• Visitors hike along the base of the Gila Cliff Dwellings.

    Gila Cliff Dwellings

    National Monument New Mexico

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  • Thunderstorm Safety Closures Possible

    When thunderstorms are nearby, the trail to and from the Gila Cliff Dwellings is closed. Please check local forecasts before you visit. Thunderstorms are typically more likely in the afternoon. On some afternoons it is not possible to reopen. More »

  • Tour of the Gila may Impact Area Traffic

    If you are planning a visit between April 30 and May 4, be aware that area traffic may be impacted by the annual Tour of the Gila bicycle road race. For more information about the race, please visit tourofthegila.com. More »

  • Fire Restrictions on Gila National Forest

    Gila National Forest will implement smoking and fire restrictions beginning April 22. Smoking and fires are never permitted on Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument property. More »

Geologic Activity

A photo of the layers of jagged edged rock that omprise the back of Cave #4

Gila conglomerate at the back of Cave #4.

NPS Photo by Barry Nielsen

Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and the surrounding Gila Wilderness are located in the Southern Rocky Mountains volcanic province, one of several major volcanic terrains of middle Tertiary age in western North America. Many episodes of volcanic eruption, faulting, and erosion have alternated through millions of years to form the area around the national monument.

The cliff dwellings are near the eastern margin of a large volcanic collapse structure called the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera. Collapse calderas such as this are formed by the rapid eruption of enormous amounts of pumice and ash, which spread for tens of miles across the surrounding area. The removal of such a great volume of magma from a subsurface magma chamber, in a period of only days or weeks, removes support from the chamber roof causing it to collapse into the magma chamber, in this case a depression, or "caldera", hundreds of feet deep and approximately ten miles across.

These events took place about 28 million years ago, and were followed by more erputions that filled the caldera so that the depression is no longer present. Faulting and erosion have further modified the land to form the present landscape. The geologic materials at the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon include three bedrock formations plus the floodplain sediments that are being deposited today along the West Fork of the Gila River. Each year, seasonal floods deposit sand and gravel over the banks of the river and occasionally large floods uproot and destroy bridges. Meanwhile, the river continues its main work of wearing away the hillsides and mountains and transporting the eroded rock downstream.

For more information on the local geology, click on the link, "Geology of the Gila Cliff Dwellings" which has observations keyed to the sign posts of the self-guiding booklet.

Did You Know?

Shell Bracelet

A shell bracelet found in the Gila Cliff Dwellings in New Mexico was traced to the Gulf of California. Other items indicate trade among the peoples of a large region including macaw parrot feathers, seeds from Mesoamerica, a buffalo scapula, and textiles from plants not grown in the area.