Q?: When did Fort Stanwix become a National Monument?
A: August 21, 1935 when the Wagner-Sisson (Fort Stanwix) Act was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Q?: Why did Fort Stanwix become a National Monument?
A: A National Monument is intended to preserve at least one nationally significant resource. Fort Stanwix became a National Monument in 1935 because of its significance through the French and Indian War, through the American Revolution, and as a gathering place for treaty signings with American Indians.
Q?: When was the fort built?
A: In 1758 by British forces and rebuilt in 1776 by American forces.
Q?: Why was the fort built where it is?
A: To protect the Oneida Carrying Place, a trail 6 miles long between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. This is part of the larger New York water way system, the only natural break in the Appalachian Mountain chain.
Q?: What is a Tory or a loyalist, and what is a patriot or rebel?
A: Tories were an 18th century political party that remained loyal to the British Crown throughout the American revolution, loyalist is common language for any American British subjects that remained loyal to the British. Rebels and patriots, likewise, are common terms for American British subjects who joined the fight against the Crown.
However, many people considered themselves "patriots" and "loyalists" no matter what side they choose.
Q?: During which wars did Fort Stanwix serve?
A: The French and Indian (or Seven Years War) from 1758-1763, and American Revolutionary War, from 1776-1781. In other portions of the world, including Canada, this war is known as the Seven Years War.
Q?: Who fought in the French and Indian War?
A: Generally, the British and Six Nations Confederacy Tribes in the 13 Colonies fought against the French and Great Lakes Indians from Canada.
Q?: What tribes make up the Six Nations Confederacy or Haudenosaunee Tribes?
A: The Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca make up the original Five Nations. In 1714 the Tuscarora were admitted on Oneida land as a sixth.
Q?: I have heard the word Iroquois used to describe the Six Nations. Why isn't it used in any of the interpretive text?
A: "Iroquois" is the French term for the Six Nations, "Haudenosaunee" is the term they use in their own language. It means "People of the Long House."
Since the French were never direct allies with them, and they are most directly referred to in British and American accounts as the "Six/Five Nations" (referring to the number of tribes in the confederacy), it is most appropriate to call them by one of those two terms and not "Iroquois."
Q?: What treaties were signed at Fort Stanwix?
A: The Boundary Line Treaty of 1768 and the Treaty of 1784 were the two major ones; several others followed.
Q?: Did the Stars and Stripes really fly first over Fort Stanwix/Schuyler?
A: It is not certain which flag flew over Fort Stanwix during the Siege of 1777. All that is known is from several accounts: it was made of blue, white, and red stripes, and it was flown "on behalf of These United States" and in defiance of the British, by the officers and soldiers inside the fort.
Q?: Which side was the Six Nations on during the American Revolution?
A: The Six Nations split into many factions based on whether they thought the British or Americans would best support their interests after the war. More can be learned by visiting the park History & Culture pages.
Q?: Why is Fort Stanwix sometimes called Fort Schuyler?
A: Fort Stanwix was the fort's name under the British; for Gen. John Stanwix. When the Americans rebuilt it they named it after Gen. Phillip Schuyler. However, there were several other Fort Schuylers in New York at that time, so the name never really stuck due to the confusion.