After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians in the war zone later would become unwilling participants and victims of the war's expanding scope and horror.
In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, governments and civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material goods. Unfortunately, due to scarcity of resources and devastation caused by the Union armies, the Confederate government failed almost completely to care for the families of its soldiers
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Patrick Healy was the son of a Georgia planter and enslaved mother who rose to become a Jesuit priest and the first African American President of Georgetown University. Read more
William Worrall Mayo was an English-born doctor who helped refugees from the 1862 Dakota War in Minnesota and would achieve renown after the war for opening the Minnesota clinic that today bears his name. Read more
Samuel Mudd, a Maryland physician and Southern sympathizer, was tried and convicted of assisting John Wilkes Booth escape following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Sentenced to imprisonment at Fort Jefferson off the Florida coast, would his name still be "Mudd" after a yellow fever epidemic overtakes the island fortress? Read more
John Nicolay was a journalist and private Secretary to Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. After the war, Nicolay served as American Consul in Paris and then Marshall of the U.S. Supreme Court. Read more
Robert Parrott was a businessman and inventor of the Parrott Rifled Cannon. Superior to its smooth-bore predecessors and most of its contemporary competition, the Parrott gun was used extensively by both sides in the American Civil War. Read more