First Battle of Kernstown
Library of Congress
First Battle of Kernstown – March 23, 1862
As commander of the Valley District, Confederate Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson was tasked with keeping the Federal Army in the Shenandoah Valley from moving east to support Gen. George McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign against Richmond.
As Jackson's small army of approximately 3,500 men marched north from Mt. Jackson on March 22, Confederate cavalry commanded by Colonel Turner Ashby engaged in elements of Union Gen. James Shields' division on the southern outskirts of Winchester. The skirmish, as well as intelligence gathered from the civilians, prompted Ashby to believe Union forces were leaving the Valley and that only a token force remained. Based on Ashby's information, which later proved false, Jackson determined to strike.
Relying on this faulty intelligence Jackson rushed his small force north to attack the Federals at Winchester. On the morning of March 23rd, Jackson engaged the troops of Shields' division at Kernstown, now commanded by Col. Nathan Kimball (as Shields had been wounded the previous day). Kimball's forces strategically straddled the Valley Pike and he placed 16 Union cannon atop Pritchard's Hill, a commanding piece of high ground west of the Valley Pike.
Still believing he faced a small Union force, Jackson initially ordered Col. Fulkerson and Gen. Garnett to mount an attack on the hill against the Union artillery. After taking heavy losses from the Union artillery while advancing across the Pritchard farm, the two Confederate columns quickly moved ¾ mile west to Sandy Ridge. Here the Confederate forces were joined by other infantry and artillery moving up from the south. Jackson determined to dislodge the Federals by flanking their position from Sandy Ridge to the west.
As Jackson arranged his infantry and artillery on Sandy Ridge in preparation for this movement, Kimball reacted quickly and ultimately countered Jackson's efforts. Kimball ordered part of his infantry to Sandy Ridge via Cedar Creek Grade. The initial Union attack was made by Col. Erastus Tyler's brigade against the Confederate line Jackson had posted along a stout stone wall located on the Glass Farm(Rose Hill). Initially, the Confederate infantry was able to have devastating effect against Tyler's approaching regiments, stopping the attack in its tracks just short of the stone wall. Kimball quickly pushed more troops over to Sandy Ridge, escalating the fighting. By now, Jackson realized he was facing an entire Federal division of 8,500 men. Accordingly, he changed tactics and fought strictly to hold his ground until he could retire under cover of darkness.
After hours of desperate fighting on Sandy Ridge, the overwhelming number of Union soldiers began to finally push the Confederate line back. Additionally, Jackson's men began to run low on ammunition. Ultimately unable to withstand the pressure of Union attacks, Jackson's forces withdrew. By the end of the day the Confederates were forced to retreat leaving Winchester in northern hands. The result of the battle left 718 Confederate casualties, and 590 Union casualties.
In a letter dated March 24,1862 from Jackson to his wife, "Our men fought bravely, but the enemy repulsed me. Many valuable lives were lost. Our God was my shield. His protecting care is an additional cause for gratitude."
The First Battle of Kernstown was Jackson's only tactical defeat in the Valley. Indeed, Kernstown is considered the only recorded loss of Jackson's career. However, it was a strategic victory. Jackson's aggressive movements caused great alarm to Gen. Shields. Although not on the field during the time of the battle, Shields informed superiors that his division defeated a Confederate force of at least 15,000 men. That embellishment caused great alarm for President Lincoln, who then redirected substantial reinforcements to the Valley; Gen. Nathanial Banks' troops were sent back to the Valley and Gen. Irvin McDowell was thus prevented from supporting McClellan efforts against Richmond. Thus 20,000 Union troops initially intended to defend Washington DC or support offensive operations against Richmond were sent back to the Valley to deal with Jackson. McClellan claimed that the additional troops would have enabled him to take Richmond during the Peninsula Campaign and perhaps even end the war during that critical spring of 1862.
Order of Battle
THE UNION ARMY
(Approximately 8500 men)
Brigadier General James Shields (wounded)
Colonel Nathan Kimball, Commandeering
FIRST BRIGADE, Colonel Nathan Kimball
SECOND BRIGADE, Colonel Jeremiah C. Sullivan
THIRD BRIGADE, Colonel Erastus B. Tyler
CAVALRY, Colonel Thornton F. Brodhead
1st squad Pennsylvania
ARTILLERY, Lieutenant Colonel Philip Daum
(West) Virginia Artillery - A Battery
THE CONFEDERATE ARMY
(Approximately 3500 men)
Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, Commanding
GARNETT'S BRIGADE, Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett
BURKS' BRIGADE, Colonel Jesse S. Burks
FULKERSON'S BRIGADE, Col. Samuel V. Fulkerson
CAVALRY, Colonel Turner Ashby