Carlsbad Caverns National Park Fact Sheet - a quick reference guide to basic information
Size: 46,766 acres, including over 33,000 acres designated wilderness
Location and terrain: southeastern New Mexico; Guadalupe Mountains (primarily limestone) and Permian Basin (primarily gypsum)
Elevation: ranges from 3,596 feet to 6,368 feet above sea level; Visitor Center at 4,406 ft
118 caves knownat this time; This number changes as exploration continues.
Largest caves in the park, by surveyed length - as of July 31, 2012
Annual visitation: ~ 400,000. Since 1923, the park has had over 41,000,000 visitors; most arrive by private vehicle
o National Park Service operates: information and ticket desks; educational exhibits; theater; cave art exhibit; restrooms; drinking fountains; pay phone; elevator to/from Carlsbad Cavern
o Carlsbad Caverns-Guadalupe Mountains National Parks Association (non-profit partner) operates: book store, audio guide rental for cave self-guided areas; www.ccgma.org
o Carlsbad Caverns Trading, LLC (contracted concessioner) operates: gift shop, restaurant, kennel, and ATM machine. In Carlsbad Cavern, at base of elevators, they operate a limited snack bar and merchandise sales area. www.carlsbadcavernstradingco.com
Surface ecosystems: Chihuahuan Desert, with Pinyon-Juniper in higher elevations and shrub/grass lands in lower; over 750 plant species
Mammals: 67 species
Bats: 17 species known to live in the park; 3 species roost inside Carlsbad Cavern; largest colony is of Brazilian Free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, also called Mexican Free-tailed bats - population estimated at about 400,000.
Birds: 357 species
A large colony of Cave Swallows, Petrochelidon fulva, have nested just inside the cave entrance since 1966 and been banded and studied continually for over 30 years.
Amphibians and Reptiles: 54 species Invertebrates: unknown number of species
1903 Guano mining begins in Carlsbad Cavern, then known as "Big Cave" or "Bat Cave"
1915-1918 Ray V. Davis photographs Carlsbad Cavern, which stimulates interest in the cave. Davis' photos appear in the New York Times in 1923.
1923, April 6-May 8 First survey and mapping of cave, performed by Robert Holly of General Land Office; his awe of the cave and recommendations led to establishment as national site.
1923, October 25 President Calvin Coolidge creates Carlsbad Cave National Monument
1925 Wooden stair system built through cave's natural entrance eliminates need for cave visitors to enter via guano bucket
1930, May 14 Congress designates Carlsbad Caverns National Park
1931 First elevator shaft blasted and infrastructure installed, goes into operation in January 1932
1950s Throughout Carlsbad Cavern dirt trails and wooden stair systems are replaced with winding, paved trails.
1955 Second elevator shaft blasted and installation of larger capacity "passenger" elevators. These become the "primary" elevator system, while smaller original elevators are secondary.
1959, March Construction of Visitor Center is completed; most recent renovation completed in 2008
1963 Bat Flight Amphitheater is constructed at the cave's natural entrance to provide seating for visitors to view evening exodus of bats from cave
1972, January 6 Self-guided tours of entire Cavern are initiated
1973, September First public, guided tours of Slaughter Canyon Cave, then known as New Cave
1986 Lechuguilla Cave discovered to have more than entrance pit; current mapped length is over 130 miles
1993, November Kings Palace guided tours start in "Scenic Rooms" portion of Carlsbad Cavern paved trail system because excessive damage, such as breakage, to cave features during twenty years it was self-guided
1993-94 Scheduled "adventure tours" are started to Left Hand Tunnel, Lower Cave, Hall of the White Giant, and Spider Cave
1995, December Carlsbad Caverns National Park is designated a World Heritage