The park is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains which are part of the larger chain of mountains known as the Appalachain Mountains. The Blue Ridge Mountains stretch 500 miles from Georgia to a point just north of Catoctin Mountain Park. Catoctin Mountain Park, along with neighboring Cunningham Falls State Park, Gambrill State Park, and Frederick and Thurmont Watersheds, are part of the area known as Catoctin Mountain.
Catoctin Mountain forms the easternmost section of the Blue Ridge and extends 50 miles from Emmitsburg, Maryland to Leesburg, Virginia.
The mountainous terrain of the park makes for several steep, strenuous trails that offer rewarding views to those that are up to the challenge. High points within Catoctin Mountain Park include Blue Ridge Summit Overlook (1,520'), Thurmont Vista (1,499'),Chimney Rock (1,419') and the highest overlook, Hog Rock (1,610').