Some of the following works are valuable sources of information about England's attempts to explore and settle North America in the 1580s. Others reveal attitudes toward, and interpretations of, these attempts. Many recently published books and pamphlets are still in print; older books are available in the rare-book collections of some large libraries or in facsimile reprints. Some of the articles are difficult to find except in a university library. Publications such as the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and America: History and Life
and indexes to scholarly journals such as North Carolina Historical Review and The William and Mary Quarterly
list numerous articles too specialized for inclusion here. This flyer is based loosely on England, Sir Walter Raleigh, the Roanoke Colonies, by William S. Powell.
Primary Sources and Modern Compilations of Source Material
on the Roanoke Colonies
Barbour, Philip L. The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580-1631).
3 vols. Chapel
Hill, NC and London, 1986.
Hakluyt, Richard. The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. 3 vols. in 2. London, 1599-1600.
Harriot, Thomas. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. London, 1588.
Hulton, Paul. America 1585: The Complete Drawings of John White. Chapel Hill, NC, 1984.
Hulton, Paul, and David B. Quinn. The American Drawings of John White, 1577-1590. 2 vols. London and Chapel Hill, NC, 1964.
Lorant, Stefan, ed. The New World: The First Pictures of America, Revised Edition. New York, NY: Duell, Sloan, & Pierce, 1965.
Purchas, Samuel. Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes. 20 vols. Glasgow, 1905-1907.
Quinn, David B. The Roanoke Voyages, 15841590. 2 vols. London, 1955. (Contains most of the known contemporary accounts.)
Quinn, David B., and Alison M. Quinn. Virginia Voyages from Hakluyt. London, 1983. (Reprinted in the United States as The First Colonies: Documents on the Planting of the First English Settlements in North America.)
Strachey, William. The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania, ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund. London, 1953.
Wright, Louis B. The Elizabethans' America: A Collection of Early Reports by Englishmen on the New World. Cambridge, MA, 1965.
Secondary Sources on the Roanoke Colonies
Connor, Robert D.W. The Beginnings of English America: Sir Walter Raleigh's Settlements on Roanoke Island, 1584-1587.
Raleigh, NC, 1907.
Cumming, William Patterson. "The Identity of John White, Governor of Roanoke, and John White, the Artist." North Carolina Historical Review 15, 1938.
Durant, David N. Raleigh's Lost Colony. New York, 1981. Foss, Michael. Undreamed Shores: England's Wasted Empire in America. New York, NY 1974.
Hoffman, Paul E. Spain and the Roanoke Voyages. Raleigh, NC, 1987.
Humber, John L. Backgrounds and Preparations for the Roanoke Voyages, 1584-1590. Raleigh, NC, 1986.
Kupperman, Karen O. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. Totowa, NJ, 1984.
Parks, George B. Richard Hakluyt and the English Voyages. New York, NY, 1961.
Quinn, David Beers. The Lost Colonists: Their Fortune and Probable Fate. Raleigh, NC, 1984. (Argues that members of the Lost Colony settled among Indian tribes on Chesapeake Bay.)
Quinn, David B. Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and Settlements, 1584-1606. Chapel Hill, NC, 1985.
Rowse, Alfred L. The Elizabethans and America. London, 1959.
Rowse, Alfred L. The Expansion of Elizabethan England. London, 1955.
Rukeyser, Muriel. The Traces of Thomas Hariot. New York, NY, 1971.
Saucer, Carol O. Sixteenth Century North America: The Land and the People. Berkeley, CA, 1971.
Stick, David. Roanoke Island: The Beginnings of English America. Chapel Hill, NC, 1983.
Anthony, Irwin. Raleigh and His World.
New York, NY, 1934.
Black, John B. The Reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603. Oxford, 1959.
Greaves, Richard L. Society and Religion in Elizabethan England. Minneapolis, MN 1981.
Hale, John R. The Art of War and Renaissance England. Folger Guides to the Age of Shakespeare. Washington, DC, 1961.
Hurstfield, Joel. Elizabethan People, State and Society. London, 1972.
Johnson, Paul. Elizabeth I: A Biography. New York, NY, 1974.
MacCaffrey, Wallace T. The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime. Princeton, NJ, 1968.
Mattingly, Garrett. The "Invincible" Armada and Elizabethan England. Folger Guides to the Age of Shakespeare. Washington, DC, 1963.
Miller, Helen Hill. Captains from Devon. Chapel Hill, NC, 1985.
Neale, John E. The Elizabethan Age. London, 1951.
Neale, John E. Queen Elizabeth. New York, NY, 1934.
Padfield, Peter. Armada. Annapolis, MD., 1988.
Penrose, Boies. Tudor and Early Stuart Voyaging. Folger Guides to the Age of Shakespeare. Washington, DC, 1962.
Quinn, David. B. England and the Discovery of America, 1481-1620. New York, NY, 1974.
Quinn, David B. Raleigh and the British Empire. London, 1947.
Read, Conyers. The Tudors: Personalities and Practical Politics in Sixteenth Century England. New York, NY, 1968.
Rowse, Alfred L. The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society. New York, NY, 1972.
Rowse, Alfred L. Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge: An Elizabethan Hero. Boston, MA, 1937.
Shakespeare's England, by the editors of Horizon magazine. New York, NY, 1964.
Sitwell, Edith. The Queens and the Hive. Boston, MA, 1972.
Smith, Lacey B. The Elizabethan World. Boston, MA, 1972.
West, Anthony. Elizabethan England. New York, NY, 1965.
Williams, Neville. Elizabeth, Queen of England. London, 1967.
Williams, Perry. Life in Tudor England. New York, NY, 1969.
Williamson, James A. The Age of Drake. London, 1946.
Youings, Joyce. Ralegh's Country: The South West of England in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Raleigh, NC, 1986.
Sir Walter Ralegh
Adamson, Jack H., and H.F. Folland. The Shepherd of the Ocean: An Account of Sir Walter Raleigh and His Times.
London and Boston, MA, 1969.
Armitage, Christopher M. Sir Walter Ralegh, An Annotated Bibliography. Chapel Hill, NC, and London, 1987.
Edwards, Edward. The Life of Raleigh. 2 vols. London, 1868.
Irwin, Margaret E.F. That Great Lucifer: A Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. New York, NY, 1960.
Lacey, Robert. Sir Walter Raleigh. New York, NY, 1974.
Latham, Agnes, ed. The Poems of Sir Walter Ralegh. Cambridge, MA, 1951.
Lefranc, Pierre. Sir Walter Ralegh Icrivain: L'Oeuvre et les IdJes. Quebec and Paris, 1968. London, 1868.
May, Steven W. Sir Walter Ralegh. Twayne's English Authors Series. Boston, MA, 1989.
Ross Williamson, Hugh. Sir Walter Raleigh. London, 1951.
Rowse, Alfred L. Sir Walter Raleigh: His Family and Private Life. New York, NY, 1962.
Shirley, John W. Sir Walter Ralegh and the New World. Raleigh, NC, 1985.
Stebbing, William. Sir Walter Raleigh: A Biography. Oxford, 1891.
Thompson, Edward J. Sir Walter Raleigh, Last of the Elizabethans. New Haven, CT, 1936.
Waldman, Milton. Sir Walter Raleigh. New York, NY, 1928.
Wallace, Willard M. Sir Walter Raleigh. Princeton, NJ, 1959.
Indians of the Region
Johnson, F. Roy. The Algonquians.
2 vols. Murfreesboro, NC, 1972.
Johnson, F. Roy. The Tuscarora. 2 vols. Murfreesboro, NC, 1967-1968.
Mook, Maurice A. "Algonkian Ethnohistory of the Carolina Sound." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 34. 1944.
Perdue, Theda. Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina. Raleigh, NC, 1985.
Rights, Douglas L. The American Indian in North Carolina. Durham, NC, 1947.
Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman, OK, and London, 1989.
South, Stanley A. Indians in North Carolina. Raleigh, NC, 1959.
Sturtevant, William C., ed. Handbook of North American Indians: The Northeast. Vol. XV. Washington, DC 1978.
Swanton, John R. "The Croatan Indians." Geographical Review 28. 1938.
Archaeology of the Region
Green, Paul R. The Archaeology of "Chowanoke. "
Raleigh, NC, 1986.
Green, Paul R. The Carolina Algonkians. Raleigh, NC, 1983.
Haag, William C. The Archeology of Coastal North Carolina. Baton Rouge, LA 1958.
Harrington, Jean Carl. An Outwork at Fort Raleigh: Further Archaeological Excavations at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, North Carolina. 1966.
Harrington, Jean Carl. Search for the Cittie of Ralegh: Archaeological Excavations at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, North Carolina. Archaeological Research Series 6. Washington, DC, 1962. (A summary of the author's work at the site from 1947 to 1953.)
Phelps, David Sutton. A Summary of Colington Phase Sites in the Tidewater Zone of North Carolina. Greenville, NC, 1982.
Williams, Talcott. "The Surroundings and Site of Raleigh's Colony." American Historical Association Annual Report. 1895.
The Roanoke Island Colonies in Belles Lettres
Arner, Robert D. The Lost Colony in Literature.
Raleigh, NC, 1985.
Cotten, Sallie Southall. The White Doe: The Fate of Virginia Dare, An Indian Legend. Philadelphia, PA, 1901. (Written in imitation of Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha. )
Fletcher, Inglis. Roanoke Hundred. Indianapolis, IN, 1948. (Deals not with the ever-popular Lost Colony, but with the earlier Lane colony.)
Green, Paul. The Lost Colony: A Symphonic Drama of Man's Faith and Work, in Two Acts. . . . 400th Anniversary ed. Durham, NC, 1980. ("The author's definitive version," it differs slightly from earlier editions and from the staged version.)
Hartridge, Clifford W. Manteo. New York, NY, 1935.
Marshall, Edison. The Lost Colony. New York, NY, 1964.
Powell, William S., and Virginia W. Powell. England and Roanoke: A Collection of Poems, 1584-1987. Raleigh, NC, 1988.
Schoonover, Lawrence L. To Love a Queen: Walter Raleigh and Elizabeth R. Boston, MA, 1973.
Sutcliff, Rosemary. Lady in Waiting. New York, NY, 1957.
Tracy, Don. Roanoke Renegade. New York, NY, 1954.
Trease, Geoffrey. Fortune, My Foe: The Story of Sir Walter Raleigh. London, 1949.
Works for Younger Readers
Bothwell, Jean. Lost Colony: The Mystery of Roanoke Island.
Philadelphia, PA, 1953.
Buckmaster [Henkle], Henrietta. Walter Raleigh, Man of Two Worlds. New York, NY, 1964. (Another edition: All About Sir Walter Raleigh.London, 1965.)
Campbell, Elizabeth A. The Carving on the Tree. Boston, 1968.
DeLeeuw, AdPle I. A World Explorer: Sir Walter Raleigh. Champaign, IL, 1964.
Fecher, Constance. The Last Elizabethan: A Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. New York, NY, 1972.
Kimball, Owen. The Puzzle of Roanoke: The Lost Colony. New York, NY, 1964.
Lacy, Dan M. The Lost Colony. New York, NY, 1972.
Norman, Charles. The Shepherd of the Ocean: Sir Walter Raleigh. New York, NY, 1952.
Representative Continuations, Revisions, and Deceptions
Cobb, Collier. "Early English Survivals on Hatteras Island." The University of North Carolina Magazine,
Howe, C.K. Solving the Riddle of the Lost Colony. Beaufort, NC, 1947. (Purports to include excerpts of Eleanor Dare's diary.)
McPherson, O.M. Indians of North Carolina. Senate Document 677, 63d Congress, 3d Session. Washington, DC, 1915. (The first serious published effort to link the Lost Colony with the triracial Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, and vicinity.)
Robinson, Melvin. Riddle of the Lost Colony. 1946. (Identifies the Roanoke Island of sixteenth-century documents with Cedar Island, some 70 miles southwest.)
Sparkes, Boyden. "Writ on Rocke." Saturday Evening Post, 26 April 1941. (Exposes the Dare Stones messages from Eleanor Dare "found" in the Carolinas and Georgia as a hoax.)
White, Robert. A Witness for Eleanor Dare: The Final Chapter in a 400 Year Old Mystery. San Francisco, CA, 1991. (Reprises the Dare Stones.)
Bibliography compiled by William S. Powell;
edited and expanded by lebame houston and Wynne Dough
Illustrations: Vicki Wallace
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