History & Culture
COURTESY Metroparks of the Toledo Area
The 1783 Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War, but it contained a provision that allowed the British to remain in the Northwest Territory until the United States resolved a land issue with Native Americans, who had been British allies. The Chippewa, Ottawa, Pottawatomi, Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, and Wyandot tribes formed a federation to halt further U.S. incursions into their territory.
After a stunning defeat of General Anthony St. Clair's American troops in 1791 by the Native American federation under Chief Little Turtle, George Washington put General Anthony Wayne, a Revolutionary War hero, in charge of the Legion of the United States. The subsequent Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 became the decisive point for resolving U.S. jurisdiction of the Old Northwest Territory.