While federal executions began in Fort Smith in 1873, the one that occurred on September 3, 1875 was the first under Judge Isaac C. Parker. Of the six men hanged in Fort Smith on that day, three committed murder to rob their victims. Daniel Evans and William Whittington killed their traveling companions for the cash and goods they carried, while Samuel Fooy murdered a school teacher for $250. Edmund Campbell murdered Lawson Ross and his wife in revenge for an insult. The motives of the final two men remain unknown. Smoker Mankiller shot and killed his neighbor, and James Moore, a hardened killer, made Officer William Spivey his eighth victim.