A Handbook for Managers of Cultural Landscapes with Natural Resource Values Conservation Study Institute
Merck Forest, Vermont, photo by Barbara Slaiby
Executive Summary
Introduction
An Overview of Cultural Landscape Preservation
Methodology
Findings
Bibliography
Appendices
Bibliography Merck Forest, Vermont, photo by Barbara Slaiby
View Case Studies

Reference Works and Bibliographies

Cultural Landscapes Theory and Philosopy

Natural Resources Theory and Philosopy

Cultural and Natural Resource Management

Environment Australia

Council of Europe/European Commission

U.S. National Park Service

Parks Canada

UNESCO

IUCN—The World Conservation Union (Includes World Commission on Protected Areas)

Specific Site Studies

Reference Works and Bibliographies

Ahern, Katherine. Cultural Landscapes Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliography on Resources in the National Park System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1992.

Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Institute for Cultural Landscape Studies. http://www.icls.harvard.edu

Birnbaum, Charles A., and Cheryl Wagner, eds. Making Educated Decisions: A Landscape Preservation Bibliography. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1994.

Groth, Paul. "Bibliography: Basic Works in Cultural Landscape Studies." In Understanding Ordinary Landscapes, Paul Groth and Todd W. Bressi, eds., 243-260. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

National Park Service. Olmsted Center for Historic Landscape Preservation. Publications list. http://www.nps.gov/frla/publications.htm

Sies, Mary Corbin, Gilda Anroman, Claudia Rector, and Krista Park, comps. Cultural Landscapes Bibliography. http://www.amst.umd.edu/research/cultland/index.html

Tomlan, Michael A., ed. Preservation of What, for Whom?: A Critical Look at Historical Significance. Proceedings of a conference held at Goucher College, Baltimore, MD, March 20-22, 1997. Ithaca, NY: The National Council for Preservation Education, 1998.

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Cultural Landscapes Theory and Philosopy

Alanen, Arnold R., and Robert Z. Melnick, eds. Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America.Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Bender, Barbara, ed. Landscape: Politics and Perspectives. Oxford: Berg Press, 1993.

Bernard, Ted, and Jora M. Young. The Ecology of Hope: Communities Collaborate for Sustainability. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 1997.

Birnbaum, Charles A., and Sandra L. Tallant, ed. "Balancing Natural and Cultural Issues in the Preservation of Historic Landscapes: Selected Papers from the National Association for Olmsted Parks Conference." The George Wright Forum 13 (1996), no. 1.

Buggey, Susan. Historic Landscape Conservation in North America: Roaming the Field over the Past Thirty Years. Apt Bulletin XXIX (1998): 3-4.

Bunce, Michael. The Countryside Ideal: Anglo-American Images of Landscape. London: Routledge, 1994.

Carmichael, David L., Jane Hubert, Brian Reeves, and Audhild Schanche, eds. Sacred Sites, Sacred Places. The World Achaeological Congress. London: Routledge, 1994.

Carr, Ethan. Wilderness by Design: Landscape Architecture and the National Park Service. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Conzen, Michael P., ed. The Making of the American Landscape. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Cosgrove, Denis. "Prospect, Perspective, and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 10 (1985): 45-62.

———.Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1998.

Cosgrove, Denis, and Stephen Daniels, eds. The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design, and Use of Past Environments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Cronon, William. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1991.

———, ed. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995.

Duncan, James, and David Ley, eds. Place/Culture/Representation. London: Routledge, 1995.

Francaviglia, Richard. Hard Places: Reading the Landscape of America's Historic Mining Districts. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1991.

Greider, Thomas, and Lorraine Garkovich. "Landscapes: The Social Construction of Nature and the Environment." Rural Sociology 59 (1994): 1-21.

Groth, Paul. "Landscape Orders: Frameworks for American Cultural Landscape History." Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 1985.

Groth, Paul, and Todd W. Bressi, eds. Understanding Ordinary Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

Hiss, Tony. The Experience of Place. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990.

Hough, Michael. City Form and Natural Process:Towards a New Urban Vernacular. London: Croom Helm, 1984.

———. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Howe, Jim, Ed McMahon, and Luther Propst. Balancing Nature and Commerce in Gateway Communities. Washington, DC and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997.

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.

———. A Sense of Place, A Sense of Time. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Jackson, Peter. Maps of Meaning: An Introduction to Cultural Geography. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Knobloch, Frieda. The Culture of Wilderness: Agriculture as Colonization in the American West. Studies in Rural Culture Series. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Lennon, Jane and University of Canberra [Brian Egloff, Adrian Davey, and Ken Taylor]. "Conserving the Cultural Values of Natural Areas. A Discussion Paper." (Australia ICOMOS ) 1999.

Lewis, Peirce. "The Challenge of the Ordinary: Preservation and the Cultural Landscape." Historic Preservation 12 (1998), no. 2: 18-28.

Lovett, Francis N. National Parks: Rights and the Common Good. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Lowenthal, David. The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

———. Possessed by the Past: The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. New York: The Free Press, 1996.

McClelland, Linda Flint. Building the National Parks: Historic Landscape Design and Construction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Meinig, D.W., ed. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Mitchell, W.J.T., ed. Landscape and Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Nassauer, Joan Iverson, ed. Placing Nature: Culture and Landscape Ecology. Washington, DC and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997.

Noble, Allen G. The North American Settlement Landscape. Volume 1: Houses. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984.

———. The North American Settlement Landscape. Volume 2: Barns and Farm Structures. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984.

Olwig, Kenneth R. "Recovering the Substantive Nature of Landscape." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86 (1996): 630-653.

———. "Sexual Cosmology: Nation and Landscape at the Conceptual Interstices of Nature and Culture; or What Does Landscape Really Mean?" In Landscape: Politics and Perspectives, Barbara Bender, ed., 307-343. Oxford: Berg Press, 1993.

Power, Thomas Michael. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies: The Search for a Value of Place. Washington, DC and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996.

Rowntree, Lester B. "The Cultural Landscape Concept in American Human Geography." In Concepts in Human Geography, Carville Earle, Kent Mathewson, and Martin S. Kenzer, ed., 127-159. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1996.

Russell, Emily W.B. People and the Land through Time: Linking Ecology and History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

Sellars, Richard West. Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Turner, Frederick. Spirit of Place: The Making of an American Literary Landscape. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1989.

Tuxill, Jacquelyn L., and Nora J. Mitchell, eds. Collaboration and Conservation: Lessons Learned in Areas Managed through National Park Service Partnerships. Woodstock, VT: Conservation Study Institute, 2001.

Yamin, Rebecca, and Karen Bercherer Metheny, eds. Landscape Archeology: Reading and Interpreting the American Historic Landscape. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996.

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Natural Resources Theory and Philosopy

Adams, W.M. "Creative Conservation, Landscapes and Loss." Landscape Research 21, no. 3 (1996): 265-276.

Bischoff, N.T., and R.H.G. Jongman. Development of Rural Areas in Europe: The Claim for Nature. Preliminary Report V79, SDU. The Hague: Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy, 1993.

Breshears, David D., and Fairley J. Barnes. "Interrelationships between Plant Functional Types and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity for Semiarid Landscapes within the Grassland/Forest Continuum: A Unified Conceptual Model." Landscape Ecology 14 (1999): 465-478.

Bürgi, Matthais. "A Case Study of Forest Change in the Swiss Lowlands." Landscape Ecology 14, no. 6 (1999): 567-575.

Duhme, Friedrich, and Stephan Pauleit. "Some Examples of Different Landscape Systems and Their Biodiversity Potential." Landscape and Urban Planning 41 (1998): 3-4, 249-261.

Grayson, J.E., M.G. Chapman, and A.J. Underwood. "The Assessment of Restoration of Habitat in Urban Wetlands." Landscape and Urban Planning 43, no. 4 (1999): 227-236.

Hostetler, Mark. "Scale, Birds, and Human Decisions: A Potential for Integrative Research in Urban Ecosystems." Landscape and Urban Planning 45, no. 1 (1999): 15-19.

Lackey, Robert T. "Seven Pillars of Ecosystem Management." Landscape and Urban Planning 40 (1998): 1-3, 21-30.

Mander, Ü., and R.H.G. Jongman, eds. "Human Impact on Rural Landscapes in Central and Northern Europe." Landscape and Urban Planning 41 (1998): 3-4.

McNeely, Jeffrey A. "Coping with Change: People, Forests, and Biodiversity." The George Wright Forum 12, no. 3 (1995): 57-73.

Meyer-Aurich, Andreas, Peter Zander, Armin Werner, and Reinhold Roth. "Developing Agricultural Land Use Strategies Appropriate to Nature Conservation Goals and Environmental Protection." Landscape and Urban Planning 41, no. 2 (1998): 119-127.

Pan, Daiyuan, Gérald Domon, Sylvie de Blois, and André Bouchard. "Temporal (1958-1993) and Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes in Haut-Saint-Laurent (Quebec, Canada) and their Relation to Landscape Physical Attributes." Landscape Ecology 14 (1999): 35-52.

Phillips, Adrian. "Turning Ideas on Their Head: The New Paradigm of Protected Areas." The George Wright Forum 20, no. 2 (2003).

Poiani, Karen M., et al. "A Scale-Independent, Site Conservation Planning Framework in The Nature Conservancy." Landscape and Urban Planning 43 (1998): 1-3, 143-156.

Riley, Robert B. "Speculations on the New American Landscape." In Re-reading Cultural Geography, Kenneth E. Foote, Peter J. Hugill, Kent Mathewson, and Jonathan M. Smith, eds., 139-155. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Rodiek, Jon E., and Eric G. Bolen, eds. "Wildlife Habitats in Human-Dominated Landscapes." Landscape and Urban Planning 38 (1997): 3-4.

Ryan, Robert L. "Local Perceptions and Values for a Midwestern River Corridor." Landscape and Urban Planning Landscape and Urban Planning.

Shafer, Craig L. "National Park and Reserve Planning to Protect Biological Diversity: Some Basic Elements." Landscape and Urban Planning 44 (1999): 2-3, 123-153.

Slocombe, D. Scott. "Lessons from Experience with Ecosystem-Based Management." Landscape and Urban Planning 40 (1998): 1-3, 31-39.

Szaro, Robert C., William T. Sexton, and Charles R. Malone, eds. "Ecosystem Management." Landscape and Urban Planning 40 (1998): 1-3.

Thackway, R., and K. Olsson. "Public/Private Partnerships and Protected Areas: Selected Australian Case Studies." Landscape and Urban Planning 44 (1999): 2-3, 87-97.

Underwood, A.J. "Relationships between Ecological Research and Environmental Management." Landscape and Urban Planning 40 (1998): 1-3, 123-130.

Van Lier, H., ed. "Sustainable Land Use Planning." Landscape and Urban Planning 41 (1998): 2.

Young, Kenneth R. "Wildlife Conservation in the Cultural Landscapes of the Andes." Landscape and Urban Planning 38 (1997): 3-4, 137-147.

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Cultural and Natural Resource Management

Al-Kodmany, K. "Using Visualization Techniques for Enhancing Public Participation in Planning and Design: Process, Implementation, and Evaluation." Landscape and Urban Planning 45 (1999): 37-45.

Australia ICOMOS. Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance [the Burra Charter]. Canberra: Australia ICOMOS, 1999.

Bennett, Andrew F. "Habitat Linkages--A Key Element in an Integrated Landscape Approach to Conservation." Parks 7, no. 1 (1997): 43-49.

Bennett, G., ed. Towards a European Ecological Network. Arnhem, The Netherlands: Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1991.

Bernbaum, Edwin. "Sacred Mountains: Implications for Protected Area Management." Parks 6, no.1 (1996): 41-48.

Boothby, John. "Framing a Strategy for Pond Landscape Conservation: Aims, Objectives, and Issues." Landscape Research 24, no. 1 (1999): 67-83.

Brown, Jessica, and Brent Mitchell. "Extending the Reach of National Parks and Protected Areas: Local Stewardship Initiatives." In National Parks and Protected Areas: Keystones to Conservation and Sustainable Development, J.G. Nelson and R. Serafin, eds. NATO ASI Series, Vol. G 40. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997.

Brown, Jessica, Nora Mitchell, and Fausto O. Sarmiento, eds. "Landscape Stewardship: New Directions in Conservation of Nature and Culture." The George Wright Forum 17, no. 1 (2000).

Buggey, Susan, and Genevieve Keller, eds. "Managing Cultural Landscapes," APT Bulletin 31, no. 4 (2000).

Chiarappa, Michael J. "Domesticated Waters: Delaware Bay Oystering's Science and Technology." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 21, no. 2 (1998): 11-12.

Corbett, Tony, Marcus Lane, and Chris Clifford. Achieving Indigenous Involvement in Management of Protected Areas: Lessons from Recent Australian Experience. Aboriginal Politics and Public Sector Management Research, Paper no. 5. Griffith University, Centre for Australian Public Sector Management, 1998.

Crook, Darren S., and Anne M. Jones. "Traditional Irrigation and Its Importance to the Tourist Landscape of Valois, Switzerland." Landscape Research 24, no. 1 (1999): 49-65.

Davis, Frank W., David M. Stoms, and Sandy Andelman. "Systematic Reserve Selection in the USA: An Example from the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion." Parks 9, no. 1 (1999): 31-41.

Dillon, David. "Deep in the Heart: How Does a Rural Region of Texas Preserve Its Character While Accommodating Change? The LBJ Heartland Council Blazes New Trails." Historic Preservation 45, no. 5 (1993): 28-37, 91.

Eyring, Shaun. "Vegetation Management in Large Cultural Landscapes: Techniques for Preserving Historic Fields and Vistas." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 21-27.

Eyring, Shaun, and Lucy Lawliss. "Preserving Battlefield Terrain: Technologies for Earthworks Management." APT Bulletin 31, no. 4 (2000): 13-19.

Gobster, Paul H. "An Ecological Aesthetic for Forest Landscape Management." Landscape Journal 18, no. 1 (1999): 54-64.

Goriup, Paul. "The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy: Integration of Ecological Agriculture and Grassland Conservation." Parks 8, no. 3 (1998): 37-46.

Green, Bryn. "Re-evaluating Nature: Cultural Landscape Conservation." Built Environment 23, no. 3 (1997): 210-20.

Gustanski, Julie Ann, and Roderick H. Squires. Protecting the Land: Conservation Easements Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000.

Harrison, Richard, ed. Manual of Heritage Management. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994.

Hunziker, Marcel, and Felix Kienast. "Potential Impacts of Changing Agricultural Activities on Scenic Beauty--A Prototypical Technique for Automated Rapid Assessment." Landscape Ecology 14, no. 2 (1999): 161-176.

Jamieson, Walter, ed. Conserving the Rural Landscape: A Symposium. Calgary: Alberta Community Development and the Centre for Livable Communities, 1995.

Jankowski, Achim, Wendy Shearer, and John E. Zvonar. "Micro-Drilling Devices for Landscape Conservation." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 37-41.

Jardel, Enrique J., Eduardo C. Santana, and Sergio Graf. "The Sierra de Manantián Biosphere Reserve: Conservation and Regional Sustainable Development." Parks 6, no. 1 (1996): 14-22.

Johnson, Martha, ed. Lore: Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Hay River, NWT: Dene Cultural Institute and the International Development Research Centre, 1992.

Keller, Genevieve P. "The Inventory and Analysis of Historic Landscapes." Historic Preservation Forum 7, no. 3 (1993): 26-35.

King, Michael, and Ueta Faasili. "A Network of Small, Community-Owned Village Fish Reserves in Samoa." Parks 8, no. 2 (1998): 11-16.

Knight, Richard L., and Peter B. Landres, eds. Stewardship across Boundaries. Washington, DC and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1999.

Land Ethics and Dodson Associates. Linking the Past to the Future: A Landscape Conservation Strategy for Waterford, Virginia. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, in cooperation with the Waterford Foundation, 1992.

Larsen, Knut Einar, ed. Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention/Conference de Nara sur l'Authenticité dans le Cadre de la Convention du Patrimoine Mondial. Japan: UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Agency for Cultural Affairs, ICCROM, and ICOMOS, 1995.

Lewis, Peirce. "Common Landscapes as Historic Documents." In History from Things: Essays on Material Culture, Steven Lubar and W. David Kingery, eds. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

Lucas, P.H.C. Protected Landscapes: A Guide for Policy Makers and Planners. London: Chapman and Hall, 1992.

Mastran, Shelley. Rural Conservation. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1993.

Meier, Lauren, and Nora J. Mitchell. "Principles for Preserving Historic Plant Material." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 13, no. 5 (1990): 1724.

Mitchell, Nora J. "Cultural Landscapes: Concepts of Culture and Nature as a Paradigm for Historic Preservation." Ph.D. dissertation, Tufts University. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services, 1996.

Mitchell, Nora, and Katherine T. Lacy. "Cultural Landscapes: Reading Stories Written on the Land." History News 52, no. 3 (1997): 25-27.

Mitchell, Nora, and Robert R. Page. "Managing the Past for the Future." Historic Preservation Forum 7, no. 3 (1993): 46-61.

O'Donnell, Patricia. "The Treatment of Historic Landscapes." Historic Preservation Forum 7, no. 3 (1993): 36-45.

Paine, Cecelia, and James R. Taylor. Cultural Landscape Assessment: A Comparison of Rural Cultural Landscape Assessment Methods and Their Potential for Application within the Niagara Escarpment. Guelph, ON: Landscape Research Group at Guelph, University of Guelph, 1995.

Pärtel, Meelis, Riina Mändla, and Martin Zobel. "Landscape History of a Calcareous (Alvar) Grassland in Hanila, Western Estonia, during the Last Three Hundred Years." Landscape Ecology 14, no. 2 (1999): 187-196.

Pepper, Charles. "Preserving Historic Woody Plants: Case Studies of the National Park Service." Forum on Woody Plants in Historic Landscapes. Boston: Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 1999.

Phillips, Adrian. "The Nature of Cultural Landscapes--A Nature Conservation Perspective." Landscape Research 23, no. 1 (1998): 21-38.

Pressey, R.L. "Applications of Irreplaceability Analysis to Planning and Management Problems." Parks 9, no. 1 (1999): 42-51.

Putney, Allen, ed. "Non-Material Values of Protected Areas." Parks 10, no. 2 (2000).

Stokes, Samuel N., A. Elizabeth Watson, and Shelley Mastran for the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Saving America's Countryside: A Guide to Rural Conservation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Taylor, Ken. "Reconciling Aesthetic Value and Social Value: Dilemmas of Interpretation and Application." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 51-55.

Tunbridge, J.E., and G.J. Ashworth. Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict. Chichester and Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, 1996.

Tuxill, Jacquelyn L., et al., eds. The Landscape of Conservation Stewardship: The Report of the Stewardship Initiative Feasibility Study. Woodstock, VT: Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, Conservation Study Institute, and The Woodstock Foundation, Inc., 2000.

Vernon, Noel Dorsey, and Charles E. Loggins. "Leimert Park's Plaza: Cultural Landscape Rehabilitation and Community Revitalization." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 9-14.

Von Droste, Bernd, Harald Plachter, and Mechtild Rössler, eds. Cultural Landscapes of Outstanding Universal Value: Components of Global Strategy. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag in cooperation with UNESCO, 1995.

Zaitzevsky, Cynthia. "The Historian and the Landscape." Historic Preservation Forum 7: 3 (1993): 16-25.

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Environment Australia

Australian Heritage Commission and the Australian Committee for IUCN. Australian Natural Heritage Charter. Sydney: Australian Heritage Commission, 1996.

Lennon, J. Case Study of the Cultural Environment of the Central Victorian Goldfields. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series. Canberra: Department of the Environment, Natural and Cultural Heritage, 1997.

Pearson, M., D. Johnston, J. Lennon, I. McBryde, D. Marshall, D. Nash, and B. Wellington. Environmental Indicators for National State of the Environment Reporting: Natural and Cultural Heritage. Canberra: State of the Environment, Environmental Indicator Reports, 1998.

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Council of Europe/European Commission

Council of Europe. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Bern: European Treaty Series, no. 104, 1979. www.ecnc.nl/doc/europe/legislat/bernconv.html

———.European Landscape Convention. 2000. http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/176.htm

———.Inventory and Cartography of Natural Biotopes in Europe: The Two Networks of Protected Areas of the Council of Europe. PE-SEM/COR (91) 2. Document prepared by the Directorate of Environment and Local Authorities. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1991.

———.Recommendation No. R (95) 9 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Integrated Conservation of Cultural Landscape Areas as Part of Landscape Policies. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1995.

———.The European Network of Biogenetic Reserves B Resolutions. Strasbourg, Council of Europe: 1992.

———.The Emerald Network--A Network of Areas of Special Conservation Interest for Europe. Document prepared by the Standing Committee for the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. T?PVS (96). Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 7 January 1997. www.ecnc.nl/doc/lynx/publications/emerald.html

Council of Europe and CEC. Map of Natural Vegetation of the Member States of the European Communities and the Council of Europe. Scale 1:3.000.000. Explanatory notes by A. Noirfalise. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987.

Council of Europe, UNEP, and ECNC. Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy B: A Vision for Europe's Natural Heritage. Amsterdam: 1996. www.ecnc.nl/doc/europe/legislat/strafull.html

European Commission. Natura 2000 B European Commission DG XI's Nature Newsletter. Issue 1-4, ISSN 1026-6151, DG-XI D.2, 1997.

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U.S. National Park Service

Andrus, Patrick W. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, and Registering America's Historic Battlefields. National Register Bulletin 40. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1992.

Birnbaum, Charles A. Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Evaluating, and Management of Historic Landscapes. Preservation Brief 36. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1994.

Birnbaum, Charles A., and Robert R. Page, eds. "Thematic Issue on Landscape Interpretation." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 17, no. 7 (1994).

Birnbaum, Charles A., with Christine Capella Peters, eds. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996.

Derry, Anne, H. Ward Jandl, Carol D. Shull, and Jan Thormon. Rev. ed. by Patricia L. Parker. Guidelines for Local Surveys: A Basis for Preservation Planning. National Register Bulletin 24. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1985.

Firth, Ian. Biotic Cultural Resources: Management Considerations for Historic Districts in the National Park System, Southeast Region. Georgia: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1985.

Greenberg, Ronald M., ed. "Thematic Issue on Historic Transportation Corridors." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 16, no. 11 (1993).

Keller, J. Timothy, and Genevieve P. Keller. How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. National Register Bulletin 18. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1987.

King, Thomas F., and Jan Townsend. Through the Generations: Identifying and Protecting Traditional Cultural Places. Video. Washington, DC: National Park Service et al., n.d.

McClelland, Linda Flint, J. Timothy Keller, Genevieve P. Keller, and Robert Z. Melnick. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes. National Register Bulletin 30. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1998.

Melnick, Robert Z., Daniel Sponn, and Emma J. Saxe. Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1984.

National Park Service. Cultural Resource Management Guideline, NPS-28. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1998.

———.Guide to Sustainable Earthworks Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1998. http://www.nps.gov/phso/sp/jeawoint.htm

Noble, Bruce J., Jr., and Robert Spude. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, and Registering Historic Mining Properties. National Register Bulletin 42: Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1992.

Nowakowski, H. Matthew. "Bringing the Past into the Future: New Technologies for CRM." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 21, no. 5 (1998).

Page, Robert R., Cathy A. Gilbert, and Susan A. Dolan. A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, Process, and Techniques. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1998.

Parker, Patricia L., and Thomas F. King. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. National Register Bulletin 38. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1990.

Potter, Elisabeth Walton, and Beth Boland. Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places. National Register Bulletin 41. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1992.

Westmacott, Richard. Managing Culturally Significant Agricultural Landscapes within the National Park System. Draft. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1997.

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Parks Canada

Buggey, Susan. "An Approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes." Agenda paper for Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Parks Canada, 1999.

Buggey, Susan, and Joann Latremouille. Cultural Landscapes/Cultural Resources. Video. Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1997.

Doull, Ian. "Commemoration of Rural Historic Districts." Agenda paper for Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, Parks Canada, 1994.

Parks Canada. Guiding Principles and Operational Policies. Ottawa: Department of Canadian Heritage, 1994. http://www.parkscanada.gc.ca/docs/pc/poli/princip/part2/part2d1_e.asp

Stovel, Herb, with Julian Smith. FHBRO Code of Practice. Edited by Jean-Pierre W. Landry and Lyette Fortin. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services, Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office, 1996.

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UNESCO

UNESCO. Biosphere Reserves: The Seville Strategy and the Statutory Framework for the World Network. Paris: UNESCO, 1996.

UNESCO, World Heritage Convention. Operational Guidelines for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO, 1996. www.unesco.org/whc

UNESCO. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO, 1997. www.unesco.org/whc/world_he.htm

———.The Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Paris: UNESCO, 1997. www.unesco.org/mab

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IUCN—The World Conservation Union (Includes World Commission on Protected Areas)

Beltrán, Javier, ed. Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Protected Areas: Principles, Guidelines, and Case Studies. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 4. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK: IUCN--The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 2000.

Davey, Adrian G. National System Planning for Protected Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 1. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK: IUCN—The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 1998.

Hockings, Marc, with Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley. Evaluating Effectiveness: A Framework for Assessing the Management of Protected Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 6. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN—The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 2000.

Kelleher, Graeme, ed. Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 3. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN—The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 1999.

Task Force on Economic Benefits of Protected Areas of the World Commission on Protected Areas of IUCN, in collaboration with the Economics Service Unit of IUCN. Economic Values of Protected Areas: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 2. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN—The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 1998.

Task Force on Financing Protected Areas of the World Commission on Protected Areas of IUCN. Financing Protected Areas: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series no. 5. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN—The World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas, 2000.

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Specific Site Studies

Adams, Clare. "Recovering from a Devastating Tornado at Andrew Jackson's Hermitage: A Case Study." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 43-49.

Engle, Reed L. "Shenandoah—Managing Cultural Resources in a National Park." CRM: Cultural Resource Management 21, no. 1 (1998).

Fanning, Kay, and Maureen Joseph. "Discovering Dumbarton Oaks Park: Restoring a Masterwork for Modern Needs." APT Bulletin 30 (1999): 2-3, 61-66.

Firth, Ian, and Marianne Cramer. "A Case Study in Ecosystems and Preservations: Lessons Learned from New York's Central Park." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 15-20.

Keane, Robert E., Penelope Morgan, and Joseph D. White. "Temporal Patterns of Ecosystem Processes on Simulated Landscapes in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA." Landscape Ecology 14 (1999): 311-329.

McGuire, Diane Kostial. Beatrix Farrand's Plant Book for Dumbarton Oaks. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, 1980.

Meier, Lauren. "Restoring Fairsted's Woody Plants." Forum on Woody Plants in Historic Landscapes. Boston: Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 1999.

Meier, Lauren. "Restoring Landscape Character at Fairsted, the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site." Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology 30, no. 1 (1999): 29-35.

Moss, Michael R., and Robert J. Milne. "Biophysical Processes and Bioregional Planning: The Niagara Escarpment of Southern Ontario, Canada." Landscape and Urban Planning 40 (1998): 251-268.

Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation cultural landscape publication series. http://www.nps.gov/frla/publications.htm

O'Rourke, Eileen. "The Causse Méjan: Changing Relationships between Agriculture, Environment, and Society within a French National Park." Landscape Research 24, no. 2 (1999): 141-165.

Toth, Edward. An Ecosystem Approach to Woodland Management: The Case of Prospect Park. Bethesda, MD: National Association for Olmsted Parks, 1991.

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