Lesson Plan

Two Southern Mills, One Civil War

The Sixteenth Army Corps Fording the Chattahoochee at Roswell’s Ferry, July 19th, 1864.
The Sixteenth Army Corps Fording the Chattahoochee at Roswell’s Ferry, July 19th, 1864.
National Park Service, Frank And Marie Wood Print Collection.

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Subject:
Civil War, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Studies
Duration:
1 hour pre-visit, 3 hour on-site visit, 1 hour post-visit
Group Size:
Up to 24
Setting:
in the park
National/State Standards:
Georgia Performance Standards: SS5H1c, SS5H1e, SS5G2a, SS5G2b, S5CS4a, S5CS4b, S5CS4c, & S5CS4d. Common Core Standards: 5.MD.1 & CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.1

Overview

In 1864, during the Civil War, General William T. Sherman crossed the Chattahoochee and ordered his troops to burn the mills, therefore weakening the South’s development. Because a number of the mills were making uniforms and supplies for the Confederate soldiers, their destruction was a hard hit to parts of the southern troops.  Following the Civil War, however, many of the mills were rebuilt and their ruins can still be seen along the river today.

Objective(s)

Students will understand: 

  • The causes, major events, and consequences of the Civil War
  • The effects of war on the North and South
  • What happened during the Atlanta Campaign
  • How to use ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters


Background

During the 1800s, the Chattahoochee River witnessed a large amount of industrial growth along its banks. Mills were built and used water power to make items such as cotton, wool, paper, tenting, roping, flannels, and yarn. Many of these goods were sent to the main railroad line in Atlanta, where they could be shipped to other parts of the country. The mills were an important part of Atlanta’s industry, and the river was an important part in keeping the mills running.

In 1864, during the Civil War, General William T. Sherman crossed the Chattahoochee River and ordered his troops to burn the mills, therefore weakening the South’s development. Because a number of the mills were making uniforms and supplies for the Confederate soldiers, their destruction was a hard hit to parts of the southern troops. Following the Civil War, however, many of the mills were rebuilt and their ruins can still be seen along the river today.

Two industrially important mills along the Chattahoochee River were the Marietta Paper Mill at Sope Creek and the Ivy Woolen Mill at the mouth of Vickery Creek. Let’s take a closer look at each of these mills and see how they were run back in the 1800s.



Materials

  • Water Wheel Science Connection
  • Interpretive Guide for Vickery Creek Mills
  • Roswell Mills Math Warm-up
  • Roswell Mills Different Perspectives Worksheet
  • Interpretive Guide For Sope Creek Mill
  • Marietta Paper Mill Warm-up
  • Marietta Paper Mill Different Perspective Worksheet
  • Memories of a Teenage Girl
  • Railroads of the Confederacy Map, 1861
  • Railroads of the United States Map, 1870
  • Atlanta Area reading
  • Battle of Atlanta Map, 1864
  • Eyewitness Report Rubric


Procedure

Pre-visit
  • Introduce the lesson with a guided student analysis of the drawing entitled The Sixteenth Army Corps Fording the Chattahoochee at Roswell’s Ferry, July 19th, 1864.
  • Discuss the 4 basic needs of humans
  • Discuss how in the 1860s obtaining these needs were different than today.
  • Discuss the importance of transportation during the war.
  • Discuss the importance of railroads to the military commanders during the Civil War.
  • Leave students with a reading of Atlanta Area.


On-site Visit
  • Tour various sites and record on graphic organizer ways that you would be feeling if you were one of the following characters:
    • Confederate Soldier-defending Atlanta
    • Slave
    • Civilian-mill worker, farmer
    • Union Soldier-Attacking Atlanta

Post-visit

Eyewitness Report from different perspectives

  • Discuss Atlanta Campaign
  • Discuss what an Eyewitness Report is
  • Read “Memories of a Teenage Girl”
  • Write Eyewitness Reports using Rubric as a guide
  • Share

Assessment

Students will write an eyewitness report from the perspective of a person involved in the Atlanta Campaign. A rubric is included.

Performance Tasks:

Eyewitness Report
Pretend that you are a slave, mill worker, Union soldier or Confederate soldier. Write a letter to a loved one describing the events that occurred. Use factual information but include your perspective of the events.



Park Connections

This lesson connects to the park because it is a Civil War park. The students will be able to visit actual historical Civil War locations.



Extensions

STEM: Students could research how buildings were constructed by slave labor. They could use fire records to recreate a scale model of the Ivy Woolen Mill or the Marietta Paper Mill.



Additional Resources

http://www.heritagesandysprings.org/Sandy-Springs-History/civil-war.html

http://www.history.com/topics/atlanta-campaign

“Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and the Importance of Railroads” http://www.kennesaw.edu/civilwarera/lessonplans/6-8/sherman_railroads.pdf

Civil War Series, The Campaign for Atlanta http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/civil_war_series/7/sec6.htm

CIVIL WAR MATH - batchelk@hsd.k12.or.us

The Water Wheel  http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wtrwhl1.htm

Sope Creek Manufacturing Complex by Everett E. Bronski, Jr. Georgia Institute of Technology

March 10, 1978

http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/gtburg.htm

http://www.atlantahistorycenter.com/cms/Hardtack+Recipe/460.html

 



Vocabulary

Atlanta Campaign
Water Wheel
Mills
Confederates
Unions