• Montezuma Peak


    National Memorial Arizona

Environmental Factors

Many environmental factors, both natural and human-caused, have produced dramatic changes over time both in the biotic and abiotic communities of the memorial. Natural factors such as geologic and hydrologic activity, weather and climate, and historic fire regimes have profoundly shaped the geology, flora, and fauna seen today in the monument. More recent human-caused factors, such as recreational development, fire suppression, grazing, mining, and inadvertent or deliberate introduction of non-native species, have increased the rate of environmental change.

Did You Know?

Coronado Cave formations, Coronado National Memorial

Within Coronado Cave is a beautiful range of formations, including stalactites, stalagmites, flowstones, and helictites. How fast these formations grow and their final size depends on the water supply, cave humidity, surface soils, bacteria, and composition of the limestone.