Living Contraband - Former Slaves in the Nation's Capital During the Civil War
Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress
As the Civil War progressed and Union troops moved deeper into Virginia, enslaved African Americans began to walk away from their masters' home, seeking protection behind Union Army lines. By 1863, approximately 10,000 former slaves came to the city primarily from Maryland and Virginia. They saw Washington not only as a symbol of the Union and freedom, but also as an actual physical line which could be crossed to freedom.
At the start of the war, the Union had no policy to deal with the African Americans seeking protection. Individual commanders made their own decisions. Some commanders put them to work for Union troops while others returned them to plantation owners. Union army officer Benjamin Butler refused to send three fugitives back into the bonds of slavery. He classified the escaping slaves as contraband of war. This term meant that once the fleeing slaves crossed Union Army lines, they were classified as property. All enemy property that fell into Union hands constituted contraband and would not be returned. Because of Butler’s actions, a federal policy was instituted on August 6, 1861 – fugitive slaves were declared to be “contraband of war” if their labor had been used to aid the Confederacy in anyway. If found to be contraband, they were declared free.
After arriving in the city, ex-slaves worked as laborers on the fortifications. They worked for less money and were often exploited. In August of 1862, workers were paid 40 cents, plus rations, a day for work—often they were not paid at all. By November 1863, it was recommended to Barnard that a sum of $1.00 per day to contraband was a fair wage. Additionally, it was recommended that records be kept in order to make sure these workers were treated fairly.
While the troops did the majority of fort construction, contraband labor made a significant contribution. Civil Engineer Edward Frost in a letter written to General William Denison Whipple comments:
The migration of former slaves to the nation’s capital not only increased the city’s population but also increased the burden on its infrastructure. Some of the freed slaves in the Washington, D.C. area built settlements which were the foundations for later African American neighborhoods. Two of these settlements were located in southern Anacostia near Battery Carroll and Fort Greble. The government established Freedman’s Village on the former Custis – Lee estate in Arlington, Virginia. Freedman’s Village was intended to house these refugees, train them in skilled labor, and educate freed children. The camp's grounds included an industrial school, a hospital, a home for the aged, churches, and several schools for children. Some historians claim that Freedman’s Village was not intended to help intergrate blacks into society but, instead, intended to segregate the former slaves from white society.
By the end of the Civil War, as many as 40,000 fugitives from slavery made their way to Washington. Many of the freed men and women lived in and around the forts vacated between 1865 and 1866
Did You Know?
The design for the Defenses of Washington was based on a textbook published in 1836 called A TREATISE ON FIELD FORTIFICATIONS, by Dennis Hart Mahan. Mahan was a professor of civil and military engineering at West Point.