• Historic Shot of Canal Boat on the Canal

    Chesapeake & Ohio Canal

    National Historical Park DC,MD,WV

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  • NEW Overnight parking system

    Before parking a vehicle overnight in any Canal Parking area, visitors must register their vehicle through the new online registration system. Print your reciept and place on your dashboard. If unable to print, please visit the nearest visitor center. More »

  • Water Pump Handles Temporarily Removed

    Water pump handles at Bald Eagle Island and Iron Mtn. Hiker-Biker Campsites and Paw Paw Campground have been removed due to bad water samples. Handles will be reinstalled when good water samples are received.

  • Boat Tours at Great Falls

    Due to low water levels in the Great Falls area, call the Great Falls Tavern Visitor Center (301-767-3714) in advance of your trip to confirm the mule-drawn boat tour schedule.

  • Parking Lot Closure

    CSX is now beginning a phase of their bridge project that requires the closure of the Lock 74 parking lot for approximatly 18 months. Access to visitor parking near Lock 75 is now re-opened with a gravel parking lot at the site.

Ferry Hill Plantation

Photo of Ferry Hill circa 1940

Ferry Hill Plantation stood on the bluffs above the canal across the Potomac from Shepherdstown, West Virginia.

NPS Photo

The river crossing at Packhorse Ford, located about a mile downstream from Shepherdstown, could not meet the needs of a growing population. Thomas Van Swearingen began operating a ferry in 1765. This location provided easy access to towns on both sides of the river including Charles Town and Harpers Ferry, VA and Hagerstown, Frederick and Baltimore, MD. In 1775 Van Swearingen had constructed a "Ferry Inn" at the landing on the Maryland side of the river. The community that grew as a result of the ferry became known as Bridgeport.

John Blackford acquired interest in the ferry and adjoining acres through an inheritance from the Van Swearingen family when he married Sara van Swearingen in in 1805. Sadly she died at the age of 25. He remarried Elizabeth Knode in 1812 and it was then that he built Ferry Hill. Looking for an ideal location to build a home and start his family he decided to build the house high on the bluff overlooking the Potomac River. The land was fertile, and the nearby river, with a convenient ferry crossing, would facilitate delivery of his crops to market. Eventually the farm would grow to over 700 acres.

In 1833 Blackford sold 41 acres, 3 rods, 1 perch (5 1/2 yards) to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. John Blackford continued to operate the ferry, however, now the canal would also be utilized to transport goods.

As transportation needs grew the ferry was proving inadequate. Franklin Blackford sold the ferry and surrounding property to the Virginia and Maryland Bridge Company and by 1850 a toll bridge was constructed.

 
Photo of Ferry Hill in present day

Ferry Hill Plantation has stood on the Potomac River since the early 19th century.

NPS Photo

It was its location that drew attention to Ferry Hill Place again in 1861. Henry Kyd Douglas lived there with his parents, the Reverend Robert Douglas and his wife Helena. When war broke out Henry enlisted in the Army of the Confederacy. The Federal Army looked upon the family with mistrust. The family was held under house arrest for most of the war. They were instructed to keep the shutters closed. One stormy evening a shutter was blown open. The Union Officers saw this as an act of treason, implying the Reverend was signaling to the Confederates across the river. Reverend Douglas was arrested as a spy. Although he was never formally charged, he was held at Fort McHenry for several months before being allowed to go home.

The property passed on to Nannie Cowen, a daughter of John and Helena, who with her husband ran a pig farm from 1914 through 1928. Times were hard but the Beckenbaughs continued to struggle on. They opened a restaurant but then had to sell the property in 1948. Even after the sale it remained a restaurant until 1974

The link with John Blackford was severed in 1951 when the house was sold to Frederick Morrison. It provided a perfect location for a restaurant. Many students from Shepherd College recall enjoying an evening of dining and dancing at Ferry Hill. It was during this period that extensive changes were made to the house. The imposing columns facing the river were added. The wall separating the kitchen from the dining room, and the servant's staircase were removed. An addition was added to the back of the main house and many of the out buildings were torn down.

Because of its location along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, it served as the Headquarters of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park from 1979 until 2001.

Historic Ferry Hill Place still stands in an idyllic location proudly overlooking the Potomac River, waiting for the next stage of its life to begin.

Did You Know?

Drawing DaVinci's lock gate design 1485.

Transporting goods and people by canal dates back to antiquity. The lock gates used on the C&O Canal were an adaptation of a design by Leonardo DaVinci in the late 1400's. Until the advent of the railroad, water travel was far superior to land travel.