• Park Cultural Landscapes

Preservation

Research

The primary purpose of research into cultural landscapes is to define the values and associations that make them historically significant.  Research findings provide information for management decisions and compliance with preservation law and maintenance, assist in determining appropriate treatment, and support interpretive programs. The NPS Cultural Landscapes Program follows these standards for research:


1. Identification

Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires the NPS to identify and nominate to the National Register of Historic Places all cultural resources that appear eligible, including cultural landscapes as historic districts or historic sites.  Historical areas of the national park system are automatically listed in the National Register upon their establishment by law or executive order, but contributing landscape resources still must be documented for the register.

Research and preliminary field surveys are conducted to determine the existence of cultural landscapes. Identifying the significant characteristics and features of a landscape involves understanding its historic development and use, modifications over time, as well as any ethnographic values and affiliations.  Based on the information gathered, a National Register nomination is prepared, including a base map and photographs.

A historical period plan of Henry Longfellow’s residential property in 1845.
A historical period plan of Henry Longfellow’s residential property in 1845.


2. Documentation, Evaluation, and Registration
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a. Documentation
Documentation of cultural landscapes involves the use of primary and secondary sources, review and assessment of archeological records, and field investigations to determine the extent and condition of historic and contemporary landscape features. Maps, plans, drawings, and photographs are prepared as part of the baseline documentation.

An existing conditions site plan of the core of Tassi Ranch within Parashant National Monument.
An existing conditions site plan of the Tassi Ranch building core within Parashant National Monument.

 

b. Significance
Significance is determined by relating a landscape and its existing characteristics and features to its historic context. The landscape must be associated with events, activities, or developments that were important in the past, or with the lives of people who were important in the past, or with significant architectural history, landscape history, or engineering achievements, or have the potential to yield information through archeological investigation. There may be a single period or multiple periods of significance for the landscape. Historic features from the period(s) of significance and their associated materials, patterns, and relationships must be present and have integrity.

A historic context study, such as this one dealing with historical evolution of orchards within the United States, forms the basis for evaluations of significance.
An example of a historic context study, which form the basis for evaluations of integrity. This study documents the evolution of orchards in the United States.

 

c. Integrity
The integrity of a cultural landscape is determined by the degree to which the landscape characteristics that define its historical significance are still present. Because some landscape characteristics (such as vegetation and use) are dynamic, integrity also depends on the extent to which the general character of the historic period is evident and the degree to which incompatible elements are reversible. It is important to consider how such changes affect the landscape as a whole and the degree to which they impact or obscure the landscape’s character and integrity. With some vernacular and ethnographic landscapes, change itself is a significant factor and must be considered in assessing integrity.

A diagram evaluating the integrity of Longmire within Mount Rainier National Park.
A diagram of Longmire, a rustic park village designed and built within Mount Rainier National Park between 1926 and 1941. The shaded areas indicate historic use areas that still retain integrity.

 

d. National Register Nominations
Cultural landscapes are listed in the National Register when their significant cultural values have been documented and evaluated within appropriate thematic contexts, and physical investigation determines that they retain integrity. Cultural landscapes are classified in the National Register as historic sites or historic districts, or may be included as contributing features of larger districts.

An example of a National Register of Historic Places nomination form.  This form captures the cultural landscape of Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve as “Central Whidbey Island Historic District”.
An example of a National Register of Historic Places nomination form. This form captures the cultural landscape of Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve as “Central Whidbey Island Historic District”.

 

e. Cultural Landscapes Inventory
The Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) is a database of all cultural landscapes in which the NPS has or plans to acquire any legal interest. Its purpose is to identify cultural landscapes in the national park system and provide information on their location, historical development, characteristics and features, condition and management. The CLI assists park managers in planning, programming, and recording treatment and management decisions. Completed CLI reports are available for public viewing by searching under the "Places" category and "Spaces and Places" finding aid on this website, or by request.

An example of a Cultural Landscape Inventory (CLI).  This CLI is for the historic Joseph Poffenberger Farmstead within Antietam National Battlefield.
An example of a Cultural Landscape Inventory (CLI). This CLI is for the historic Joseph Poffenberger Farmstead within Antietam National Battlefield.

 

3. Cultural Landscape Report
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A cultural landscape report (CLR) is the primary guide to treatment and use of a cultural landscape.  

Typically interdisciplinary in nature, the CLR includes documentation, analysis, and evaluation of historical, architectural, archeological, ethnographic, horticultural, landscape architectural, engineering, and ecological data as appropriate. It analyzes the landscape's historical development, evolution, modifications, materials, construction techniques, geographical context, and use in all periods, including those deemed not significant. 

Based on the analysis, it makes recommendations for treatment consistent with the landscape's significance, condition, and planned use.  The scope and level of investigation vary depending on management objectives.  It may focus on an entire landscape or on individual features within it.  Before any decision regarding treatment of a landscape, Part 1: Site History, Existing Conditions, Analysis, and Evaluation, or a Cultural Landscape Inventory is completed.  Completed CLRs are available for public viewing by searching under the "Places" category and "Spaces and Places" finding aid on this website, or by request.

An example of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR).   This CLR is for Fort Hancock within Gateway National Recreation Area.
An example of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR). This CLR is for Fort Hancock within Gateway National Recreation Area.