:

A New 16-in gun has arrived at Battery Townsley!

 
photo showing the construction of Battery Townsley
The construction of Battery Townsley in 1938 was a major engineering and construction undertaking. Building this battery required hundreds of men, thousands of tons of concrete and steel, and a small fleet of construction vehicles. In order to reach the designated site, the Army Corps of Engineers first had to clear and shape the site with dynamite and then pave a concrete road for the service vehicles. Photo circa 1938.
PARC, Golden Gate National Recreation Area
 
photo of Battery Townsley just after construction
Battery Townsley, just after construction, photo circa 1939
PARC, Golden Gate National Recreation Area
 
photo of soldiers loading Battery Townsley
Operating a 16-inch gun required a crew of men. This photo shows several soldiers loading the 2,100-pound projectile into the rear of the battery's gun.
PARC, Golden Gate National Recreation Area

Did You Know?

Muir Woods National Monument was establish on January 1908.

Muir Woods National Monument was the first National Monument created from a private land donation and the first created in an urban area.